Just Like Henry The Power of Jewish Caring Across Borders. Developed by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

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1 Just Like Henry The Power of Jewish Caring Across Borders Developed by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 711 Third Avenue New York, NY phone:

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3 Just Like Henry The Power of Jewish Caring Across Borders A Special Publication of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee Written by Abby Pitkowsky Director of Jewish Education, JDC Global Programs Updated June Third Avenue New York, NY phone:

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5 Acknowledgement Many heartfelt thanks to the members of the Advisory Committee, talented and dedicated Jewish educators who contributed numerous hours during the development of this piece. Their insight, feedback and recommendations were invaluable. All parts of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing.

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section I For Educators and Parents Introduction... p 1 Using the curriculum... p 3 Section II For the Student Message to the Student... p 5 The Story of Henry... p 6 Absorbing the Story...p 10 Acting Like Henry: Projects for Urgent Needs Today... p Project 1 FSU Project 2 Romania Project 3 Argentina Project 4 Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel Section III Additional Material Discussion Points...p 29 Extension Activities...p 32 Practical Steps...p 34 FAQ s...p 36 Appendix...p 37 Glossary...p 38

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9 INTRODUCTION FOR EDUCATORS AND PARENTS JEWS FACING TERRIBLE CRISIS ASSISTANCE NEEDED WILL YOU UNDERTAKE MATTER? The words above are part of the message on the cablegram sent by Henry Morgenthau to Jacob Schiff in August 1914, in an effort to end the suffering of Jews in Palestine caught in the throes of World War I. This cablegram has become somewhat of a legend for all connected with the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) over the decades. These words convey the message of Jewish Responsibility or Areivut. All Israel is Responsible for One Another, Kol Yisrael Areivim Zeh B Zeh, is the very foundation of JDC s work, and it is a concept to which we are all deeply committed. The challenge we face connected to Jewish Responsibility is related to the next generation. A number of studies have shown us that we cannot afford to make any assumptions about our children s involvement and commitment to Jewish life, Jewish community and Jewish philanthropy. One of our top priorities is to find effective ways to heighten awareness among young adults about Jewish needs around the world, and how JDC is working to answer these needs. We believe that heightening awareness, and internalizing a concept such as Jewish Responsibility, should start as young as possible. Towards that end, we ve developed Just Like Henry, an education piece for children and youth. It takes the story of Henry Morgenthau and his efforts to help other Jews in danger, based on his understanding of responsibility to one s extended Jewish family. It explains contemporary and actual dangers facing Jews in overseas communities today, and offers practical ways to help. Just Like Henry was also created in response to frequent inquiries from parents, youth and educators, to connect in some way with a JDC project. This piece offers the connection of knowledge and awareness, and an involvement that is actual and direct. It s a stand alone education piece that can be naturally used in supplementary and day schools, youth groups, camp and community wide settings. A JDC program can be adopted by an entire school, class, or a small number of students. Just Like Henry is also perfect for the home. Parents can read the piece together with their children and take on one of the projects in honor of an upcoming milestone event, such as a Bar / Bat Mitzvah, or simply to get involved. Thanks also to my colleagues at JDC, for the facts, photos, editing, general and specific advice, and for helping to put all the pieces together. Special thanks to Linda Levi, Assistant Executive Vice President of JDC, for her continued support and encouragement of Just Like Henry, from concept to reality. We hope this piece will be helpful in your work with your students or your own children to convey the message of Jewish Responsibility and how to put that message into action. Through your efforts, we will be able to make a difference in Jewish lives around the world. Just Like Henry. Abby Pitkowsky Director of Jewish Education JDC Global Programs 1

