Recovery Behavior of Communication Manager from Control Network Outages

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1 WHITE PAPER Recovery Behavior of Communication Manager from Control Network Outages May 2007

2 Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction... 1 Section 2: IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout Feature Before considering this feature When would I consider this feature? When would I not consider this feature? Why only 6-7 seconds of WAN outage?... 1 Section 3: Recovery from Control Network Outages Server IPSI Sockets and Heartbeats Recovery via Alternate Control Path Available to CM Recovery Behavior in Region A Recovery Behavior in Region B Recovery Behavior in Region C How about other call scenarios and feature interactions?... 4 Section 4: Administering the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout... 4 Table 1: Recovery Behavior in Region A... 5 Table 2: Recovery Behavior in Region B... 6 Table 3. Recovery Behavior in Region C... 8

3 1 Section 1: Introduction Communication Manager, like all IP PBXs, is dependent on the reliability of the IP network. The impact an IP network outage has on connected and transient calls depends on the extent and duration of IP network outages. Communication Manager is able to preserve stable connected calls and connect transient calls during brief control network outages. Communication Manager is unable to preserve connected calls and connect transient calls during extended control network outages. The impact of brief control network outages is discussed in this document. Avaya encourages its customers to include redundancy within its IP network architecture to maximize Communication Manager s ability to maintain telephony service via alternate control paths. Avaya disclaims any liability for any damages resulting from any IP network outages and the loss of telephony service. This document describes the recovery behavior of Communication Manager when control network outages occur. It provides sample scenarios and describes the behavior expected. This document does not guarantee certain behavior with every type of call and does not provide an exhaustive list of feature interactions. Section 2: IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout Feature Starting with Release 3.1.3, Communication Manager allows changing the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout value from the default 3 seconds to a value up to 15 seconds. This enables IP-remoted IPSI media gateways (Port Networks), such as the G650, to be more tolerant of short network outages. The intent of the administrable IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout feature is to allow more time for CM and the affected port network to recover from a network outage before closing the IPSI socket connection, which can cause data loss and port network warm restarts. 2.1 Before considering this feature All best current practices should be applied to ensure a robust WAN networking environment. This includes proper configuration (QoS, speed, duplex, and etc.) of all nodes in the control network including all server and IPSI network interfaces. This feature does not fix any network problems causing call signaling delays or outages. Service provider SLAs should be reviewed and optimized. The use of IPSI duplication with diversepath network routing and/or the use of Converged Network Analyzer (CNA) should be considered. 2.2 When would I consider this feature? This feature should only be used if there is a good understanding of the source and the nature of the network outages being experienced. If the outages are confirmed to be of duration longer than 1-2 seconds, but shorter than 6-7 seconds, this feature should be considered. If the outages tend to be longer than this, this feature is ineffective. 2.3 When would I not consider this feature? If the duration of WAN outages is known to be greater than 6-7 seconds, this feature should not be used and other actions should be taken to address the outages. Also, prematurely deploying this feature into a WAN environment where outages are not well understood is risky as it may lead to further customer dissatisfaction should it prove to be ineffective. 2.4 Why only 6-7 seconds of WAN outage? When there is a network outage or packet loss, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) initiates recovery by retransmitting the lost or corrupt segment. This recovery action by TCP takes approximately the same duration as the network outage. Only after TCP recovers from the network outage, data flows to the applications. The IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout is an application-level timer that times the total outage, that is, the actual network

4 2 outage plus the TCP recovery time. Therefore, at the maximum IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout setting of 15 seconds, this feature accommodates only short network outages of up to approximately 7 seconds. In this document, the term Control Network outage is defined as the total outage seen by the application, that is, the actual network outage plus the TCP recovery time. Section 3: Recovery from Control Network Outages 3.1 Server IPSI Sockets and Heartbeats The CM Server communicates with a Port Network via a TCP socket connection to the IPSI as shown in Figure 1. This connection is critical to all communications that go through the port network. All control signals for all endpoints and adjuncts that connect through the Port Network are multiplexed and sent via this TCP socket connection. Figure 1: Server Port Network Connection The server exchanges heartbeats with the IPSIs every second. IPSI sanity failure occurs when a heartbeat is missed and if no other data has been received from the IPSI during the last second. During a Control Network outage, the server and the IPSIs buffer all downstream and upstream messages in queues. If the socket communication is restored before the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout is reached, the socket communication resumes and all queued messages are sent. This recovery is represented by Region A in Figure 2.

