EDUCATORS' RESOURCE GUIDE

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1 EDUCATORS' RESOURCE GUIDE A gud poducd d publshd by 3D Em Dsbuo d N3D Ld Flms W d Cuculum Dvlopd by D. Elsbh Mllo

2 THE FILM 70 YEARS AGO, A HISTORIC LANDING Chgd h Wold. A bu o COURAGE, COMPETENCE AND COMMITMENT. Ju 6, 1944: Th lgs Alld opo of Wold W II bg Nomdy, Fc. Y, oly fw kow dl xcly why d how, fom h d of 1943 hough Augus 1944, hs go bcm h mos mpo loco h wold. Bldg mulpl cmogphc chqus, cludg mo, CGI d sug lv-co mgs, D-Dy: Nomdy 1944 bgs hs mouml v o h wold s lgs scs fo h fs m v. Audcs of ll gs, cludg w gos, wll dscov fom w pspcv how hs ldg chgd h wold. Explog hsoy, mly sgy, scc, chology d hum vlus, h flm wll duc d ppl o ll. Nd by Tom Bokw, D-Dy: Nomdy 1944 pys bu o hos who gv h lvs fo ou fdom A duy of mmoy, duy of gud. A WORD FROM TOM BROKAW D-Dy, h vso h s h sg fo h d of Wold W II, ws h gs mly ssul hsoy, udcous combo of goud, s d focs o g vcoy h gs w h wold hd kow. Ld by h Amcs wh Bsh d Cd focs sd by sd h vso fcd hvly fofd Gm posos ll log h Nom cosl, h Alc Wll. I ws mudous dy s h lls somd sho o bchs clld Omh, Uh, Juo, Swod d Gold o doppd fom h sks s poops bhd my ls. Wh h Fch couysd Fch ssc fghs w vlubl s lls s wll. Fom h s Amd of w shps ulodd m d ml whl ug h bg gus o Gm posos. Fo m ppd h vso mgh fl bu dd o d h wold ws svd. Dco: Pscl Vuog Rwdd vy ly hs c wh pz fo hs sho-flm "Th Ivsbl M I Bld Lov" ly md wh CGI, hs fom chc w o o wok s dco flds s vd s suol o copo flms, musc vdos, TV o-sc dy o publcy fo whch h md mo h 60 commcl flms. A h d of 2004, collboo wh Ro Chpl d wh h uwvg suppo of Ch Vuog, hs p wok d lf, h dcdd o foud N3D LAND od o dvo hmslf fully o h of hs pssos: flm dco, scc d chology. Ju 6, 1944, wll lv fov s smoy o mly gus, comb bvy of h hghs od d h commm of f popl o df h vgs of yy. Ju 6, 1944, dy o pod d hoo fov. Tom Bokw No: Tom Bokw A wll-spcd d usd fgu US bodcs joulsm, Tom Bokw s bs kow s h mgg do d uqu cho of NBC Nws. I hs ol, h poducd d pod docums d xdd xps bkg ws vs d lco covg. Dug hs m, h ws cdd fo hs wok vous flm d lvso ppcs, do bodcss, d svl bssllg books, cludg Th Gs Go d Th Gs Go Spks. Bokw hs lso wo vy mjo bodcs joulsm wd, cludg Pbody Awd, wo DuPos, d svl Emmys. H s lso cogzd fo hs chy wok. Hsocl Advso: Colol (US Amy R.) P Hly P Hly vd h wold of flm fom bckgoud of hsoy d w. As dcod comb fym d Ws Po pofsso of hsoy, hs kowldg of blfld dms ld hm o dvs fo movs lk Th Los Blo, d s psd of Blu L Flms, o w d poduc docums d dvlop mjo moo pcu pojcs cocg boh Wold Ws. Hs psdcy of h Amc Ovss Mmol Dy Assoco, d hs log xpc sghg bods bw h Amc d Fch md focs, hv lf hm wh dp spc fo h mmoy of hos fom boh cous who fough ogh fo lby. Th Educos Gud fo D-Dy: Nomdy 1944 svs s vlubl ool o oly fo chs bu fo vyo, d s pfc complm o y scg of h flm. Sposod by CNC - Nouvlls chologs Poduco CNC - Ad u Dévloppm d pojs d flms d log még Céd d mpô cém élévso - Gso SODEC - Québc Céd d mpô pou poduco cémogphqu ou mgéoscopqu cd Comé du Débqum Comé Régol du Tousm d Nomd Cosl Régol d Bss-Nomd Cosl Géél du Clvdos Cosl Géél d l Mch Cosl Géél ds Hus d S Hsl Goup Dsjds L Asl - Tom Bl - Tom Bokw 2 3

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Ioduco o Educos Th Flm...2 A Wod fom Tom Bokw...3 Ioduco o Educos...5 PART 1 - Udsdg h hsocl cox 1. Opo Ovlod: Wold W II's Lgs Amphbous Opo Ppo Sccy, Dcpo d Illgc D-Dy d Nomdy... 10/11 5. Th Coflcg Ams Rol of Wom dug Wold W II...13 PART 2 - HOW WWII INFLUENCED TODAY S TECHNOLOGY 1. Fom h V2 o h Coqus of Spc Fom h Fs J Fgh Pl o Tody s Globl Commcl A Tspoo Th Rod o ou Compu Ag Th Rod Opd by Rd Tchology PART 3 - ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS ACTIVITY 1. Rdg Mp Toop Movms o D-Dy... 18/19 ACTIVITY 2. Wh hy fo?...20 ACTIVITY 3. D-Dy Combs Numbs...20 ACTIVITY 4. All bou Numbs - Mulpl Choc Excs...21 ACTIVITY 5. Rd Dco: How f s h g?...21 ACTIVITY 6. WWII Gl Kowldg - Cosswod...22 ACTIVITY 7. Lg Sc Cod Wg d Dcodg...23 ACTIVITY 8. A B of Logscs...24/25 Asws o cvs...26 D-DAY: Nomdy 1944 s lg fom documy poducd ly 3D h wll ch you suds bou o of h lgs mly opos v udk. You suds hv pobbly hd of h Scod Wold W s mos fmls ody hv lv, p, gdp o g-gdp wh coco o hs w. Howv, vy fw w of xcly why d how, fom Ju o Augus 1944, Nomdy bcm h h of bl h fov chgd h cous of hsoy. Explog hsoy, mly sgy, logscs, scc, chology d hum vlus, h flm D-DAY: Nomdy 1944 guds you suds sp-by-sp jouy hough h vs, hghlghg who ws volvd, wh, wh hppd, why, d how. D-Dy ws h fs dy of h Bl of Nomdy, o of h lgs mly opos v udk, cod-md Opo Ovlod. Th Educos' Rsouc Gud hs b dsgd o hc you suds xpc of h flm. Bfo gog o h cm, you suds d o kow h hsocl cox of h vs hy bou o wch. Af h flm, hy should flc o wh hy hv s d o som of h cosqucs of Wold W II o ody s wold fom chologcl po of vw. Th Educos' Rsouc Gud s dvdd o h dsc ps: Th fs p D-Dy Nomdy Udsdg h hsocl cox s dd o sv s quck fc gud fo ducos. I gvs bf ovvw of wh ld o h Bl of Nomdy (cod-md Opo Ovlod) d D-Dy. Ths p ouls h opposg focs, h Alls' log ppo d logscs, h gous dcpo pl (Opo Foud), llgc wok d sbog cos, h cssy codos fo h ldg o D-Dy d h ol of wom dug WWII. Opo Ovlod succdd, bu clmd hudds of housds of lvs, boh cvl d mly. Th scod p How WWII flucd chology d sccs hghlghs som of h chologcl pogss h WWII dov s lk compu sccs, ock scc d cf chology. WWII ld o sgfc scfc d chologcl dvcms oh s h o dvlopd h such s mdc, sugy, mdcos, commuco sysms, vgo, mls, logscl suppo, dusy, d my mo. Th hd p Acvs fo Suds pss cvs fo you suds o do bfo sg D-DAY: Nomdy 1944 d/o f hvg s h flm. Th ml hs b dvlopd fo suds gs 10 o 16. Educos wll choos d dp h cvs bs sud fo h pcul clss. Acvs 2, 3 d 7 c b usd fo suds g 11 d up; cvy 1 s mo subl fo suds g 12 d up; cvs 4 d 6 fo suds g 13 d up; d cvs 5 d 8 fo suds g 14 d up. W by D. Elsbh Mllo Cosuls: H.Sco Goodch, D. Es Roh, Sm Doss Edos: Also M, Alxd Body Dsgd by Mldgphss 4 5

