Lake Champlain Basin Program

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1 LAKE CHAMPLAIN: Our Lake, Our Future JANUARY 8-9, 2008 SHERATON CONFERENCE CENTER BURLINGTON, VERMONT Co-hosted by: LAKE CHAMPLAIN RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Lake Champlain Basin Program CASTLETON STATE COLLEGE GREEN MOUNTAIN COLLEGE JOHNSON STATE COLLEGE MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE SAINT MICHAEL S COLLEGE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT PLATTSBURGH STATE UNIVERSITY With funding from NOAA. Sponsored by: VERMONT WATER RESOURCES & LAKE STUDIES CENTER

2 CONFERENCE HOSTS: The Lake Champlain Research Consortium (LCRC) is composed of seven academic institutions located within the Lake Champlain Basin. Its mission is to coordinate and facilitate research and scholarship of the Lake Champlain ecosystem and related issues; to provide opportunities for training and education of students on lake issues; and to aid in the dissemination of information gathered through lake endeavors. More information is available at The Lake Champlain Basin Program (LCBP) works in partnership with government agencies from New York, Vermont, and Quebec, private organizations, local communities, and individuals to coordinate and fund efforts which benefit the Lake Champlain Basin's water quality, fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, recreation, and cultural resources. More information is available at BRIEF CONFERENCE SCHEDULE TUESDAY 8:30 Registration Promenade 9:00 Welcoming comments Emerald Ballroom 1&2 9:30 2 concurrent technical sessions Emerald Ballroom 1&2, Amphitheater 10:45 Break Promenade 11:00 2 concurrent technical sessions Emerald Ballroom 1&2, Amphitheater 12:30 Lunch Emerald Ballroom 3 2:00 2 concurrent technical sessions Emerald Ballroom 1&2, Amphitheater 3:15 Break Promenade 3:30 2 concurrent technical sessions Emerald Ballroom 1&2, Amphitheater 4:45 Poster Session and Reception Emerald Ballroom 3 6:15 Board buses for buffet dinner and reception at ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center at the Leahy Center for Lake Champlain 8:15 Board buses to return to Sheraton Conference Center Wednesday 7:30 Continental Breakfast and Poster Session Emerald Ballroom 3 8:30 The Watershed and Inputs panel discussion Emerald Ballroom 1&2 9:35 Biodiversity and Aquatic Nuisance Species panel discussion Emerald Ballroom 1&2 10:35 Break Promenade 11:00 In-Lake Processes and Water Quality panel discussion Emerald Ballroom 1&2 12:00 Lunch Emerald Ballroom 3 1:00 Society and Culture Related to the Lake panel discussion Emerald Ballroom 1&2 2:05 Modeling for the Future panel discussion Emerald Ballroom 1&2 [2]

3 Technical Sessions for Tuesday, January 8 [Abstract found on program page number in brackets] NUTRIENT RUNOFF- Session 1 9:30 Emerald Ballroom (1&2) Hydrologic, seasonal and management controls on sediment and phosphorus transfers within experimental watersheds - Aubert Michaud 1, Richard Lauzier 2, and Jacques Desjardins 1 ( 1 IRDA - Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement, 2 Ministère de l agriculture, des pêcheries et de l alimentation du Québec, Direction régionale de la Montérégie, secteur Est) [10] Using SWAT for BMP implementation and diffuse source phosphorus reductions: Results from Pike River Watershed - Isabelle Beaudin, Julie Deslandes, Aubert Michaud, and Jacques Desjardins (IRDA - Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement) [11] Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields under subsurface and non-subsurface drained conditions: Pike River watershed, Quebec, Canada - Mark Eastman, Apurva Gollamudi, Nicolas Stämpfli, and Chandra Madramootoo (McGill University) [12] HYDRODYNAMICS AND WIND EFFECTS 9:30 Amphitheater Two simple models of wind-driven lake circulation - Ken Hunkins (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) [14] Sub-surface neutrally buoyant drifters and cross-lake intra-thermocline flow in Lake Champlain, VT - Thomas O. Manley 1, Michael J. McCormick 2, and Ken Hunkins 3 ( 1 Middlebury College; 2 NOAA - Great Lakes Ecological Research Laboratory, 3 Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) [15] Use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and their effectiveness in mapping hydrodynamic variability in Lake Champlain - Kristen Poehling (Middlebury College) [16] Atmospheric forecasting and modeling in the Lake Champlain Basin - Paul A. Sisson, John M. Goff, and Conor T. Lahiff (NOAA - National Weather Service) [17] Development and validation of a modified Quebec phosphorus index to include subsurface drainage - Mohamed Chikhaoui, Chandra Madramootoo, and Apurva Gollamudi (McGill University) [13] Break from 10:45 to 11:00 [3]