5 3 If the IPSI sanity failures last longer than the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout setting but shorter than 60 seconds, then recovery actions are initiated, including closing and reopening the socket connection (all downstream and upstream messages buffered in queues are lost), resetting the PKTINT (Packet Interface on the IPSI) and performing a warm restart of the affected port network. This recovery is represented by Region B in Figure 2. If the IPSI sanity failures last longer than 60 seconds, the affected port network goes through a cold restart. This recovery is represented by Region C in Figure 2. Figure 2: Timeline of Control Network Outage and Recovery 3.2 Recovery via Alternate Control Path Available to CM If an alternate control path to the affected port network is available and viable, interchange to the alternate control path is made after 3 seconds of IPSI sanity failures even if the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout is set to a value higher than 3 seconds. Alternate control path is either: Secondary IPSI in the same port network, or Fiber connection via ATM switch or Center Stage Switch If both primary and secondary IPSI connections have concurrent network outages (most likely due to nondiverse-path routing), the secondary IPSI connection is not viable and thus not available for interchange. 3.3 Recovery Behavior in Region A If the Control Network outage is shorter than the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout (Region A in Figure 2), the upstream and downstream data that were blocked and buffered due to the network outage will resume flowing after the TCP recovery. All connections that go through the port network are preserved. All messages are buffered and sent with a delay due to the network outage and recovery. See Table 1 for more details on recovery behavior in Region A. Refer to Figure 3 when reading Table 1. Note that there are two port networks in this example. The network outage happens in the WAN. The port network at the remote site is affected by the network outage, but the port network at the main site is not affected by the network outage. 3.4 Recovery Behavior in Region B If the Control Network outage is longer than the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout period, but is shorter than 60 seconds (Region B in Figure 2), then, the port network goes through a warm restart and the Packet Interface

6 4 (PKTINT) is reset. This results in lost upstream and downstream messages and results in LAPD links being reset and C-LAN socket connections being closed and reopened. Most stable calls will stay connected. Calls in transition may be lost. See Table 2 for more details on recovery behavior in Region B. 3.5 Recovery Behavior in Region C If the Control Network outage is longer than 60 seconds, the recovery of the affected port network requires a cold restart of the port network 1. This drops all calls going through the affected port network. Only the shuffled IP-to-IP calls that are not using any port network resources will stay connected until the user drops the call. See Table 3 for more details on recovery behavior in Region C. 3.6 How about other call scenarios and feature interactions? This document is not meant to describe the behavior of each different type of call, nor be an exhaustive list of feature interactions. Instead, it gives you examples of what happens on typical calls so you can extrapolate out to other call scenarios and feature interactions. Section 4: Administering the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout The IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout is fixed to 3 seconds in CM and earlier releases. This timeout value is administrable in CM and CM 4.0 via an entry placed in ecs.conf file. Information on administering the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout value is documented in the following Product Support Notice: PSN# PSN001217u Figure 3: Sample Configuration with Main and Remote Locations 1..The CM s knowledge of the affected calls is cleared at 60 seconds, but the port network is not reset until the control network is restored and. CM gets control of the affected IPSI.