4 PART I UNDERSTANDING THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT 1. Opo Ovlod: Wold W II's Lgs Amphbous Opo g zk Bl g w h lg o h by s usd WII, h s F s W hod m d Gm ccl pd d s whl d comb ps ou s, k g g su s ( d coo foc d foo y d ozd ll mo ). y, f f d c Th Scod Wold W sd 1939, wh h Gm vso of Pold. O of h ddls coflcs hum hsoy, WWII clmd ov 60 mllo lvs, boh cvl d mly. Hl md o k ov ll of Euop fo hs Rch h ws o ls 1,000 ys. Bw Mch 1938 d Mch 1939 Gmy succssfully usd boh polcl mouvg d ough occupo o x boh Aus d Czchoslovk. I 1940, usg Blzkg (Lghg W) ccs, Gmy succssfully vdd Pold, Dmk, Nowy, Blgum, h Nhlds, Luxmboug, d Fc. Oly G B ssd Gmy s ck, wh s ds h klld housds of Eglsh cvls; Hl s pl o vd Egld fld bcus hs Lufwff, h Gm A Foc, ws o bl o df h Bsh Royl A Foc, dug wh ws kow s h Bl of B. Hl h chgd hs pls d ud o h Es Ju 1941 ckg h Sov Uo, soo o h bk of collps. h wo s g w ko c, l D-Dy h fs o Ju 6h, 1944, h fs dy of Opo Ovlod, d cospods o h vso of fv Nomdy bchs by mosly US, Bsh d Cd solds. Th ck combd, vy d goud focs. D-Dy ws ug po fo WWII h would d lmos y l o My 8h, Opo Ovlod poply spkg, h Nomdy Cmpg lsd ul h d of Augus, Ps ws lbd o Augus 25h, p y h dy o k c l I m y" s b D-D h comb s o whc po Th bs 6, o o d. s Ju y m D-Dy v, d kow 4, how sos 4 9 v 1 d h oh os D-Dy, op d d f g s d fo o. b boh h op By h d of 1941 Gmy, lld wh Ily d Jp, coolld vully ll of Euop s wll s oh Afc. Bu h Ud Ss d h w f h fmous Jps d o h US vl bs Pl Hbo, Hw, Dcmb Togh wh h Ud Kgdom, h Amcs fomd colo - kow s h Alls d cludg Cd, h Sov Uo d ov doz oh cous - o fgh gs h Axs Pows,.. Gmy d s lls. Th wo fos I h mm h US d s Alls w buldg up h cssy oops, shps d qupm o fgh ol w. Ths ppo ook svl ys d qud hgh lvl of coopo bw commds of h Alld focs. To df Hl d f Euop fom Nz yy, h Alls dcdd o xcu h spg of 1944 sgy hy hd b plg fo svl ys,.. h opg of scod fo Ws Euop. Cod-md Opo Ovlod, hs lbo pl ws succssfully kp sc ul ws s o moo o h v of Ju 5h, Dug h gh of Ju 5h, 1944, md of mo h 6,000 shps d ldg cf cossd h Eglsh Chl. Covyg h Alld goud focs owds h shos of Fc, h shps doppd cho oud 2 m o Ju 6h bw sv d wlv mls fom h cos, mos of hm ou of g of h Gm lly bs. A dw, ldg cf (h Hggs bos ) sd o bg hs oops d qupm fom h shps o h shos of Nomdy. Ov 150,000 m ldd fom h s oo h bchs o h dy lo dug ssul h qud ov 11,000 cf sos, 3,500 glds d 20,000 vhcls. Dug h sm gh som 23,000 poops d gld oops ldd bhd h my ls o scu h bdgs d ods o h vso zo fo h oops h would v l fom h bchs. I ws h lgs us of bo oops up o h m. 6 Som Alld Lds US Psd Fkl Dlo Roosvl Bsh Pm Ms Wso Chuchll Sov Uo dco Josph Sl F Fch Focs Ld Chls d Gull Cd Pm Ms Mckz Kg Ausl Pm Ms Joh Cu Th Axs Lds Gm dco Adolf Hl Il dco Bo Mussol Jps Pm Ms Gl Hdk Tojo Th gol of Opo Ovlod ws o op scod fo h Ws h would ovwhlm h Gm my ldy ggd o h Es Fo. To do so, h Alls hd o bch Hl s mpbl Alc Wll. Th "Alkwll" Th Alc Wll ws dfsv sysm pu plc by Hl h bgg of Mch 1940 log h 2,500 mls of cosl fom Nowy dow o h Spsh bod. Is gol ws o poc Hl s Ws fo fom sbo ck. Wh my lly bs d buks housg powful cos, Hl wd h Wll o b "mpbl" b. Fld Mshl Ew Romml, commd of oops dfdg h cos, focd h Alc Wll wh hudds of housds of obscls d ms, wh spcl o o h ows po bw Fc d G B, h of h Ps-dCls, wh h Gm Hgh Commd ws xpcg h vso o hpp. Fo Romml ws cucl o sop h Alls gh wh d wh hy ldd o pv hm fom sblshg foohold h would llow hm o bg sho ll h ovwhlmg soucs hy w ssmblg h Ud Kgdom. Romml s obscls 7