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11 USING THE CURRICULUM FOR EDUCATORS AND PARENTS Settings Just Like Henry is a stand alone Jewish education piece that can be used in a wide variety of settings. It is appropriate for supplementary schools, day schools, JCCs, camps, youth movement programs, etc. and can also be used in the home, with a parent and child. Age Group While this curriculum was developed with grades 5 8 in mind (pre- and post-bar/bat Mitzvah age), it is appropriate for all individuals and groups who are interested in learning about Jewish needs around the world and want to be part of the response to meet these needs. Context Just Like Henry can fit into virtually any Jewish education program. The key concepts of this piece can easily and naturally connect to a wide range of topics that are already part of many core curriculums, such as Tzedakah and Hesed (kindness), Tikkun Olam (repairing the world), Jewish communities around the world, notable American Jews, Areivut (Jewish responsibility), Klal Yisrael (Unity of Jewish People) and Mitzvot in Action. It can also serve as a guide for students and their families who are simply looking for a meaningful project to help Jews in communities around the world. Time Frame Just Like Henry can be viewed as an accordion in terms of the number of lessons required to cover the material, and uncover the messages. It can contract to as few as two lessons, giving focus to the story of Henry, learning about a specific situation and need, and developing an action plan to meet that need. It can expand to eight, ten, or even more lessons, depending on the time frame in which the material is being taught. For example, a class can give in depth attention to each community profiled and its most urgent needs, delve deeper into Maimonides teachings of Tzedakah, and review other examples of American Jewry s support in times of urgent need. Refer to the section on Additional Extension Activities listed at the end of the community profiles for further ideas. GOALS Through the participation in this curriculum, students will: Relate to one person s concern for the suffering of others and absorb the effect of his actions; Establish an understanding of Areivut (responsibility) among the Jewish People; Gain an appreciation of the role American Jews have played in responding to overseas needs Learn about some of the most urgent needs in Jewish communities around the world today; and Relate to these needs and challenges and develop ways to respond to them. 3

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13 MESSAGE TO THE STUDENT FOR THE STUDENT Often, when we think of someone who is over 90 years old, we think of a person who is aged, less active, and does things at a very leisurely pace (which is a nice way of saying slow!). Even if that person is in excellent health, we certainly don t think of them traveling all around the world, helping millions of other people. Get ready, because in this book, you re going to meet someone who is over 90 years old, has never stopped traveling all around the world, doing Tikkun Olam for individuals, and Jewish communities. That someone is JDC the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. It s true we re over 90 years old, but we have the energy of a very young person. We ve been in over 85 countries around the world, and have helped millions of people. We ve helped people in danger, improved their lives, and rebuilt entire Jewish communities. WHY do we do this? Because we know that Tikkun Olam (repairing the world) is a special Jewish task, and we ll continue doing it until the work is complete. WHO does this? Actually, it s YOU (and your parents). The JDC is the overseas arm of the North American Jewish community. The work of the JDC is the way that North American Jews show they care about the needs in Jewish communities all over the world, and is committed to help. In this book, you ll learn more about this very special over-90-year old Jewish organization. You ll learn more about the WHY and WHO, as well as the WHERE the places that we operate - and WHAT what is the help. We know that sometimes when you meet a very special person, you want to become their friend, spend time and do things together. That s why we ve also included information on how to get more connected to JDC, and join us in the special work we do all over the world. We hope you enjoy Just Like Henry, and welcome you to join us in the work we do. 5

14 THE STORY OF HENRY Tikkun Olam - Fixing the World Many things in this world are broken and need fixing. There are enormous and sudden disasters like tsunami waves, hurricanes and, earthquakes. Other issues are less enormous and not so sudden, but are still tragic, like diseases, and hunger, and poverty. Perhaps you think I d love to make this problem go away but who am I? I m only one person! What could I do that could possibly make a difference? Often one person is not enough to solve a problem. Some problems are so large that to solve them requires big teams of experts in science and medicine, or people who know many languages or complicated math and have many diplomas on their wall to help solve them. But there are some problems that are so widespread and so complex that they take months, or even years, to fix. Kind of depressing, isn t it? Well, here s a story about a young man named Henry. It s a true story, and it illustrates how one small person can make an enormous difference, and repair something that no one thought could be fixed. In many ways, you re probably just like Henry. Henry wasn t a genius, or a science expert, math whiz or a billionaire. Simply he was American, he was Jewish, and he was someone who wanted to help. When Henry learned about a problem in the world that needed fixing, it bothered him. It bothered him so much in fact, that he knew he couldn t just sit there and watch and worry. He knew that he just had to do something about it. This story is about one of those times that Henry learned about a big problem, and found a solution to end it. Henry learned that there were Jews, who lived far, far away in another part of the world, that were in serious trouble. They had almost no food, and were struggling just to stay alive. They weren t his friends, neighbors, or people he had even met, but Henry couldn t bear to think that somewhere in the world there were people Jewish people suffering from starvation. Henry didn t know their names or what they looked like, but he knew two things: one, they were part of his larger Jewish family, and two, the Talmud teaches: vzc vz ohcrg ktrah kf Kol Yisrael Areivim Zeh B Zeh All Jews are responsible for one another ( Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot 39a) Henry told a friend of his about this group of Jews in another part of the world that were starving. He made his friend understand that it was a family emergency and help was needed urgently. This friend told other friends and before they knew it, enough people were ready to lend a hand and solve the problem. Henry and his friend, along with some of their friends, worked together and saved every person in that group from starvation. This story has a happy ending, and really happened over 90 years ago, in August