4 PLANKTON 11:00 Emerald Ballroom (1&2) Cyanobacteria abundance, cyanobacteria concentrations, and nutrients and other drivers in Missisquoi Bay - Mary C. Watzin, Meghan K. Rogalus, Susan P. Fuller, Kathryn A. Crawford, and Cynthia May (University of Vermont) [18] Distribution and molecular analysis of cyanobacteria toxins in Lake Champlain: a 5- year review - Greg Boyer 1, Michael Satchwell 1, Rachael Damon 2, Amber Hotto 1, and Xingye Yang 1 ( 1 SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 2 LeMoyne College) [19] Missisquoi Bay: Community dynamics of cyanobacteria blooms and the development of a new monitoring method for Lake Champlain - Carrianne E. Pershyn 1, Timothy Mihuc 1, Jeffry Jones 1, Eileen Allen 1, Greg Boyer 2, Mike Satchwell 2, Sean Thomas 1, and Meghan Greene 1 ( 1 SUNY Plattsburgh, 2 SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry) [20] Where have all the algae gone in Missisquoi Bay? - Eric Smeltzer 1, Angela Shambaugh 1, Pete Stangel 1, and Fred Dunlap 2 ( 1 Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, 2 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation) [21] Missisquoi Bay zooplankton: the crash of Fredric Dunlap 1, Timothy Mihuc 2, and Carrianne Pershyn 2 ( 1 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 2 SUNY Plattsburgh) [22] ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION AND MERCURY DYNAMICS 11:00 Amphitheater Episodic and chronic atmospheric mercury deposition to the Lake Champlain Basin - Eric K. Miller 1, Sean Lawson 2, Melody Burkins 3, Mim Pendleton 2,3, Alan VanArsdale 4, Gerald Keeler 5, and James B. Shanley 6 ( 1 Ecosystems Research Group, Ltd., 2 Vermont Monitoring Cooperative, 3 University of Vermont, 4 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 5 University of Michigan, 6 U.S. Geological Survey) [23] Mercury in Lake Champlain: The Lake Champlain mass balance project - Neil Kamman 1, Ning Gao 2, Eric Miller 3, Celia Chen 4, and James B. Shanley 5 ( 1 Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, 2 Saint Lawrence University, 3 Ecosystems Research Group, Ltd., 4 Dartmouth College, 5 U.S. Geological Survey) [24] The dynamics of streamwater inputs of total mercury and methylmercury to Lake Champlain - James B. Shanley and Ann T. Chalmers (U.S. Geological Survey) [25] Inter- and intra- basin variability in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain - Celia Chen 1, Neil Kamman 2, Jason Williams 1, Vivien Taylor 1, and Brian Jackson 1 ( 1 Dartmouth College, 2 Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) [26] Dynamics of mercury cycling and biotic assimilation in Malletts and Missisquoi Bays - Eric K. Miller 1, Celia Chen 2, Brian Jackson 2, Neil Kamman 3, Jamie Shanley 4, Ann Chalmers 4, Ning Gao 5, and Tom Holsen 6 ( 1 Ecosystems Research Group, Ltd., 2 Dartmouth College, 3 Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, 4 U.S. Geological Survey, 5 Saint Lawrence University, 6 Clarkson University) [27] 12:30 - Break for lunch (provided in Emerald Ballroom 3) [4]

5 NUTRIENT RUNOFF- Session 2 2:00 Emerald Ballroom (1&2) The role of constructed wetlands in agricultural watersheds - Anne-Caroline Kroeger and Chandra Madramootoo (McGill University) [28] Overview of the Lake Champlain Basin wetland restoration plan - April Moulaert 1 and Shelley Gustafson 2 ( 1 Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation, 2 Pioneer Environmental Associates) [29] Linking soil-landscape factors to phosphorus levels in Vermont floodplains - Eric Young 1, Donald S. Ross 1, Caroline Alves 2, Thomas Villars 2 ( 1 University of Vermont, 2 U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service) [30] Adoption of low input, no phosphorous grounds care by commercial/institutional property managers - Jurij Homziak 1, Bethany Hanna 2, and Jim Flint 3, ( 1 Lake Champlain Sea Grant, University of Vermont, 2 University of Vermont Extension, 3 Friends of Burlington Gardens) [31] FISH, WILDLIFE AND INVASIVE SPECIES 2:00 Amphitheater Lake Sturgeon in Vermont, what do we know and where do we go next? - Chet MacKenzie 1, Madeleine Lyttle 2, and Nick Staats 2 ( 1 Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department, 2 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) [32] Searching for lake whitefish in Lake Champlain - J. Ellen Marsden 1 and Stephen Smith 2, ( 1 University of Vermont, 2 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) [33] Nest site management for spiny softshell and other native species of turtles - Steve Parren (Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department) [34] Behaviors and knowledge regarding aquatic invasive species: Lessons from Lake Champlain boaters and tournament anglers - Mark Malchoff 1 and Meg Modley 2 ( 1 Lake Champlain Sea Grant, SUNY Plattsburgh, 2 Lake Champlain Basin Program) [35] Break from 3:15 to 3:30 [5]