5 PART I UNDERSTANDING THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT 2. Ppo 3. Sccy, Dcpo d Illgc As vso pl combg, s d goud focs, Opo Ovlod pss h lgs Alld mphbous mly opo WWII, d ld upo h dvlopm of omous dusl cpcy h ook svl ys o chv. Th Alld commds ppd sups ck d mgd o kp h d d h plc of h ldg sc ul h ls moms. Bkg h Gm cod sysm, whch usd h Egm mch, hd gv h Alls hd s, of povdg mulud of vlubl fomo o Gm os. Th Gms xpcd h vso o k plc h of h Psd-Cls d hd hus focd h dfss h, s wll s plcg h bulk of h Pz dvsos s d oh of h S Rv o suppo h dfs. Th Alls cofmd hs blf by usg llgc wok d ggc d gous dcpo pls, wh h mos fmous clld Opo Foud. Alld cous ddcd h cooms d qusd h pcpo of h populo o suppo h w ffo d dvlop h mly poduco so cucl o mly pfomc. Evy cz h US, Cd d h UK ws cougd o pcp h w ffo by wokg, buyg w bods o smps, svg soucs, gowg h ow food, og (food, clohg, gs, lh, c.) Ad h g mjoy of h populo dd gg h w ffo. A. A Elbo Dcpo Pl Opo Foud ws xmly lbo dcpo pl h plyd cucl dvsoy ol fo h vso. All sos of dcpo d dvso ccs w usd cludg: Alld doubl gs comfod h Gms h msk blf by pog fls fomo o h Fs US Amy Goup (FUSAG) oops mssg jus coss fom Cls d commdd by h fmous Gl Gog Po. A fk my md of flbl ubb vhcls, ks d jps, s wll s wood shps d pls, ws s up h souhs of Egld. Ts of housds of lumum sps ( wdow o chff ) w doppd o D-Dy oud Cls d oh s o f wh Gm commucos d d, cg h lluso of lg-scl ck. Dummy pchuss (md of cloh bgs) w doppd souh ws of Cls d Dpp, som of whch xplodd upo coc wh h goud. Ou hom fos hv gv us ovwhlmg supoy wpos d muos of w, d plcd ou dsposl g svs of d fghg m. (Eshow) Th Ud Ss' w ffo ws colossl d soshg. Amc dusy povdd lmos wo-hds of ll h Alld mly qupm poducd dug h w. I fou ys, s dusl poduco doubld sz. Mxmzg s oupu suld dmc cs of s Goss Domsc Poduc. Th w ffo Cd hd h sm posv suls o s ow coomy. Cd d h US boh hlpd G B whos coomy hd b ovsssd by h coflc wh h Nzs, supplyg h Bsh wh food, w ml, muos d moy. W poss cougd czs o suppo h w ffo.? KNOW os logss l YOU g D I v, D Ls s fs g m, h y Vl b mss c o odd d l u ch pom Rss c. c h l s T h p F o l o k s o ou ds vvy fm ouc ld soo d vs of usd o so wouh sco lguu l cl ws h v d u cfc s l h fw dy mo cou h sp s h A b s o g Bls ws co m. o moo doubllwy sys o B. Illgc d Sbog Fc Th Bsh sc llgc svcs clld SOE o Spcl Opo Excuv wokd ppo fo h vso. Thy suppod h locl Fch pss ( l éssc ) s wll s h F Fch Focs. Ths govm--xl foc ws fomd d ld by Gl d Gull fom Lodo d Noh Afc. Th SOE d h Fch ssc coducd spog, sbog d cossc. Th wok Fc of h Fch pss ws ssl fo h Opo Ovlod o succd. Ths ésss h fough gs Nzsm occupd Fc suppld h Alls wh vlubl llgc fomo o h Gm oops d h dfs posos o h Alc Wll d lswh. Thy wkd Gm focs Fc by pfomg my housds of sbog opos d oh cos, cludg ckg lods d lpho ls, hus solg Nomdy d cug commucos bw h Gm commd poss Rdo Lods bodcs by h BBC ws h voc of h F Fch Focs sdg codd mssgs o h Fch pss Fc. 8 Gl Gog S. Po 9