15 FOR THE STUDENT Henry Morgenthau Henry Morgenthau was an American Jew from New York, who worked as a diplomat in the early part of the 1900 s. In 1914, Henry was living in Istanbul, Turkey, as the American Ambassador to Turkey. At that time, Turkey, then the capital of the Ottoman Empire, ruled over Palestine (which is what Israel was called before it became a state in 1948). Henry Morgenthau, with his only son, Henry Morgenthau Jr., born in NY, 1891 (from Mostly Morgenthaus A Family History, Henry Morgenthau III, Ticknor & Fields, NY, 1991) A Serious Problem in Palestine The year 1914 also marked the end of the Second Aliyah, a large wave of immigration to Palestine, or Eretz Yisrael. By this year, there were approximately 100,000 Jews living in Palestine. Over half lived in Jerusalem and in agricultural settlements. Others lived in older communities, such as Tzfat, Tiberias, and Hebron, or in the new and modern areas of Jaffa and Tel Aviv. Some were very religious and dedicated their lives to prayer and learning. Others worked towards building a new society and a home for the Jewish people that would eventually become an independent state. Although these groups were different in many ways, they had one thing in common they were not economically independent; they depended on sources outside of Palestine - mostly in Europe - for their income. World War I had begun earlier that year and it caused a serious crisis for the all the Jews in Palestine. The first group had been surviving on charity mostly from wealthy Jews in Europe. The war put a freeze on almost all banks in Europe, and as a result, these funds could no longer get to Palestine. The war also made trade by sea very difficult, and this completely disrupted importing and exporting to and from Palestine. Major local crops like wine and oranges remained in the ports they could not be exported and sold overseas. Basic items such as fuel could not be imported, bringing most of industry and agricultural activity to a halt. In addition to these problems, Turkey was preparing to enter the war and had seized animals and food supplies for its army. All of these factors had disastrous results; the price of food skyrocketed, the number of unemployed people was enormous, flour disappeared from the markets, and famine threatened the entire country. The small communities of Eretz Yisrael faced complete destruction. 7

16 An Urgent Call for Help Arthur Ruppin was one of the leaders in Palestine during this time. He himself had made aliyah from Germany only a few years earlier. Ruppin worked tirelessly to strengthen Jewish settlements in Palestine. He realized the danger facing the small communities and knew that their own cooperation, faith, hard work and resourcefulness would not be enough; help from overseas was absolutely necessary to insure their existence. Ruppin knew that the American Ambassador to Turkey, Henry Morgenthau, was Jewish and felt that he would sympathize with the plight of Palestine s Jews. Ruppin wrote Henry Morgenthau a long letter in August, 1914, explaining in detail the difficult situation and requested to gather American Jewish support to end the suffering in Palestine. Immediately after Henry Morgenthau received this letter, he began to act. He thought about his friends and family back home in New York that could help. He remembered Jacob Schiff, one of the most well known and prominent Jews in America. He sent him a cablegram explaining the urgent situation and calling for immediate help - $50,000 to save the Jews in Palestine from starvation. It s important to remember that during this time communication was completely different than today; in 1914 there were no fax machines, , or instant messaging. Long distance telephone services existed, but they were not always available. A written letter was sent by ship, and could take weeks to arrive. A cablegram was the quickest Henry Morgenthau s cablegram to Jacob Schiff, August 1914 method of communication. It was also expensive, since the price depended on the number of words (note how few words Henry used to express his message to Jacob Schiff in the cablegram below). For these reasons, when someone received a cablegram, it was clearly understood that the message was urgent and required instant attention. 8