6 WATERSHED PROCESSES AND IMPACTS 3:30 Emerald Ballroom (1&2) A multiproxy paleolimnological study of Lake Champlain, USA-Canada - Andrea Lini 1, Suzanne Levine 1, Elizabeth Collyer 1, Milton Ostrofsky 2, Daun Dahlen 3, Neil Kamman 4, Peter Leavitt 5, and Lynda Bunting 5 ( 1 University of Vermont, 2 Allegheny College, 3 Paul Smith's College, 4 Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, 5 University of Regina) [36] Ecosystem integrity in Adirondack upland headwater catchments: a multivariate approach to ecosystem quality indicators - Timothy B. Mihuc 1, Thomas Woodcock 1, Edwin Romanowicz 1, Janet Mihuc 2, Eileen Allen 1, Chris Cirmo 3, Robert Fuller 1, David Franzi 1, Celia Evans 2, and James Allen 2 ( 1 SUNY Plattsburgh, 2 Paul Smith s College, 3 SUNY Cortland) [37] Evaluation of streambank stability Jaron Borg, Mandar Dewoolkar, and Paul Bierman (University of Vermont) [38] Mapping potential wetlands in the AuSable and Boquet watersheds - Ariel Diggory 1,2, Donald J. Leopold 2, William F. Porter 2, and Mark Rooks 1 ( 1 New York State Adirondack Park Agency, 2 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry) [39] GEOLOGIC HISTORY, CHEMISTRY, AND CONTAMINANTS 3:30 Amphitheater Seismic and core stratigraphic evidence for salinity changes in the Champlain Sea ~ ka. Impact from North American glacial lake drainage - Patricia L. Manley 1, T. Cronin 2, S. Brachfeld 3, T. Manley 1, D. A. Willard 2, J.-P. Guilbault 4, J. A. Rayburn 5, and R. Thunell 6 ( 1 Middlebury College, 2 U.S. Geological Survey, 3 Montclair State University, 4 BRAQ-Stratigraphie, 5 SUNY New Paltz, 6 University of South Carolina) [40] Pesticide monitoring by the Vermont Agency of Agriculture; where we ve been and where we should go from here - Nat Shambaugh (Vermont Agency of Agriculture) [41] Wastewater treatment effluent, combined sewer overflows, and urban storm samples as sources of organic compounds in the Lake Champlain Basin, Patrick Phillips and Ann Chalmers (U. S. Geological Survey) [42] Prevalence of microbial pathogens in dairy manure from three farms in the Vermont Lake Champlain Basin - Donald W. Meals 1, David C. Braun 1, John P, Hanzas 1, and Paul S. Warden 2 ( 1 Stone Environmental, Inc, 2 Analytical Services, Inc.) [43] 4:45 Poster session and reception in Emerald Ballroom 3 [6]