6 PART I UNDERSTANDING THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT 4. D-Dy d Nomdy D-Dy fs o h fs dy of h bo d sbo vso o d bhd h fv bchs locd Nomdy, cod-md Uh, Omh, Gold, Juo d Swod. Fom ws o s h vso ws 50-plus mls wd. Nomdy s go ohws Fc wh 350 mls of cosl o h Eglsh Chl. Th Nomdy vso s bou 90 mls wy fom h souh cos of Egld..Why ld o h bchs of Ws Nomdy? Th of Ps-d-Cls ws h dl loco fo h ldg. Oly 21 mls wy fom h cos of Egld. I hd dp-w po (Cls) d ws h shos ou o Gmy. Clos ough o Egld d oly mls wy fom h Bsh flds, would hv llowd xcll Alld cov fo pls h hd lmd uoomy d sho g h ody. Howv, h Alls kw h h Gms w xpcg h vso o ld xcly h, d chos sd fv ldg bchs - cod-md Uh, Omh, Gold, Juo d Swod - ws Nomdy som 90 mls wy fom h cos of Egld. Uh d Omh bchs w gv o h US Amy, Gold d Swod o h Bsh, d Juo o h Cds. Th ssul sco xdd ov 50 mls fom S-M-duMo o h suy of h O Rv. h wo I s g ow k o m p h G o u, Gou y Co h bu Sgg w Joh sh RAF Cp B gs h oolo o m g o sup sg c ly h fo d o w s, po h l l ss how hb lu s m Es og o l so g ws h Ch 6h. o Ju Ths bchs lso gv ccss o h od wok oud o C, objcv umb o fo h Bsh d Cd oops, o su cho fo h Alls o h Co d op up good ous o Ps. Th Nomdy bchs offd good ldg s hy w fl, wd d dp ough o bl housds of m d h qupm o ld. Th couysd ws lso subl fo h cosuco of mkshf flds. b. Wh o ld? Th d of h ldg dpdd o combo of fvobl codos: full moo, sg d dw, d of cous, sobly good wh.. A full moo - Fo h pls bgg h poops h w o b doppd f mdgh o scu h flks of h ssul zo, flyg gh ws cucl so h plos could vod h hvy cocos of Gm -cf gus h vso. Bu full moo lgh ws hlpful fo gh bombs o fd h gs, d spclly fo h hlp povdd o ghm flyg fo h plos of h bo focs. Tkg off, ssmblg, d flyg vy complx doglg ous gh ws hzdous busss! Also, full moo would su h lgs possbl dl g.. A sg d dw - Th Alld gls dcdd h o ld gh would b oo cofusg, so dw ssul would b bs. Though low d would xd h dsc fo h ldg solds s hy cossd h bch, hgh d would hd Romml s ddly obscls fom h ldg cf. So sg d would b h bs fo ldg s would llow h comb gs o dsoy Gm dfsv obscls o h bch d hus hlp h vssls vg sfly hough h cld d mkd chls. Th fv bchs Nomdy JUN O SW OR D GOL D OMA H UTA HA Nomdy Th succss of Opo Ovlod could oly b md f mo oops ldd d w ppoply suppld s hy dvcd coss Fc f bkg ou fom Nomdy. Th Nomdy bchs w clos o h dp-w po of Chboug, objcv umb o fo h Amc oops. Impossbl o cpu fom h s, hs mpo po hd o b k fom h ldwd sd. Chboug ws cucl y po fo s of housds of m d mllos of os of suppls d qupm dd fo h push o Ps d vully Bl. I ws ssl o hv mjo hbo lg d dp ough o ccommod h bggs shps. Bcus Chboug would k som m o cpu, h Alls bough ov fom Egld wo fcl pos md Mulby A d Mulby B. Th Alls bg sg hs up o Ju 7h spcvly Omh Bch d Gold Bch. Th Mulby Hbos ps o of h gs gg chvms of WWII. Such codos do o hpp of. Thy w o b m bw Ju 5h d Ju 7h. Th x possbly would hv b dys l, o Ju 19h csg h dg of hs sc pl bg dscovd. Pld fo svl mohs, D-Dy ws lmos cclld bcus of xmly bd wh, d h vso, oglly pld fo h 5h of Ju ws dlyd by o dy. Th wh ws so bl h h Gms w covcd h could o hpp h dy d Fld Mshl Romml lf o clb hs wf s bhdy som 310 mls wy. 10 Cck Oglly dsgd s m kpg dvc fo bd d ochs lds, hs clck ws usd o D-Dy by 101s Abo Dvso poops s cogo dvc. Af ldg h dkss of h gh, f poop cm coss sombody, h clckd oc. If h hd wo clcks, h kw ws oh poop. If o 11

7 PART I UNDERSTANDING THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT 5. Th Coflcg Ams Hl s Covolud Ch of Commd Hl xcsd compl cool ov hs mly bcus h dd o us mos of hs commds.th Gm ch of commd ws o ug vy ffcly. Fld Mshl Rudsd s Supm Commd Ws ws commd of ll of occupd Fc d oh cous h ws. Romml, who commdd Amy Goup B (compsg 7h Amy, 15h Amy, d Amd Focs Nhlds), ws Rudsd s subod d s such dd vo Rudsd s pmsso o mov us bw hs dff Ams wh h Amy Goup. Bu o g hs pmsso, vo Rudsd dd o sd h qus o Hl. To mk hgs mo covolud, Romml lso dl dcly wh Hl. Th followg dvsos ook p h fs ssul wvs of h opo: Abo Dvsos > US 82d Abo Dvso (ws of Uh Bch) > US 101s Abo Dvso Scmg Egls (ws of Uh Bch) > Bsh 6h Abo Dvso (souh d ws of Swod Bch, O Cl d Rv) > 1s Cd Pchu Blo (P of 6h Abo Dvso) s l o ' ugh s p o who fo dom, o oops g of h h Ud K v, w joy Th m y w fom d Cd. Ho s d Nom d Ss oh cou l y h U s fom m y d h B, sold d D-D fom Ausl, p m lovk pc dy. Thy c zchos m lds, um, C g l h B of No,h N ld, Gc Nw Z d. c, y d Pol F F Now 6. Rol of Wom dug Wold W II US Gl Dwgh D. Eshow Supm Commd of h Alld Expdoy Focs > Oh Alld Us Ackg o D-Dy Ify Dvsos > US 4h Ify Dvso (Uh) > US 1s Ify Dvso (Omh) > US 29h Ify Dvso (Omh) > 50h Bsh Ify Dvso (Gold) > 3d Bsh Ify Dvso (Swod) > 3d Cd Ify Dvso (Juo) Bsh Gl S Bd Mogomy, Commd--Chf of h Bsh 21s Amy Goup d po m commd of Alld Goud Focs Spcl Focs: > US Rg FORCE (2d Rg Blo, Po du Hoc bw Uh d Omh bchs, 5h Rg Blo Omh Bch) ) > Bsh Spcl Commdos > Fch 1s BFMC (Bllo d Fusls ms/ M Rflm Commdos) o Kff Commdo (Swod) As sul of h llss pssu o h s fo d Hl s ods, mos of h Gm Amy s ov 300 dvsos w sod h Sov Uo. Th Gm Supm Commd (Ws) Glfldmschll vo Rudsd hd oughly ffygh dvsos ud hs commd o h ws fo. Thy- of hs, vgg 14,000 m ch, w plcd ud Glfldmschll Romml s ods. Mos of hs dvsos w of mod o good quly d svl cossd of xpcd vs fom h Es fo. Som fy dvsos cludd oops of lss quly (youg solds d old m) cosdd uf fo h s fo. > 709h Ify Dvso, dvso cludg m uf fo h s fo. > 243d Ify Dvso, dvso cludg m uf fo h s fo. > 91s A Ldg Dvso, fy dvso d d quppd o b spod by. > 352d Ify Dvso, wll-d d wll-quppd dvso h cludd offcs d o-commssod offcs h hd fough o h s fo. (Th dvso ws bul fom dvso dsoyd o h s fo.) > 716h Ify Dvso, dvso cludg m uf fo h s fo. > 21s Pz dvso, fomdbl d wll-quppd dvso wh 150 ks d mod ssul gus. > 711h Ify Dvso > 30h Mobl Bgd wh h bcycl blos. > 6h Pchu Rgm, l wll-ld u composd of youg wll-d solds. Gm Fld Mshl Gd vo Rudsd Supm Commd h Ws Gm Fld Mshl Ew Romml Commd of Amy Goup B, chg of fofyg d dfdg h "Alc Wll" log h cos of Fc Wh m go o h fo, h US, Cd d h UK dd wom o k jobs o d h w ffo, shfg h ol fom mly domsc wok o dolly ml jobs. Ths shf ws o gg mpo chgs h wokplc d socy h dcds o com. 400,000 Bsh wom, 350,000 US wom d 25,000 Cd wom jod h md focs whl wom o h hom fo ook ov jobs fom h m who w wy h Focs, wokg fcos, ggs d fms. Thy dov buss, xs, ucks d s, pd mchy d opd lg gs. My wokd w pls, s wlds, vs d lccs, hlpg o povd h cssy ml o w h w. I G B, wom cod-bks opd h wold s fs lcoc compu (h Colossus) h dcphd sc Gm mssgs. I h Ud Ss, youg wom collg gdus w volvd wh h dvlopm of h ENIAC (Elcoc Numcl Igo Ad Compu), h fs gl pupos lcoc dgl compu. Som dd jcoy compuos whl ohs wokd s pogmms. Almos ll pogmms dug WWII w cully wom, d hy md sgfc cobuos dug h bggs of compu sccs d s l dvlopm. Wom lso svd s sps h Bsh SOE, o Spcl Opos Excuv d h Amc OSS, o Offc of Sgc Svcs, h cso of h CIA. I occupd Fc, wom lso plyd cucl ol s p of h Fch Rssc, goup of cv oppos of h Nz occupo of Fc. Thy svd s lso gs, cous d l boxs, d collcd fomo, poducd d dsbud udgoud wspps, udgoud psss, md llgl dy cds d sssd fugvs scpg coss h bod. Thy lso pcpd md comb, sbog d oh cos, ll of hs h pl of h ow lvs. My w sd, dpod, oud d/o klld