17 FOR THE STUDENT Answering the Call In less than three months after Henry s cablegram, Schiff helped raise all the money needed ($50,000 in those days would equal almost $10,000,000 - ten million dollars - today). These funds completely defeated the threat of starvation, and saved the small communities of Palestine. The JDC the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee was officially formed shortly after, committed to help Jews suffering in Palestine and war torn Europe. All Jews Are Responsible for One Another vzc vz ohcrg ktrah kf Kol Yisrael Areivim Zeh B Zeh World War I ended in 1918, but there was still suffering among hundreds of thousands of Jews around the world pogroms, famine, disease and JDC could not turn its back on even one Jew who was suffering. Since 1914 JDC has helped millions of Jews in more than 85 countries, and continues to do so. JDC s work is based on the same concept from the Talmud that motivated Henry Kol Yisrael Areivim Zeh B Zeh All Jews are responsible for one another (Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot 39a). This story is about one man, an American Jew named Henry Morgenthau, who couldn t bear the suffering of others; understood his responsibility to his extended Jewish family; and believed that one person could make a difference. This story is also about what happens when one person turns to another to join him in his efforts to solve a problem. Arthur Ruppin turned to Henry Morgenthau, who turned to Jacob Schiff. The simple and direct actions of these three individuals gave birth to a committee that quickly grew into an organization which has helped millions of Jews around the world (note: JDC also provides aid to non-jews around the world affected by crisis such as earthquakes, famine or war). When people join together for Tikkun Olam repairing the world - miraculous things can happen! Finally, this story is about each person who reads it. After all, aren t we all bothered by the suffering of others? Don t we feel connected and responsible to Jews all around the world? Don t we agree that one person truly can make a difference? Shouldn t we all be just like Henry? 9

18 ABSORBING THE STORY 1. List three facts you remember about Henry Morgenthau from the story Just Like Henry a. b. c. 2. Summarize the reasons the Jews of Palestine were facing starvation in Explain how Henry learned of the Jews starving in Palestine in Describe what Henry did when he learned of Jews suffering from starvation in Palestine 5. Explain in your own words Henry s telegram to Jacob Schiff: 10

19 FOR THE STUDENT 6. What is the name of the American Jewish organization that started after Henry s cable? 7. Match the location to the situation: Jews were suffering from starvation here in 1914 Henry Morgenthau worked here as the American Ambassador Philanthropist Jacob Schiff lived in this city The Joint Distribution Committee was born in this country New York America Palestine Istanbul, Turkey 8. Please circle: The American Jewish organization that helped the Jews of Palestine in 1914, closed by the end of World War I. True or False 9. What was the main idea of Henry s efforts to help Jews who were starving in Palestine? 10. If Henry s cable had been sent to you, what would have been your choices in acting to help? 11

20 ACTING LIKE HENRY PROJECTS FOR URGENT NEEDS TODAY In Part I, you read about an overseas Jewish community, and the problem it faced over 90 years ago. In this section, you will learn about four modern overseas Jewish communities, their most urgent needs, and what JDC is doing to help meet these needs and how you can be involved in that effort too. 1. Former Soviet Union 2. Romania 3. Argentina 4. Israel 12

21 PROJECT Former Soviet Union Moldova Armenia THE FACTS The land mass is so large that there are 11 time zones in the FSU. That s almost four times the time zones in North America! The Jewish population in the FSU is approximately 1.5 million, making it the third largest Jewish community in the world. The FSU is a vast region made up of 12 countries: 1. Armenia 2. Azerbaijan 3. Belarus 4. Georgia 5. Kazakhstan 6. Kyrgyzstan 7. Moldova 8. Russia 9. Tadjikistan 10. Turkmenistan 11. Ukraine 12. Uzbekistan Former Soviet Union (FSU) vs. the United States Land Mass (sq. km) Number of Time Zones General Population Jewish Population Percentage of Jews in the Region FSU U.S.A million 9.6 million (over twice the size of the U.S.A.) million 295 million 1.3 million 5.6 million 0.5 % 1.9% Figures from the CIA World Fact Book (http://cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html) and World Jewish Congress (www.worldjewishcongress.org) 1