7 POSTER PRESENTATIONS - Emerald Ballroom 3 Poster sessions 4:45 6:00 pm on Tuesday, and 7:30 8:30 am on Wednesday P-01 Calibration and validation of the SWAT model for BMP implementation and diffuse source phosphorus reductions - Isabelle Beaudoin, Julie Deslandes, Aubert Michaud, and Jacques Desjardins (IRDA - Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement) [44] P-02 Hydropedological segmentation characterization for enhanced water management - Julie Deslandes 1 1 2, A. Michaud, K. Vézina, I. Saint-Laurent , A. Lavoie, M. Nolin, L. Grenon, G. 1 4 Gagné, and A. Vézina ( 1 IRDA - Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement, 2 Centre d applications et de recherches en télédétection (CARTEL), Sherbrooke University, 3 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pedology and Precision Agriculture Laboratories, 4 Institut de Technologie Agricole de La Pocatière) [45] P-03 Using performance-based incentives for agricultural pollution control - Jonathan Winsten 1,2 and Charles Kerchner 2 ( 1 Winrock International, 2 University of Vermont) [46] P-04 Soil dynamics in an urban landscape: linking anthropogenic influences to soil processes - Amanda K. Holland and William B. Bowden (University of Vermont) [47] P-05 Vermont Flow Monitoring Project: comparing runoff from stormwater impaired and attainment watersheds - Meredith Curling Clayton and William B. Bowden (University of Vermont) [48] P-06 Assessment of the diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in three distinct forest types within the Lake Champlain watershed area - Mat Cunningham (University of Vermont) [49] P-07 Historical changes in phytoplankton populations and water quality in Missisquoi Bay - Angela Shambaugh (Vermont Agency of Natural Resources) [50] P-08 Use of volunteers in blue-green algae monitoring - Mike Winslow 1, Mary Watzin 2, Meghan Rogalus 2, Susan Fuller 2, and Lori Fisher 1 ( 1 Lake Champlain Committee, 2 University of Vermont) [51] P-09 Volunteer monitoring in the Basin runs deep - Amy Picotte (Vermont Agency of Natural Resources) [52] P-10 Using the microcystin mcya gene to track toxin movement in northern Lake Champlain - Mike Satchwell, Amber Hotto, and Greg Boyer (SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry) [53] P-11 Diet overlap between native yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and invasive white perch (Morone americana) in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, Vermont - Jeffrey D. White and Douglas E. Facey (Saint Michael s College) [54] P-12 Diet overlap between native yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and invasive white perch (Morone americana) in two major Lake Champlain tributaries, Vermont - Jeffrey D. White and Douglas E. Facey (Saint Michael s College) [55] P-13 Larval fish drift in the Poultney River - Melissa Barber and Meriel Brooks (Green Mountain College) [56] [7]

8 P-14 Zebra mussel colonization of mushroom anchors, chains, and ropes: effects of bottom substrate, time, and prior algal colonization - Sandra H. Brown 1 and Declan McCabe 2 ( 1 BFA Fairfax, Vermont Science Initiative, 2 Saint Michael s College) [57] P-15 Evidence of lacustrine bedforms in Lake Champlain, Vermont - Kathryn Hayo and Patricia L. Manley (Middlebury College) [58] P-16 Tracking the surface flow in Lake Champlain - Michael J. McCormick 1, Thomas O. Manley 2, Dmitry Beletsky 3,4, Andrew J. Foley III 3,4, Gary L. Fahnenstiel 5, and Nathan Hawley 1 ( 1 NOAA Great Lakes Ecological Research Laboratory, 2 Middlebury College, 3 Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecological Research, 4 University of Michigan, 5 NOAA Great Lakes Ecological Research Laboratory, Lake Michigan Field Station) [59] P-17 Mass wasting events in Lake Champlain - Patricia L. Manley and Thomas O. Manley (Middlebury College) [60] P-18 Hydrodynamic model of Lake Champlain - Dmitry Beletsky 1 and Michael J. McCormick 2 ( 1 University of Michigan, 2 NOAA Great Lakes Ecological Research Laboratory) [61] P-19 Determination of methyl and inorganic mercury in Lake Champlain waters and particulates - Vivien Taylor and Brian Jackson (Dartmouth College) [62] P-20 The Vermont Monitoring Cooperative: A Long-Term Forest Health and Air Quality Monitoring Resource for Vermont - Sean Lawson (Vermont Monitoring Cooperative) [63] P-21 Meteorological Monitoring on Lake Champlain at Diamond Island and Colchester Reef - Joanna Grossman 1,2 and Sean Lawson 1 ( 1 Vermont Monitoring Cooperative, 2 Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation) [64] [8]

9 Schedule for Wednesday, January 9 7:30 to 8:30 Poster Session with Continental Breakfast Emerald Ballroom 3 Panel Discussions to be held in Emerald Ballroom 1&2 8:30 to 9:30 The Watershed and Inputs Panelists: Aubert Michaud (Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement), Paul Bierman (University of Vermont), Dave Wick (Champlain Watershed Improvement Coalition of New York), Julie Moore (Vermont Agency of Natural Resources); Facilitated by Barry Gruessner (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) 9:35 to 10:35 Biodiversity and Aquatic Nuisance Species Panelists: Tim Mihuc (SUNY- Plattsburgh), Ellen Marsden (University of Vermont), Dave Capen (University of Vermont), Dave Tilton (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service); Facilitated by Tom Berry (The Nature Conservancy) 10:35 to 11:00 Break 11:00 to 12:00 In-Lake Processes and Water Quality Panelists: Pat Manley (Middlebury College), Mary Watzin (University of Vermont), Andrea Lini (University of Vermont), Pat Phillips (U.S. Geological Survey); Facilitated by Martin Mimeault (Direction régionale de la Montérégie Ministére de l Environnement du Québec ) 12:00 Lunch in Emerald Ballroom 3 1:00 to 2:00 Society and Culture Related to the Lake Panelists: Art Cohn (Lake Champlain Maritime Museum), Jon Erickson (University of Vermont), Tom Torti (Lake Champlain Regional Chamber of Commerce), Sylvie Beaudreau (SUNY-Plattsburgh); Facilitated by Jim Brangan (Lake Champlain Basin Program) 2:05 to 3:05 Modeling for the Future Panelists: Josh Bongard (University of Vermont), Don Meals (ARD, Inc.), Breck Bowden (University of Vermont), Bill Howland (Lake Champlain Basin Program); Facilitated by Michaela Stickney (Lake Champlain Basin Program) [9]