8 PART II HOW WWII INFLUENCED TODAY S TECHNOLOGY Tchology plyd cucl ol WWII s h Alls d Axs pows w yg o g h upp hd h ms c. Coflcg os ds of w dov chologcl dvlopm o cdbl lvls s hy compd o mpov h wpos, vhcls, cf, shps, qupm, commuco sysms, vgo, uo, mls, mdcos d mo. Ths umous ovos d vos of Wold W II hv sc bcom wdly dployd h cvl wold d hv pofoud ffc o ou lvs ody. A fw of hm psd blow. Rock dvlopm dug WWII s ssocd wh Nz Gmy d Gm scss such s Wh vo Bu whos wok sp-hdd mssl dvlopms f h w boh wpos d spc xploo. Boh h US d h Sov Uo bg vy of xpml pogms. I h l 1950s boh cous w bl o luch h-obg fcl slls (Spuk, Explo). Soo popl w luchd o spc. Sov Yu Gg 1961 bcm h fs pso o ob Eh, vlg h cpsul-lk spccf Vosok 1. Th dvlopm of hs chology vully ld o h US spc pogm h would o sd m o h moo. O July 20h, 1969, U.S. sous Nl Amsog d Buzz Ald bcm h fs m o wlk o h moo's sufc. Rocks hv opd up spc o xploo d commcl xploo. 1. Fom h V2 o h Coqus of Spc Gm gs h 1940s hd dvlopd w ddly wpos: Th V1 d h V2 V fo Vglugswff o vg wpo. Th V1 ws h fs cus mssl, flyg bomb h cd 1,900 lbs of hgh xplosvs, vlld mxmum spd of 400 mph d hd g of 150 mls. Th Gms luchd bou 9,000 V1's souh B, pmly Lodo, sg o Ju 13h, 1944, jus o wk f h succssful Alld ldgs Nomdy. Bu h mpc ws lmd s ov 50% of h V1 s fd w cpd d dsoyd bfo hy chd h gol. Howv, hy cusd h dh of bou housd popl. V2 GPS Slls hv bld us o vsg ou wold, o focs h wh, d o commuc sously oud h glob. Th Globl Posog Sysm (GPS), spc-bsd sll vgo sysm, povds loco (logud d lud) d m fomo ll wh codos, ywh o o h Eh. I gs h fomo fom wok of obg slls d goud sos. Thks o psol GPS dvcs, popl c g wold-wd vgo fomo. Ad you c fly vully vywh o Eh hks o Googl Eh F mo dgous w h V2 s, h wold s fs ock mssls, whch cd o o of hgh xplosvs, hd g of ov 186 mls d vlld spd of ov 3,100 mph. A hs spd, ohg could sop hm. Howv, hy w o vy pcs wh hy w luchd Lodo l h summ of Whl hy sll klld my cvls d som Alld oops, V2 s sgc mpc md lmd s hy cm oo l h w o chg s oucom. Accodg o Gl Eshow, h V2's could hv md Opo Ovlod mpossbl o sg hd hy b dvlopd l d usd gs Alld mbko pos Egld. Th Gm V2 ock s h moh of ll mod ocks, cludg hos usd by h US d Sov Uo s spc pogms. 2. Fom h Fs J Fgh Pl o Tody s Globl Commcl A Tspoo Dug h cous of h fghg, h Alls d Axs dvlopd csgly mo dvcd cf. Th Gms bul h wold s fs j fgh, h Mssschm M 262 Schwlb. Ths fs d oly j fgh pl o fly comb dug WWII ws bl o supss h fss Alld fgh. Howv, cosumd lo of ful d oly 1,400 w bul. Th Alld focs w supo umbs, hus h M 262 hd lmd ffc. Mssschm M 262 Th Bsh d h Amcs w smulously wokg o j fgh pl. Wh hs chology Gl Elcc (GE) bul j gs fo Amc s fs j fgh, h Bll XP-59, bu ws o usd comb. Af WWII, h j-powd g ws usd fo ll fgh pls. Th Russs would l us hs chology o dvlop h MG-15 j fgh h fough U.S. F-86 Sb j fghs d bombs dug h Ko W. I h ly 1950s, fuh dvlopm of hs chology ws ppld o commcl flyg. Th DH 106 Com ws h fs poduco commcl jl (UK) whl h Bog 707 jl (US) d h Dougls DC-8 w h fs commclly succssful jls. Ths chcl dvcm ld us o woldwd, ffodbl, commcl spoo wh s of housds of flghs p dy. V