22 PROJECT Former Soviet Union THE SITUATION After 70 cruel and destructive years of Communism, the Iron Curtain fell, and a huge segment of world Jewry emerged. During the 20 years since JDC re-entered the Soviet Union, we have witnessed many realities both thrilling and miserable. One million Jews made new lives for themselves in Israel. Hundreds of thousands who still live in the former Soviet Union have been able to reconnect to their Jewish heritage and to the Jewish people. Elderly Approximately a quarter of a million elderly Jews who endured the nightmare of the Nazis and Communism suffer from poverty so intense, they have become the poorest Jews in the world. These elderly Jews are forced each month to make painful decisions, between food, fuel and medications. Elderly woman in apartment in FSU JDC JDC has responded to this need by developing Hesed welfare centers across the FSU. There are more than 170 Hesed centers that provide life supporting assistance food, home care, medical care and winter relief to to 168,000 elderly Jews throughout the FSU. A food package (fresh and nonperishable items) for an elderly Hesed client costs $14 A single meal in a communal dining room costs $3 A hot meal delivered to the home of a Hesed client costs $3.50 Medicine prescriptions for 1 client per month costs $4.50 (average) A Winter Relief package of winter clothes and fuel costs $28 Elderly woman in FSU opening contents of food package JDC $ 1200 will provide one elderly Hesed client with a daily hot meal, a monthly food package, monthly medications, clothes and fuel for the winter, for an entire year. _ 2

23 Children Other age groups in the FSU are also in serious need of assistance. Many children are hungry; their parents simply do not have the means to provide appropriate meals. An example of a program that JDC has developed to meet this need is an SOS Emergency Assistance program for needy children in Moldova. [Try to locate Moldova on the map on the previous page Hint: it s near the Black Sea] This program serves approximately 1,500 needy children in Moldova, providing them with medication, clothing, home repairs, and food packages. In the entire FSU about 25,000 children-atrisk received various services in A monthly food package for one child costs $14. This package contains fresh foods (e.g. fish, chicken, eggs, fruit, vegetables, dairy products) and non-perishable items (e.g. oil, sugar, rice, crackers, dried cereal). Boy with package of fresh food items from JDC JDC Children in FSU enjoying hot meal provided by JDC JDC 3

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25 PROJECT Ukraine Romania THE FACTS There has been a Jewish presence in Romania for over 2000 years since 101 CE. Before World War II, there were approximately 1,000,000 Jews in Romania. Almost half of Romanian Jewry was destroyed during the Holocaust. Harsh Communist rule followed the Holocaust, and the Jewish community faced years of struggle, including intense poverty, much of which still exists today. A Look at Romania and the United States Land Mass (sq. km) Number of Time Zones General Population Jewish Population Percentage of Jews in the Country G.D.P. per capita* Romania U.S.A. 237, million (slightly smaller than Oregon) million 295 million 10, million 0.05 % 1.9% $8,300 $41,800 *G.D.P. per capita Gross Domestic Product per person Figures from the CIA World Fact Book (http://cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html) and World Jewish Congress (www.worldjewishcongress.org) 1

26 PROJECT Romania THE SITUATION The elderly have experienced severe hardships and continue to endure poverty as their low pensions barely cover their basic needs. Today there are approximately 10,000 Jews in Romania. JDC works with the local Jewish community to help meet the needs of its members Elderly The clients of JDC s relief and welfare program are mostly frail, ill and elderly. They have survived the Holocaust and Communism, and have either a very tiny, or no government pension. Over 85% of these elderly are one person families, with no support from the government at all. JDC and the Jewish Community of Romania are often the only family they have. JDC provides food assistance for needy elderly Jews including basic non-perishable items that can help a senior manage through the long and harsh winter. Unloading Hot Meals for elderly in Romania JDC A standard food package for an elderly person costs $30 Elderly client holds part of food package. JDC 2

27 Children JDC also works to meet the needs of children-at-risk in countries such as Romania. Special attention has been placed on approximately 100 Jewish children whose parents are having great difficulty providing even the most basic necessities. A special food package for one month that caters to the nutritional needs of children costs $35. Jewish Family in Romania JDC Jewish girl eating nutritious meal provided by JDC JDC 3