7 5 Table 1: Recovery Behavior in Region A Recovery behavior when the Control Network Outage is shorter than the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout What happens to stable calls? What happens to calls in transition? Does that mean some calls may fail? What are some examples of call failures? How about call center calls? CMS 3 Stable calls stay up and are not affected. In general, transient calls will complete with a slight delay due to the network outage. Yes. Some transient calls may fail. Due to the delays in the upstream and downstream messages, there is a chance of some calls not completing properly or being dropped. As an example, there s a chance of calls originating from an analog or DCP phones not completing due to the delays setting up touch tone receivers before the user presses the DTMF digits. Stable calls (calls that have established talkpath and are not being transitioned during These include calls that are connected Stable calls stay up and are not affected. the network outage) to agents or are in queue listening to announcements or music. They are not affected by the short network outage. How about calls in transition? (calls that are Most calls will complete with a delay due to the being transferred, calls that are being dequeued and being routed to an agent, ) fail due to possible race conditions of buffered network outage. Some calls in transition may messages. Some calls may be abandoned by the caller if for example, music was removed but connection to the agent was delayed due to the network outage. The Redirection on IP Failure (RoIF) feature could minimize these race conditions if remote agents are on IP endpoints with auto-answer enabled. Calls in queue that arrived through trunks If both the incoming trunk and the available at the main port network and the available agent are at the main (unaffected) port agent is at the main port network. network, the call will be unaffected by the network outage. Calls in queue that arrived through trunks at If one or more of the parties of a call is the affected remote port network and/or the connected through the affected port network, available agent is at the affected remote port any transitions of the call made during the network. network outage may be delayed or may result in lost or dropped call. How about call center agents at IP Phones The socket connection to the phone stays or IP Agent Softphones? up, so the phone stays registered and the agent stays logged-in. The agent s state will change to Aux Work if a call delivered during the network outage fails due to the delays. 2 CMS will bridge a 15-second network delay. 2 This behavior is triggered by the RoIF (Redirection on IP Failure) feature for Auto-answer agents. 3 It is strongly recommended that adjuncts are co-located with the main servers.

8 6 Recovery behavior when the Control Network Outage is shorter than the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout CDR 3 AES 3 Data is buffered and delayed during the outage. If the buffer overflows, data is dropped and call records may not be complete. (Buffer is 17,326 records in CM3.1.) Messages will be delayed during the outage. The AES link has a heartbeat message between the server and AES that has a 20 second timeout. As long as this timeout is not reached the socket stays up. However a 15 second outage at the PCD-IPSI layer could result in a 20 second timeout at the GIP-AES layer. This should not result in any message loss because of the mechanism for reliability in the GIP-AES layer, but will cause a longer delay before normal service resumes. Table 2: Recovery Behavior in Region B Recovery behavior when the Control Network Outage is longer than the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout, but less than 60 seconds What happens Most stable calls will stay connected. to stable calls? What happens Most calls in transition will fail. to calls in transition? Analog & DCP endpoints Stable calls stay connected. Calls in transition may be lost. PRI Trunk Stable calls stay up. Transient calls are lost (D-channels reset). The carrier may tear down the trunks due to no response from CM during the control network outage. IP Phone Stable calls stay up. Transient calls may be lost. Without TTS (Time to Service feature released in CM4.0), IP phones need Details on specific endpoints and to re-register and reestablish the socket connection with CM 4. With TTS, IP phones stay registered with CM and only have to reestablish the socket connection. trunks IP Softphone Stable calls stay up. Have to log out and log back in (this can be done automatically by the softphone). Neither IP Softphone nor IP Agent support TTS, so they must re-register and reestablish the socket connection with CM. IP (H.323) Trunk All calls are dropped. The signaling socket for the IP trunk will be automatically reestablished after the control network has been restored. 3 It is strongly recommended that adjuncts are co-located with the main servers. 4..Without TTS, IP Phones on-hook at the time of the Region B outage would go into discover mode once TCP keep-alives are exhausted and the phones start to look at the alternate gatekeeper list.