9 PART II HOW WWII INFLUENCED TODAY S TECHNOLOGY Gm codg mch "Egm" COMPUTING SPEED BEFORE ENIAC ENIAC could dd 5,000 umbs o do dg mulplcos o scod. A h Bllsc Rsch Lb, Abd Povg Goud, ook 3 dys fo 100 gdu suds o clcul sgl jcoy fo wpo. Th ENIAC could do h sm jus 30 scods, bg 1,000 ms fs h pso wh clculo. 3. Th Rod o ou Compu Ag By dcphg h codd mssgs s by h Gms, h Alls ghd vl llgc h llowd hm o fol Gm pls. Ths dcphg opd h od o h Compu Ag. Ldg m of cod bks, h Bsh mhmc Al Tug d oh Cmbdg mhmc, Godo Wlchm, dvlopd lcomchcl mch kow s Bomb h succssfully dcodd h Gm codg mch Egm. Egm looks lk ypw bu s complcd mch h yps mssgs cod, h scmbls by usg h o fv oos (ochd whls), ch of whch dsplys lphb. Th pso cvg h mssg dd ky o h cod,.. h sgs of hs oos, o udsd h mssg. I llowd cdbl umb of possbl combos d ws supposd o b ubkbl. Th Bsh cod bks d h g Thoms Flows, cobud o h dsg of h fs pogmmbl lcoc dgl compu, kow s Colossus, o hlp solv cypd Gm mssgs codd by mchs much mo complx h h Egm. Th Colossus Mk 2 wh much hgh spd ws dvlopd jus m fo D-Dy. Howv, hs cod-bkg compus w o gl pupos. Two US compu pos, Joh Muchly d J. Psp Eck, cocvd d dsgd h fs fully pogmmbl dgl lcoc compu, kow s ENIAC (Elcoc Numcl Igo d Compu). I ws lso h fs lcoc gl-pupos compu. ENIAC Sm Pho Dd you kow? Th poxmy fus ws chologcl bkhough dug WWII. Ths lcoc dvc usd h pcpl of d o dc s g d bld pojcls d bombs o do s dsc fom h g. I h 1950s d 1960s, mos compus w lg mchs h could oly b u by d spclss d hy w vy xpsv. Bu h compus pogssvly bcm much smll, fs d chp. By h 1980s, h psol compu ws bo hks o smll d chp gd ccus d mcopocssos. Fuh dvlopms compu scc ld o ll hos w pplcos h w usg ody ou vydy lf fom sm phos o h GPS, I d my mo. Compus hv vdd ll s of ou lvs. 4. Th Rod Opd by Rd Tchology Dvlopd jus bfo WWII my cous (Euop, h US, Sov Uo), d plyd hug ol dug h w s boh h Alls d h Axs w usg d fuh dvlopg hs chology. Rd, o Rdo Dcg Ad Rgg, woks by sdg ou do wvs d dcg y flcos fom ds objcs. Rd foud dozs of pplcos dug h w. I ws pu o shps o vg gh d hough fog, o loc my shps d cf d o dc guf. I ws pu o pls o loc my cf o shps, o dc guf, d o fd bombg gs. Mly moologss usd o dc soms, dco cucl o opos such s h Ivso of Nomdy. Mod d s ow usd housds of pplcos fom mly o cvl. Cvl vo, mm ffc d moology hv bfd fom Rd chology. Rd dcs spdg offds o cvl ods. Rd dsply sysms h dc pcusos of 2-dmsol sos d mdcl ulsoc sysms h ppd h l 1940s. Mcowv ovs. A wod bou SONAR So Soud Dcg Ad Rgg fucos lk d, usg soud sd of do o dc objcs. Ulsoud scs c b s s fom of mdcl so. A ulsoud sc s dvc h uss hgh fqucy soud wvs o c mg of som p of h sd of h body, such s h somch, lv, h, c. Obsc soogphy s fquly usd o chck h bby h womb. ENIAC ws lly dsgd o clcul lly fg bls fo h US Amy, h vy bls h would llow solds o fgu ou wh gl o m h co. I swd h Amy s d fo fs d mo pcs fg cpbls. ENIAC s clculo spd ws 1,000 ms h of xsg dvcs. Ths hgh-spd clculos, coupld wh gl-pupos pogmmbly, solvd poblms h w pvously usolvbl. I ddo o bllscs, h ENIAC lso Hug dvcs w md mdc d sugy h 1940s s dc spos o w. Pcll, dscovd h wokd o wh pdco, dom-umb suds, d wd-ul dsg. 30s, ws fuh dvlopd h 40s o bcom mo po boc. I ws mss poducd d md vlbl o ENIAC wghd bou 30 os, occupd bou 1,800 squ f d ws bl o do cvls. I hs sc bcom h mos wdly usd boc o d. Sf d wdly vlbl blood sfusos povd smpl quos. I cos clos o $500, o poduc. I ws bl o pocss o b h mos mpo mdcl dvcm cdd wh svg h lvs of solds. Sc, h hv b my 0.1 MHz. Tody 3.95-ouc Pho 5 c u 800 MHz, whch s 8,000 ms fs dvcs d chcl dvlopms d blood sfuso s lfsvg m h s mog h mos commo 16 d mo powful! mdcl pocdus. 17 Rd I's woh kowg Th vo of h cvy mgo 1940 md cmc wv d pccl, llowg d ss o b slld o sco shps by ly 1942 d cf by ly Ths ws o of h pmy sos fo h dowfll of h Gm U-bos f My Ths chology lso llowd h dvlopm of h H2S d, h fs dowwd lookg d, d s us o Phfd fo bombs gly csd bombg ccucy poo wh. All mod Rd chology s bsd upo.

10 ACTIVITY 1. Rdg Mp Toop Movms o D-Dy (7h Gd d up/ag 12 d ov) b. Rdg Mp - Alyz h mp o h lf pg d sw h followg qusos:. Plmy Rsch Us books d/o h I o sw h followg qusos: 1. Wh s Nomdy locd? 2. Wh s Nomdy loshp o Lodo? Ad loshp o Ps? 3. Wh h Fch cs of Cls d Chboug locd loshp o h cos of Egld? 4. To g fom Nomdy o Gmy, whch dco do you vl? 1.Wh w h Alld pchuss doppd? 2.How my US dvsos ook p h ldg? Nm hm 3.How my Bsh dvsos ook p h ldg? Nm hm. 4.Wh s h oly of h oops h ldd o Juo Bch? 5.Usg h mp scl, dm h lgh of h vso. 6.How my Gm dvsos c you loc? Nm som of hm. 7. How dff s h Gm 21s Dvso? 8. Whch gogphcl obscl pvd h Gm 21s Dvso fom ckg h Alls o D-Dy? 9. Wh h fv bggs cs h? Nm hm. 10. Why do you hk h cy of Chboug ws sgc fo h Alls? D Em Dsbuo & N3D Ld Flms - All Rghs Rsvd D Em Dsbuo & N3D Ld Flms - All Rghs Rsvd