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29 PROJECT Argentina THE FACTS The first Jews came to Argentina in the 1880 s from Russia. They spoke Yiddish and became the Jewish gauchos (cowboys). Many more Jews immigrated to Argentina in the 1930 s, to escape Europe when Hitler came to power. The Jewish population of Argentina today is approximately 225,000, making it the largest Jewish center in Latin America. Most of the Jews live in the large capital of Buenos Aires. A Look at Argentina and the United States Land Mass (sq. km) Number of Time Zones General Population Jewish Population Percentage of Jews in the Country G.D.P. per capita* Argentina U.S.A. 2.7 million 9.6 million million 295 million 225, million 0.5 % 1.9% $13,000 $41,800 *G.D.P. per capita Gross Domestic Product per person Figures from the CIA World Fact Book (http://cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html) and World Jewish Congress (www.worldjewishcongress.org) 1

30 PROJECT Argentina THE SITUATION Argentina s Jewish community was once a thriving self sufficient community. It closely resembled the Jewish communities in North America like your own community in its comfortable lifestyle and the wide range of high quality social, recreational, and educational programs. Many Jewish families lived in nice homes, owned cars, went on yearly vacations, and were able to afford costs such as membership to synagogues, Jewish community centers, and tuition of Jewish schools and camps. In December of 2001, the country s economy collapsed. A high number of families lost their jobs, businesses, and entire savings. Over 50% of the population was living below the poverty line, which included about 60,000 Jews. Working with local leadership, JDC providinged help to those in need. More than 10,000 individuals are currently receiving welfare assistance. Babies After the collapse of the economy, a high number of Jews were unable to pay for healthcare, and pregnant women and their newborns became particularly vulnerable. In 2003, JDC started a program called Baby Help that provides support to at-risk pregnant women, and their children aged 0-3 years old. Baby Help has three main components: 1. Provides basic needs for pregnant women and babies, including food, vitamins, and vaccines not provided by the Public Health System. 2. Helps parents take better care of their own children by providing services such as quality nursery day care for working mothers. Parents and children at Baby Help center JDC 2

31 3. Involves the family in Jewish community life by making possible ceremonies such the Brit Milah (circumcision) and Simchat Bat (baby naming), which should be available to every Jewish baby girl and boy but are completely unaffordable expenses for an impoverished family. A food package for a baby for an entire year costs $400 Vaccinations for a baby s first year of life cost $200 Day care for one baby for an entire year costs $2,800 A crib, high chair, and stroller for one baby cost $400 A Brit Milah or Simchat Bat ceremony for one baby costs $250 Jewish Mother in Agentina cares for children through Baby Help JDC Children Many parents of school-age children are able to put food on the table every day, but their difficult financial situation prevents them from providing much more than that. This is especially difficult when we consider that these parents were accustomed to easily providing their children with many opportunities that enriched their lives, such as private Jewish school, Jewish summer camp, and membership at the local JCC. Jewish Youth in Argentina prepare for Bar and Bat Mitzvah JDC The Iammod (pronounced Ya amod ) program helps insure that every Jewish youth in Argentina can have a Bar or Bat Mitzvah. A scholarship of $200 covers the cost of the preparation studies, tefillin ceremony, and celebratory Kiddush at the Shabbat service for one child. 3

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33 PROJECT Lebanon Israel THE FACTS In the 1950 s Israel first opened its doors to its Ethiopian brothers and sisters. Later in Operation Moses and Solomon ( and 1991) Jews around the world watched with pride and joy. Reuniting Ethiopian Jews with their people in Israel was a modern miracle! With the passage of time, however, it has become clear that Israel s Ethiopian population faces many challenges and obstacles, and integration into Israeli society was far from smooth. A Look at Israel and the United States Land Mass (sq. km) Number of Time Zones General Population Jewish Population Percentage of Jews in the Region G.D.P. per capita* Israel U.S.A. 20, million 1 4 over 7 million 295 million 5,400, million 80 % 1.9% $24,600 $41,800 *G.D.P. per capita Gross Domestic Product per person Figures from the CIA World Fact Book (http://cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html) and World Jewish Congress (www.worldjewishcongress.org) 1

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