10 HYDROLOGIC, SEASONAL AND MANAGEMENT CONTROLS ON SEDIMENT AND PHOSPHORUS TRANSFERS WITHIN EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHEDS Aubert Michaud 1, Richard Lauzier 2, and Jacques Desjardins 1 ( 1 IRDA - Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement, 2 Ministère de l agriculture, des pêcheries et de l alimentation du Québec, Direction régionale de la Montérégie, secteur Est) contact for first author: Participatory, adaptative research within experimental watersheds (< 10 km 2 ) in Pike River s basin over the last ten years provided a better comprehension of the nonpoint phosphorus transfers between agricultural production systems, the soil and the streams, as well as evaluations of the effectiveness of riparian buffers and structural runoff control in reducing sediment and nutrient transfers to the stream. A first on-farm research network initiated within Beaver experimental watershed (11 km 2 ) made use of runoff plots, as well as spatial sampling and outlet monitoring of the basin surface waters. Covariance analysis of water quality data (stream flow as a covariate), from spatially discrete sampling of upstream subwatersheds, highlighted a landscape-driven hydrologic control on the spatial pattern in P transfer, as well as an influence of manure P sources management. Following implementation of riparian buffers and catch basins along most hydrologically active areas of watershed, temporal trend in water quality from the downstream station indicated a 25% reduction in total P flow-weighted concentration during peak flow events from a reference period ( ) to successive assessment periods and A second research project based on a twin-watershed design (Walbridge brook, 2 X 6-8 km 2 ) was established in 2001 to more specifically assess P loads reduction related to structural runoff controls and riparian buffer management. ANCOVA analysis of P concentration (stream flow as covariate) indicated significantly different responses of water quality to stream flow and season, reflecting twin basin s respective landscape pattern and P mass balance. ANVOCA analysis of P concentrations and fluxes from calibration ( ) and post-treatment period ( ) also indicated a significant response of water quality to riparian buffers and structural runoff controls on treatment watershed. Continuous probe monitoring (turbidity, conductivity, temperature, ph) at watershed s outlets supported hydrograph separation and detailed sediment dynamics on 30 runoff events, providing additional information on hydrologic pathways of P transfers. [10]

11 USING SWAT FOR BMP IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSE SOURCE PHOSPHORUS REDUCTIONS: RESULTS FROM PIKE RIVER WATERSHED Isabelle Beaudin, Julie Deslandes, Aubert Michaud, and Jacques Desjardins (IRDA - Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement) contact for first author: An agreement between the governments of the province of Québec (Canada) and the state of Vermont (USA) calls for a 41% decrease in phosphorus (P) loads reaching Missisquoi Bay, the northern portion of Lake Champlain. The agreement particularly targets the agricultural sector, since 80% of nonpoint source P inputs to the bay are associated with cultivated lands. In order to identify sustainable cropping practices likely to help meet the target P loads, the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was employed to assess hydrological processes, erosion and P mobility on the bay's principal Québec P contributing area, the 630 km 2 Pike River watershed. Strong in-watershed spatial clustering of vulnerability to nonpoint source exports highlights the need for targeted implementation of sustainable agricultural practices and soil conservation works, to derive the greatest environmental benefits. Planting cover crops over the 10% most vulnerable lands would result in a 21% drop in overall P exports at the watershed outlet, whereas the same 10% randomly distributed over the watershed would only contribute to a 6% drop in P exports. The study of different field-scale management scenarios indicated that achieving the targeted 41% reduction in P exports, would require the widespread (half the land devoted to annual crops) implementation of sustainable cropping practices, and the conversion of a specific 10% of the territory to either cover crops or permanent prairie-land. Meeting the P target-loads would require additional investments in the protection of flood-plains and riparian strips, the targeted construction of runoff-control structures, and the rapid soil incorporation of manures on lands dedicated to annual crops. [11]