11 BEFORE THE FILM ACTIVITY 2. Wh hy fo? (6h Gd d up/ag 11 d ov) I h flm you s lo of h ml, qupm d vhcls usd dug Opo Ovlod. Wh w hy usd fo? Mch ch m wh h coc dscpo, bfo you s h flm d f you hv s. 1. C V2 3. Rd 4. Mulby 5. Cck 6. Gld 7. Hggs Bo 8. Egm 9. M 262 Mssschm 10. Wdow ACTIVITY 3. D-Dy Combs Numbs (6h Gd d up/ag 11 d ov) AFTER THE FILM Clcul h pcg of ch couy s mly focs Nomdy o D-Dy usg h umbs blow. Couy Numb of solds Bchs Pcg Ud Kgdom 62,000 Swod, Gold Cd 21,000 Juo Ud Ss 73,000 Uh, Omh Gmy 105,000 All Tol 261, % Asw h followg qusos:. Clouds of mllc sps doppd fom pls o f wh d d commucos. b. A lgh cf h fls whou usg g. c. Gm cod mch usd o sd sc mssgs. d. Fs j fgh.. Usd fo h mphbous ldg of oops o h 5 Nomdy bchs. f. Mkshf hbos o Nomdy bchs. g. Usd o dc movms of objcs. h. Fs ock mssl.. Mly spo cf xsvly usd by h Alls. j. Dvc o hlp poops loc ch oh o ld. ACTIVITY 4. All bou Numbs - Mulpl Choc Excs (8h Gd d up/ag 13 d ov) Look hs qusos bfo you s h flm. S f you c sw hm f you hv s h flm, chck you sws o h I o books d coc hm wh cssy. 1. Wh s h dsc fom h Fch cy of Cls o h Cos of Egld? o 21 mls o 210 mls o 2,100 mls 2. Wh s h ol lgh of h ldg (5 bchs)? o 50 mls o 500 mls o 5,000 mls 3. Th C-47 Sky s h mos poducd mly spo cf hsoy. o 100 How my w bul? o 10,000 o 100, How my m could f o Hggs ldg bo? o 10 o 36 o Hl gv ods o o wk hm up bfo c m o h 6h of o 3 m Ju Wh m ws? o 9 m o 11 m ACTIVITY 5. Rd Dco: How f s h g? (9h Gd d up/ Ag 14 d ov) A puls d sds ou do wvs sho buss o pulss. Th dsc o g s dmd by h m ks h sgl o ch h g d h cho o u. Rd sgls vl h spd of lgh: bou 186,000 mls p scod. Quso: If sgl s smd by d m quls zo, d coms bck 1/1,000 scod l, how my mls wy s h g dcd by h d? 1. Wh couy hd h mos oops Nomdy o D-Dy?:... Asw: Pls xpl you sw: Wh pcg of h oops w Alld oops? Why do you hk h Alld oops succdd?

12 ACTIVITY 6. WWII Gl Kowldg - Cosswod (8h Gd d up/ag 13 d ov) ACTIVITY 7. Lg Sc Cod Wg d Dcodg (6h Gd d up/ag 11 d ov) Wg d bkg sc mssgs plyd hug ol dug WWII. Wg sc mssgs hs xsd fo housds of ys. L fw bsc wys how o w sc mssgs, d dcod hm Wg cod by odg h ls of h mssg. Look h followg xmpl: Th pl x,.. h mssg you w o sd, s mg omoow dw. Th poocol o cod hs mssg cosss usg vy oh l d w hm s follows: 10 9 M E I G O O R W T A N E T N T M R O A D W Th codd mssg ds MEIGOORWTANETNTMROADW. M E E T I N G T O M O R R O W A T D O W N M E I G O O R W T O N E T N T M R O A D W M E I G O O R W T A N E T N T M R O A D W Excs: Usg hs mhod, choos dff poocol d w mssg. Pl x:... Poocol:... Codd mssg:... SHERMAN GLIDER NORMANDY FORTITUDE BULLDOZER LIBERTY CRICKET ENIGMA RESISTANCE ROOSEVELT CHURCHILL HITLER JUNO MESSERSCHMITT OMAHA DE GAULLE SPITFIRE ROMMEL PARACHUTE RADAR STALIN BUNKER JEEP CALAIS TIGER EISENHOWER Acoss 4. Bsh fgh cf usd by h Royl A Foc. 6. Rgo ohws Fc wh cosl o h Eglsh Chl. 7. Ll objc usd by poops o loc ch oh f ldg Nomdy. 10. Mjo fy po Noh Fc wh Gms xpcd h Alld vso. 13. Gm compy h bul h fs j fgh pl clld M Cod m of h bch wh h Cd oops ldd o D-Dy. 18. Fch gl who ld h F Fch Focs (Rssc) fom Lodo. 19. Gm cod mch dcphd by h Bsh cod-bks. 20. Cod m fo o of h US scos of h Alld ldgs Nomdy. 23. Powful co wh bod bld h fo fo clg goud. 24. Lgh cf h fls whou usg g. 26. Lgh, sudy 4-whl-dv vhcl of h US Amy. Dow 1. Bl k usd by h US d h oh Ws Alls WWII. 2. Powful Gm k usd WWII. 3. Nm gv o h cgo shps h spod m d qupm dug WWII. 5. Cod m fo h Alld dcpo opo pcdg h Nomdy ldgs. 8. Bsh Pm Ms h ld B houghou WWII. 9. A cloh copy h llows pso chd o o dscd slowly wh doppd fom cf. 11. Amd Fch pss h fough gs Gm Nz occupo of Fc d fcld h Alls pd dvc hough Fc followg D-Dy. 12. US Gl d Supm Commd of h Alld Expdoy Focs Ws Euop dug WWII. 14. Commus dco of h Sov Uo lld wh Roosvl d Chuchll o df h Nzs d Psd of h US ( ). 16. A plly udgoud shl of focd coc bul s p of fofco. 21. Gm Fld Mshl; kow s h Ds Fox. 22. Dco of Nz Gmy whos xpsos fog polcy pcpd WWII, whl hs fcl -Smsm ld o h Holocus. 25. Dco sysm h uss do wvs o dm h g, lud, dco o spd of objcs, cf, shps. b.wg cod by plcg ch l of h x by oh l of h lphb, o umb o symbol. Look h followg xmpl. Ech l of h mssg s shfd fowd 3 plcs h lphb. Pl x: Luch ck dw Poocol: Ech l of h mssg s shfd fowd 3 plcs h lphb. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Codd Mssg: IXRKZEXQQXZHXQAXTK L A U N C H A T T A C K A T D A W N I X R K Z E X Q Q X Z H X Q A X T K Excs: Followg hs mhod, us dff shf (fom 4 o 26), d c you ow mssg. Mssg o sd:... Poocol:... Codd mssg:

