Reconstruction Radicals in Control: Chapter 14, Section 2

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1 Reconstruction Radicals in Control: Chapter 14, Section 2 A constitution reflects the values and goals of the society that creates it. The Radical Republicans in Congress worked to ensure the rights of the newly freed African Americans in the South.

2 African Americans Rights Main idea: When Northerners realized that African Americans in the South were still being mistreated, Congress worked to find a solution. Northerners saw violence against African Americans as an attempt to keep them from exercising their rights Continued riots made Radical Republicans realize Johnson's plan wasn't strong enough

3 Southern Representatives Fall 1865, Southerners created new state governments in accordance with Johnson's plan, and elected new representatives (some former Confederate leaders) Denied seats in Congress when they arrived Republicans opposed readmission on such weak terms, began doubting Johnson His plan was robbing North of their victory AND treatment of African Americans in the South wasn't improving

4 Black Codes Spring 1866, Southern states had passed black codes in attempt to control freedmen Reduced their rights: plantation owners could exploit their workers, officials could fine/arrest anyone jobless, banned from owning/renting farms Slavery in disguise

5 Challenging the Codes Congress then gave Freedman's Bureau new power to set up courts trying those who violated the rights of African Americans African Americans could serve on juries, play a new role in justice Civil rights bill passed to overturn black codes, making them full citizens and providing protection Johnson vetoed both bills (boooo!) claiming they were unconstitutional Republicans had enough votes in Congress to override his vetoes and they became law Johnson had even less support, Congress drafted new

6 The Fourteenth Amendement Fixed problems not solved with Thirteenth Amendment (freedom but not rights) 1) Gave full citizenship to all born in US, 2) required each state to grant citizens "equal protection of the laws" 3) no state could take away a citizen's life, liberty, property "without due process of law" or it could lose representation in Congress, and 4) former Confederates would need a formal pardon before joining office States had to ratify this too to rejoin Union, only TN did...

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8 Republican Victory President Johnson campaigned against Amndment in 1866 election, but Northerners didn't like that and Republicans won, allowing their plan for Reconstruction to take over

9 1. What was the purpose of the black codes? 2. Why did Congress pass a civil rights bill making the freedmen citizens? 3. Why did Congress pass the Fourteenth Amendment? What does it provide? 4. Why did the 1866 congressional elections strengthen the hand of the Radical Republicans in Congress?

10 Radical Reconstruction Main idea: Radical Republicans were able to put their version of Reconstruction into action. Republicans in Congress able to put their plan into action and Johnson couldn't stop them Radical Reconstruction

11 Reconstruction Act of 1867 March 1867, passed by Congress, calling for creation of new governments in Southern states that hadn't ratified Fourteenth Amendment (all but TN) It divided the 10 states into 5 military districts under authority until new governments were formed Allowed African American males to vote in state elections and prevented former Confederates from holding office To rejoin Union, states had to ratify Amendment and submit new constitution A second act required military commanders to register voters and prepare for conventions

12 The Readmission of States Many white Southerners refused to take part in any state elections for conventions and new governments, but newly registered African American voters were happy to Republicans gained control of Southern state governments too By 1870 all states had been restored to Union

13 Challenge to Johnson President Johnson strongly opposed Radical Reconstruction, and as commander in chief he had the power to direct the military Led to Congress passing laws to limit president s power Tenure of Office Act prohibited president from removing government officials (and cabinet) without Senate s approval This violated presidential tradition and threatened power

14 Impeaching the President Conflict between president and Radical Republicans continued to grow He suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton without approval when Congress was not in session Once they were back in session, they refused to grant his suspension, but he removed Stanton anyway and appointed generals that the RR s opposed House of Reps was outraged, and moved to impeach the president, charging him with misconduct Within their rights to do so, but Senate would need a ⅔ vote to convict and remove from office

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16 The Impeachment Trial Trial began March 1868 and lasted 3 months Johnson defenders claimed he was exercising his rights to challenge laws and that his impeachment was politically motivated (therefore unconstitutional) Not a crime, just a difference of opinion Accusers claimed that Congress should retain supreme power to make laws, and that Johnson had abused his veto power Votes cast in May, 35 to 19 One short of impeachment, so he remained as president for

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18 1. Why is the period in which Congress controlled Reconstruction policy called Radical Reconstruction? 2. What conflict led to the passage of the Reconstruction Act of 1867? 3. Why did Republicans gain control of the new state governments after the two Reconstruction acts of 1867? 4. Did the Tenure of Office Act violate the Constitution? Why or why not?

19 Election of 1868 Most Southern states has rejoined in time for the election, and many Americans hoped that conflicts and sectional divisions were behind them Republicans chose Ulysses S. Grant as their candidate Democrats chose former governor Horatio Seymour Grant won in a landslide, as people seemed to support Republican approach on Reconstruction

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21 The Fifteenth Amendment Election made Republicans realize that African Americans could play a major role in helping to pass Reconstruction legislation (now that they have voting rights) Congress passed Fifteenth Amendment, prohibiting any government (state/fed) from denying any male citizen the right to vote due to race, color, or previous condition of servitude Ratified and became law in 1870, but didn t happen quite the way RR s hoped...

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23 1. What two presidents have been impeached by Congress? 2. Discuss two ways Southerners violated Lincoln s plan for Reconstruction. 3. What is impeachment? Was President Johnson impeached? 4. Why did the Radical Republicans in Congress turn to constitutional amendments to guarantee the rights of African Americans?

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