12 PHOSPHORUS LOSSES FROM AGRICULTURAL FIELDS UNDER SUBSURFACE AND NON-SUBSURFACE DRAINED CONDITIONS: PIKE RIVER WATERSHED, QUEBEC, CANADA Mark Eastman, Apurva Gollamudi, Nicolas Stämpfli, and Chandra Madramootoo (McGill University) contact for first author: Phosphorus (P) is the limiting nutrient responsible for the development of algal blooms in many freshwater bodies worldwide. Algal blooms threaten lake water quality and in order to control their growth, understanding of P transport at the field scale is essential. Four sites in the Pike River watershed of Southern Quebec were instrumented to monitor P losses from both clay loam and sandy loam soils under both subsurface and non-subsurface drainage conditions. Results of the hydrologic year illustrate how soil texture and structure are important factors in determining P losses. Total phosphorus (TP) losses from the clay loam subsurface drained site were 2.2 kg ha -1 greater than the non-subsurface drained clay loam site. TP losses from the sandy loam subsurface drained site were 0.2 kg ha -1 less than the non-subsurface drained sandy loam site. In general, the clay loam sites experienced greater P loss than the sandy loam sites. TP losses from the clay loam subsurface drained soil and the sandy loam subsurface drained soil were 4.0 and 1.2 kg ha -1, respectively; with 2.3 and 0.4 kg ha -1 exiting through the subsurface drainage systems. Greater P loss was observed from the clay loam soil despite having a lower soil test phosphorus (STP) concentration and percent phosphorus saturation (P-Sat) (145 kg ha -1, 7%) than the sandy loam soil (289 kg ha -1, 17%). Particulate phosphorus (PP) loss was significant (80% of TP loss) on the clay loam soil with 78% of the TP exiting the subsurface drainage system as PP. This suggests that preferential flow conditions and therefore, soil structure, can greatly enhance P loss through subsurface drainage systems despite having a relatively moderate STP and P-Sat. [12]

13 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MODIFIED QUEBEC PHOSPHORUS INDEX TO INCLUDE SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE Mohamed Chikhaoui, Chandra Madramootoo, and Apurva Gollamudi (McGill University) contact for first author: The current version of the Quebec phosphorus index (PI) has an additive structure which combines source and transport factors of phosphorus (P). However, many studies have demonstrated that such an algorithm does not consider the interaction between these factors adequately. This study focuses on the development and validation of a modified PI (M_PI) to improve management of P on agricultural lands, by taking the effects of subsurface drainage into account. Data used in this study were collected at four experimental fields located near Bedford in the Pike River watershed, which drains into Missisquoi Bay. These agricultural sites are characterized by different soil types (sandy loams to clay loams) and crops grown were corn, alfalfa, soybean, or hay. Two sites with tile drainage were established in October 2000, while two other sites (without tile drainage) have been monitored since December Data collected include surface runoff, subsurface drain flows, sediment, total phosphorus concentrations, and farm management practices. The analysis and interpretation of the collected data improved the understanding of the mechanism of P transport and the interaction between different factors. This information, together with a literature review, formed the basis of the modified P index, which for the first time includes a subsurface drainage component. There was a very strong correlation (R 2 =0.82) between measured annual total phosphorus (TP) loads for the four experimental fields and M_PI values. Also, a second correlation was established between M_PI values and management practice simulations using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) predicted TP (R 2 =0.79). Results indicated that the modified P Index is a suitable tool, which can be used successfully for P risk assessment. The M_PI with a multiplicative structure improves risk assessment for agricultural P losses. Additionally, the M_PI can help decision makers identify sites with high P vulnerability, and select conservation practices in order to improve downstream water quality. [13]

14 TWO SIMPLE MODELS OF WIND-DRIVEN LAKE CIRCULATION Ken Hunkins (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) contact for author: Numerical vorticity models of circulation in rectangular basins illustrate the contrasting roles of wind shear and bottom topography. In the first model the bottom is flat and the wind velocity is greatest in the center of the lake. Under a symmetrical wind pattern a double gyre results with clockwise rotation on the right when looking downwind and anti-clockwise rotation on the left. In the second model wind velocity is constant but topography takes the shape of a symmetrical channel with greatest depth at the center and shallow water near the shore. Again a double gyre develops but now the sense of rotation is reversed. An anti-clockwise gyre develops on the right and a clockwise gyre forms on the left. These models should aid in understanding features of more complete models and of actual lake circulation. [14]