13 L s g d of h mgud of h hgs h w dd by clculg h followg: 1. Fdg h Toops ACTIVITY 8. A B of Logscs (9h Gd d up/ags 14 d ov) How do you supply my wh food, qupm, mdcl suppls, mmuo d h s of wh would b dd? D-Dy ws complx d omous udkg ssmblg hudds of housds of solds, housds of bos d pls logsd mllos of os of qupm d suppls. Logscs plyd cucl ol h succss of hs msso. 3. Tspog Solds O D-Dy lg spo shps bough som132,000 fym 10 ucl mls h bchs. Ths oops w h dspchd d spod fom shp o sho smll ldg cf. Th mos wll-kow ssul ldg cf ws clld h Hggs bo. Ech Hggs bo cod 36 m, usully 32 solds d cw of h o fou slos. Th spd of Hggs bos h dy bcus of poo wh ws 5 kos (5.8 mph). I ook 3 mus o swfly mbk h oops fom h shp d oh 3 mus o dsmbk hm o h bch. 3. How log dd Hggs bo oudp qu fom d o h bg shps 10 ucl mls wy? 3b. Povdd h w 800 Hggs bos o mbk/dsmbk 32 m ch, how my oudps w dd p bo o dsmbk h 132,000 m? 3c. As logscs/gl sff offc, you lso d o pl fo losss. Choos h pcg of Hggs bo losss h you focs....% 1. O sold ds vg of 2 3/4 pouds of food dy. 73,000 US solds ldd by bo o h bchs of Nomdy o D-Dy. How my os of food p dy w dd o fd hm? 1b. Th fmous 2 1/2 o uck ws usd o bg food fo hs 73,000 US solds o h dpo. How my of hs ucks should b lodd p dy jus o cy food? Cosquly, how my Hggs bos would you d o mk su ll you oops c b spod o h bchs? 2. Ammuos 4. Gg Gsol Img h you d o bg suppls o h oops fom h dp-w hbo of Chboug o dpo C h s 80 mls wy. You us 2 ½ o ucks h ch g 4 mls p gllo. 2. Assumg h US solds dug WWII dd 30 lbs. of mmuo p dy fo h M-1 Gd sm-uomc fl, how my os of mmuo w o b povdd fo p dy fo h 73,000 US oops? 2b. Th 2 1/2 o ucks w bgg hs mmuos o h dpo. How my ucklods dy w qud p dy o bg h mmuo o 73,000 US solds? 4. How much gsol s dd fo oudp fom Chboug o C? 4b. If you hv 3,000 os of suppls o spo, how my oudps d how much gsol wll b dd? 24 25

14 ANSWERS TO THE ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY Nomdy s go ohws Fc wh 350 mls of cosl o h Eglsh Chl. Th Nomdy vso s bou 90 mls wy fom h souh cos of Egld. 2. Nomdy ls souh-souh ws fom Lodo d ws fom Ps. 3. Sud 21 mls oly souh s of Egld, Cls d s po h closs Fch po o h cos of Egld, d h shos ou o Gmy. Th Fch cy of Chboug s sud h d of h Co Psul, 81 mls souh fom Posmouh o h cos of Egld. 4. To g fom Nomdy o Gmy, you vl s. b. 1. S-Mè-Egls; Uh Bch S M du Mo; Swod Bch h of h bdg o h O v, cod-md Pgsus bdg. 2. Fv dvsos: 1s Ify, 4h Ify, 29h Ify, 82d Abo, 101s Abo 3. Th dvsos. 50h Ify, 3d Ify, 6h Abo. 4. Cd (Cd 3d Ify). 5. Abou 50 mls. 6. You c d o hs mp h ms of 7 Gm dvsos: 709h Ify Dvso; 91s A Ldg Dvso; 243d Ify Dvso; 352d Ify Dvso; 21s Pz Dvso; 716h Ify Dvso d h 711h Ify Dvso. Th w oh oops such s h 30h Mobl Bgd d h 6h Pchu gm. 7. Th Gm 21s Dvso ws wll-d d wll-quppd dvso wh 150 ks d mod ssul gus. 8. Th obscl ws h O v. 9. Chboug, C, Byux, C, S-Lô. 10. Th lgs d mos ccssbl dp-w po fom h ldg, Chboug ws cucl y po fo s of housds of m d mllos of os of suppls d qupm dd fo h push o Ps d vully o Bl. ACTIVITY 2 1= 2=h 3=g 4=f 5=j 6=b 7= 8=c 9= d 10= ACTIVITY 3 Ud Kgdom: 24%; Cd: 8%; USA: 28%; Gmy: 40% 1: Gmy 2: = 60% 3: Amog oh fcos: sc pl d sups ssul dw dsp bl wh o Nomdy bchs sd of Cls, g Alld commdm, Alld foc supoy, hug umb of Alld oops d ough suppls, qupm d ml, poo Gm commdm fom Hl, mos Gm dvsos o h Es Fo, lck of Gm suppls d qupm. ACTIVITY 4 1: 21 mls 2: 50 mls 3: 10,000- Th C-47 Sky s h mos poducd pl hsoy wh ov 10,000 md. 4: 36 5: 9 m. ACTIVITY 5 186,000 mls/scod : 1/1000 = 186 mls. Roudp =>186 : 2 = 93 mls. Th g s 93 mls wy. ACTIVITY x 73,000 =200,750 lbs=> os of food p dy. 1b os : 2.5= => 41 ucklods p dy of food lbs x 73,000 = 2,190,000 lbs => 1,095 os of mmuo p dy. 2b. 1,095 os : 2.5 = 438 ucklods of mmuo p dy. 3. (10 ucl mls x 2) : 5 kos = 4 hous oud p, plus 3 mus o ulod d oh 3 mus o lod wh m. Tol= 4h06 m. 3b. 800x32= 25,600 : 132,000:25,600= oudps p bo. 3c. Wh 20% loss, you should s wh 1000 bos. 4. ( ) : 4 = 40 gllos o go oudp 2 ½ o uck. 4b. 3,000 : 2.5 = 1,200 oudps d 1,200 x 40 = 48,000 gllos of gs dd. Gl Eshow s Mssg o h Toops of h Alld Expdoy Foc o Ju 6,

15 If you look mp of Nomdy, you wll s h bchs sll hv h vso cod-ms. Ss by v md f h oop us h fough h. As wll s h bchs d oh ldmks, such s h Pgsus bdg, you c vs w musums, mmols d cms Nomdy. Thy commmo ll hos who w p of D-Dy d h Bl of Nomdy. Th cms, hoog h oops who dd, clud: Th Amc Cmy Collvll-su-M, Th Bsh Cmy Rvll, Th Byux W Cmy d L Cmb, h Gm W Cmy. A flm by Pscl Vuog Poducd by N3D LAND Flms Rlsd by 3D Em Dsbuo - NORMANDY1944.com 3D ENTERTAINMENT DISTRIBUTION LTD Bk S, Wybdg KT13 8AH, Ud Kgdom US Toll F:

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