9 7 Recovery behavior when the Control Network Outage is longer than the IPSI Socket Sanity Timeout, but less than 60 seconds How about call center calls? CMS 3 CDR 3 AES 3 Stable calls Stable calls stay up and are not affected as long as the participants in the call are on endpoints/trunks that are not affected by the outage. (See specific endpoint behavior above.) For example, a DCP to IP Phone call will stay up, but a DCP to IP Trunk call will drop because all IP Trunk calls are dropped. How about calls in Most calls that have one or more parties connected via the transition? (calls that are affected port network will drop if the transition happens during being transferred, calls the network outage. that are being de-queued and being routed to an agent, ) Calls in queue that If both the incoming trunk and the available agent are at the arrived through trunks at main (unaffected) port network, the call will be unaffected by the main port network the network outage. and the available agent is at the main port network. Calls in queue that When the remote port network goes through a warm restart, arrived through trunks at the port network and all agents connected to the affected the main port network port network become unavailable until the warm restart has and the available agent completed. Calls in queue will remain in queue or be routed to is at the remote port agents at the main site. network. Calls in queue that If the trunk stays up during the network outage, stable calls arrived through trunks at will stay up. Calls in transition during the network outage may the affected remote port be lost. network. Agents at DCP endpoints Stable calls stay up. Transient calls may be lost. that are connected to the affected port network. Agents at IP Phones or IP Agent Softphones that Stable calls stay up. Transient calls may be delayed or lost. are utilizing affected port Agents remain logged in for 5 minutes after the link goes down. network s resources (C- The agent s state will change to Aux Work if a call delivered LAN or Media Processor). during the network outage fails 2. CMS socket is closed and reopened. There will be loss of data and may require full pumpup. It is strongly recommended that CMS is always co-located with the main servers. Data is buffered until the link comes back up. Data is lost and some call records will be incomplete if buffer overflows. (Buffer is 17,326 records in CM3.1.) AES supports link bounce and multiple C-LAN connections (parallel transport connections between server and AES). It tries to re-connect automatically in case of a warm reset/lost link. AES uses its own sequence numbers and acknowledgements to insure message delivery so no messages should be lost but there will be an obvious delay. 2 This behavior is triggered by the RoIF (Redirection on IP Failure) feature for Auto-answer agents. 3 It is strongly recommended that adjuncts are co-located with the main servers.

10 Table 3. Recovery Behavior in Region C Recovery behavior when the Control Network Outage is longer than 60 seconds What happens to stable calls? What happens to calls in transition? How about shuffled IP calls? How about call center calls? CMS 3 CDR 3 AES 3 All calls connected via the affected port network are dropped. See the exception for shuffled IP calls below. All transient calls made via the affected port network are lost. Shuffled IP-to-IP calls that are not using any port network resources will stay connected until the user drops the call. All (stable and transient) calls connected via the affected port network are dropped. CMS socket is closed and reopened. There will be loss of data and may require full pump-up depending on how long the network outage lasts. It is strongly recommended that CMS is always co-located with the main servers. Data is buffered until the link comes back up. Data is lost and some call records will be incomplete if buffer overflows. (Buffer is 17,326 records in CM3.1.) AES supports link bounce and multiple C-LAN connections (parallel transport connections between server and AES). It tries to re-connect automatically in case of a lost link. AES uses its own sequence numbers and acknowledgements to insure message delivery so no messages should be lost but there will be an obvious delay. 3 It is strongly recommended that adjuncts are co-located with the main servers.

11 About Avaya Avaya delivers Intelligent Communications solutions that help companies transform their businesses to achieve marketplace advantage. More than 1 million businesses worldwide, including more than 90 percent of the FORTUNE 500, use Avaya solutions for IP Telephony, Unified Communications, Contact Centers and Communications Enabled Business Processes. Avaya Global Services provides comprehensive service and support for companies, small to large. For more information visit the Avaya Web site: avaya.com 2007 Avaya Inc. All Rights Reserved.. Avaya and the Avaya Logo are trademarks of Avaya Inc. and may be registered in certain jurisdictions.. All trademarks identified by, TM or SM are registered marks, trademarks, and service marks,. respectively, of Avaya Inc., with the exception of FORTUNE 500 which is a registered trademark of. Time Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 05/07 LB3476

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