15 SUB-SURFACE NEUTRALLY BUOYANT DRIFTERS AND CROSS-LAKE INTRA- THERMOCLINE FLOW IN LAKE CHAMPLAIN, VT Thomas O. Manley 1, Michael J. McCormick 2, and Ken Hunkins 3 ( 1 Middlebury College; 2 NOAA - Great Lakes Ecological Research Laboratory, 3 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University) contact for first author: Three years of data collected from short-term deployments of acoustically tracked, neutrallybuoyant drifters within Lake Champlain confirm the presence of three distinct circulation systems existing within the Main Lake. These three systems were stratification-dependent but contrary to the typical boundaries of the epi-, meta- and hypolimnions in that the surface circulation system included the upper portion of the metalimnion. Drifters within this layer showed wind-driven and internal seiche dynamics. Movement ranged from curvilinear to near circular depending on the relative strengths of mean versus internal seiche driven dynamics. The deep (hypolimnic) system was confined below the base of the metalimnion and was laterally restricted by topography. Drift tracks within this layer were elliptical but with little net transport. The largest net transport was found to exist within the mid to bottom portion of the metalimnion. Within this narrow region of the water column, drifters were transported over 40 km away from their deployment site within a short period of time. This anomalous metalimnic transport was comprised of two components. The first was a unique, previously undocumented, cross-lake flow that placed the drifters within a coastal jet (along-axis or 2 nd component) that completed the net long-distance transport. [15]

16 USE OF AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES (AUVS) AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN MAPPING HYDRODYNAMIC VARIABILITY IN LAKE CHAMPLAIN Kristen Poehling (Middlebury College) contact for author: The evolving technology of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is an exciting new advancement in the field of marine science. Old methods to study the water column can be labor, equipment and time intensive in order to gain accurate data. Old methods included the use of ROVs (unmanned underwater vehicles controlled from the surface), manned underwater vehicles and shipboard hydrographic surveys typically taken with CTDs (conductivity/temperature/depth) sensors. AUVs, on the other hand, can provide massive amounts of data with minimum user intervention while at the same time surveying spatial and temporal domains that would be dangerous or impossible; e.g. dynamic changes in the water column occur during extreme wind events. Fortunately, the size and cost of these instruments are continually being reduced. Additionally, the software that controls the AUVs, as well as the sensors installed on them, are presently being tested and improved to better map ocean and lacustrine environments. As part of a pilot program with the U.S. Navy, Tom Manley (Middlebury College Geology Department) used two new AUVs (model Iver2 from OceanServer Technology, Inc.) to test the accuracy of these devices in Lake Champlain. As a basis to compare the AUV results to, a two-ship (UVM Melosira and Middlebury College s R/V Baldwin), 106-station CTD survey was taken each day for 4 days (starting July 29 th ) in the Thompsons Point Split Rock Gap region (~4 km²). Concurrently, the AUVs were deployed while CTD survey was underway. AUV and CTD daily data sets were three-dimensionally modeled and characterized using earthvisons4 (Dynamic Graphics, Inc) software. The two objectives of the survey were to determine the accuracy and feasibility of AUVs in a dynamic region, while also producing shipboard real-time mapping as the data were collected, and to analyze the high resolution 106 station CTD data set in various parameters (conductivity, temperature, depth). [16]

17 ATMOSPHERIC FORECASTING AND MODELING IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN Paul A. Sisson, John M. Goff, and Conor T. Lahiff (NOAA - National Weather Service) contact for first author: The National Weather Service (NWS) in Burlington, VT produces weather forecasts for the Lake Champlain Basin on a daily basis. Text and gridded forecasts include specific marine elements of wind, waves, and sensible weather for the open waters of the lake. Forecasts of temperature, dew points, sky cover, precipitation, wind, and weather are made for the surrounding Adirondack and Green mountains. Real-time automated weather observations and a high resolution model are used to improve forecasts for the region. Observations at Colchester Reef, made available by the Vermont Monitoring Cooperative, provide ground truth data and a climatological basis for Lake Champlain Basin forecasts. Global and regional atmospheric models produced centrally by the NWS typically are not of sufficient horizontal or vertical resolution to identify and forecast local meteorological phenomenon such as wind channeling, that commonly occur in the basin. To improve the forecasts for the complex terrain and water areas that exist in the Lake Champlain Basin, the NWS in Burlington, VT runs a 4 km horizontal resolution version of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) and had made the output available on the World Wide Web. The WRF has proven invaluable to meteorologists in the Burlington office for forecasting winds and other local weather phenomenon in the basin. This paper will describe the strengths and limitations of the WRF modeling system, and its utilization in the forecast process at the National Weather Service. [17]

18 CYANOBACTERIA ABUNDANCE, CYANOBACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS, AND NUTRIENTS AND OTHER DRIVERS IN MISSISQUOI BAY Mary C. Watzin, Meghan K. Rogalus, Susan P. Fuller, Kathryn A. Crawford, and Cynthia May (University of Vermont) contact for first author: Cyanobacteria have dominated the phytoplankton in Missisquoi Bay in Lake Champlain for the last 10 years, but were rare prior to that time. Weekly sampling from documents noxious blooms of Microcystis, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon from July through September, and microcystin concentrations that range from less than 1 to almost 7000 μg/l in shoreline scums. The reasons for this dominance are not clear, since neither total nitrogen (TN) nor total phosphorus concentrations (TP) in the bay have changed significantly for more than a decade. Competing hypotheses that might explain cyanobacteria dominance include low TN:TP ratios, light limitation associated with high sediment loads to the bay, warming summer water temperatures, and changes in grazing pressures in the bay. Multivariate statistical analyses show that less than 35% of the variance in the abundance of Microcystis spp. and Anabaena spp. in the monitoring data can be explained by total nutrient or TN:TP ratios, and that only cyanobacterial abundance is associated with microcystin concentration. Other experimental data suggest that available nitrogen form and zooplankton grazing pressure can influence cyanobacteria community composition. These results suggest that while phosphorus reductions are necessary, only holistic approaches offer long term hope for managing toxic cyanobacteria blooms. [18]

19 DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CYANOBACTERIA TOXINS IN LAKE CHAMPLAIN: A 5-YEAR REVIEW Greg Boyer 1, Michael Satchwell 1, Rachael Damon 2, Amber Hotto 1, and Xingye Yang 1 ( 1 SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 2 LeMoyne College) contact for first author: Cyanobacterial toxins have been detected in Lake Champlain for the past 5 years. During the summer field season, water samples were collected lake-wide and analyzed for nutrients, algal abundance and the cyanobacterial peptide toxin microcystin. Microcystin concentrations were determined by the activity based protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA). PCR was used to detect cyanobacterial and Microcystis 16S rrna genes, and the microcystin biosynthetic genes mcyb, mcyd and mcya, which indicate potential microcystin production. Cyanobacterial abundance and microcystin concentrations peaked in late summer and showed a distinct north south gradient. Toxin levels were highest in Missisquoi Bay, the extreme northeast end of the lake, where concentrations routinely reached 5 μg/l in open water and greater than 30 μg/l in surface scums. PCR analysis indicated that both toxic and nontoxic cyanobacteria are common throughout the lake. Presence of the microcystin biosynthetic genes outside Missisquoi Bay indicates potential for toxic blooms to occur in other areas of the lake. In addition to the peptide toxins, distribution of other toxins such as the neurotoxin anatoxin-a will be presented. [19]

20 MISSISQUOI BAY: COMMUNITY DYNAMICS OF CYANOBACTERIA BLOOMS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MONITORING METHOD FOR LAKE CHAMPLAIN Carrianne E. Pershyn 1, Timothy Mihuc 1, Jeffry Jones 1, Eileen Allen 1, Greg Boyer 2, Mike Satchwell 2, Sean Thomas 1, and Meghan Greene 1 ( 1 SUNY Plattsburgh, 2 SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry) contact for first author: Phytoplankton communities form the base of the Lake Champlain aquatic food web and are important indicators of water quality. Cyanobacteria can release neurotoxins when blooms are in high concentrations, and have been a potential health issue for residents of the Lake Champlain Basin (Boyer et al. 2006). The purpose of this study was to develop and test a flow through methodology for spatially explicit mapping of Lake Champlain algal blooms and to describe the phytoplankton community dynamics in bloom areas. We used fluorometers linked to a spatial GPS signal to map chlorophyll a and phycocyanin pigments and blue-green algae, respectively, in Missisquoi Bay. Mapping consisted of continuous data collection using a Turner Designs Cyanowatch fluorometer. In addition to algal pigments, temperature and other selected parameters were mapped in 2006 and Results indicate that our pigment mapping method is feasible and could be applied at larger scales for first tier monitoring of algal blooms. We were able to detect bloom conditions in Lake Champlain and develop protocols to produce accurate bloom maps. Relationships with other parameters suggest a temperature threshold may exist for blue-green bloom formation in Lake Champlain. Biological samples were taken at selected bloom locations using horizontal surface tows with a 63 micron Wisconsin net. The samples were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxon and data were used to calculate density, species richness, species abundance, and Simpson s index of diversity. Results show dominant genera in bloom sites were Microcystis spp., Aphanizomenon spp., and Anabaena spp. Furthermore, our community data suggest that there is spatial variation of dominant cyanobacteria throughout the lake with highest densities in Missisquoi Bay. [20]

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