1 Language Assessment within the SLD Identification Framework Elisabeth Wiig PhD
2 What is the referral question?
3 KTEA 3, WISC V, CELF 5 A powerful trio for SLD Identification KTEA 3 Academic Listening Comprehension Oral Expressions Reading Comprehension Written Expression CELF 5 Language & Communication Receptive/Expressive Content/Structure Listening/Reading Pragmatics ORS WISC V Cognitive Verbal Comprehension Fluid Reasoning Visual Spatial Working Memory Processing Speed CELF 5 METALINGUISTICS Meta Pragmatics & Meta Semantics
4 Overview of Test Content
5 The Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Third Edition (KTEA 3 Comprehensive Form) An individually administered measure of academic achievement for grades pre kindergarten through 12 or ages 4 through 25 years.
6 IDEIA IDEIA Areas of Achievement Oral Expression Listening Comprehension Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Reading Fluency Skills Written Expression Mathematics Calculation Mathematics Problem Solving Corresponding KTEA-3 Subtests Oral Expression Listening Comprehension Letter & Word Recognition Nonsense Word Decoding Reading Composite Decoding Composite Reading Comprehension Reading Understanding Composite Word Recognition Fluency Decoding Fluency Silent Reading Fluency Reading Fluency Composite Written Expression Written Language Composite Math Computation Math Fluency Math Concepts & Applications
7 DSM-5 Impairment in reading Impairment in written expression DSM V specific areas Word reading accuracy Reading rate or fluency Reading comprehension Spelling accuracy Grammar and punctuation accuracy Clarity or organization of written expression Number sense Corresponding KTEA 3 subtests Letter & Word Recognition; Nonsense Word Decoding; Decoding Composite Word Recognition Fluency; Decoding Fluency; Silent Reading Fluency; Reading Fluency Composite Reading Comprehension; Reading Understanding Composite Spelling Written Expression: Structure, Word Form, and Punctuation error analysis categories Written Expression: Essay item Math Concepts & Applications: Number Concepts error analysis category Impairment in math Memorization of arithmetic facts Accurate or fluent calculation Accurate math reasoning Math Fluency; Math Computation: Fact or Computation error analysis category Math Computation & Math Fluency Math Concepts & Applications
8 Primary Index Scales Language Assessment Related Tests Verbal Comprehension: Similarities and Vocabulary Working Memory: Digit Span
9 Ancillary Index Scales (New Ancillary Indexes to WISC-V)
10 Complementary Scales and Subtests
11 What is represented by the Verbal Comprehension Index? Ability to access and apply acquired word knowledge. This involves verbal concept formation, reasoning and expression.
12 Test Overview Battery of tests to assess receptive and expressive language Age range: 5:0 through 21:11 Administration time: minutes for the Core Language Score Scores Norm referenced (most of the battery) Some criterion referenced tests
13 Test Structure Language Content Linguistic Concepts* Language Structure Sentence Comprehension Oral Written Language Connection Understanding Spoken Paragraphs Word Classes* Word Structure Reading Comprehension* Pragmatics Pragmatics Profile Pragmatic Activities Checklist Language Memory Linguistic Concepts* Following Directions* Following Directions* Formulated Formulated Sentences Recalling Sentences* Sentences* Semantic Relationships Recalling Sentences* Structured Writing* Formulated Sentences* Word Definitions* Sentence Assembly Observational Rating Scales: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing Understanding Spoken Paragraphs* *KTEA 3 overlap *WISC V overlap
14 Assessment Process Major Diagnostic Questions 1. Is there a language disorder? 1. Core Language Score 2. What is the nature of the disorder? Receptive - Expressive Language Content - Structure Language and Memory 3. What are the language strengths and weaknesses? 2. Language Index Scores RLI v. ELI scores LCI v. LSI scores LMI 3. Profiling Done with Test Score Levels, Variation 4. What about Language in Literacy and Communication Performance in Context (home, school, etc.)? 4. Reading & Writing Tests, Pragmatics Profile & Checklist, CELF-5 ORS
15 Assessment Questions If a language disorder is identified, what do I need to know to plan for intervention? Identify the nature of the disorder by answering specific questions, performing error response analyses, and administering selected tests. Are there significant differences in language comprehension and oral expression? Compare the CELF 5 Expressive and Receptive Language index scores.
16 Assessment Questions Does a language disorder affect classroom performance? Evaluate language and communication in context with the Observational Rating Scale (ORS) and other authentic and descriptive measures to provide information about classroom accommodations, adaptations, and enhancements. If a student does not respond to a variety of classroom interventions, is his or her performance due to language skill deficits? Administer other tests appropriate to the student s age to answer specific referral questions.
17 Assessment Process Are there significant differences in knowledge of content (semantics) and structure (morphology and syntax)? Compare the CELF 5 Language Content and Language Structure Index scores. Are there specific weaknesses in the area of morphology, syntax, or semantics? Consider the results across age level appropriate individual tests. Are weaknesses related to language memory? Compare the CELF 5 Receptive Language and Language and Memory Index Scores (ages 9 21). Follow up with cognitive testing of working memory using WISC V.
18 A Clinical Perspective Are weaknesses related to retrieval and processing speed? Follow up with Rapid Automatic Naming using WISC V. Follow up with Letter Naming Facility and Fluency measures using KTEA 3. How does the disorder affect reading and written language? Consider the results from the CELF 5 Reading Comprehension and Structured Writing tests. Follow up with academic testing of reading and writing using KTEA 3. Does the disorder affect social interactions? Consider results from the Pragmatics Profile, Pragmatics Activities and ORS tests. Based on CELF 5 results and additional assessment information collected (KTEA 3; WISC V), priorities can be set for what to emphasize in addressing the student s needs.
19 An RTI Perspective Are there significant differences in language content and language structure? Compare the Language Content and Language Structure Index scores. Of these, language content (semantics) is most readily dealt with in the classroom. Are weaknesses related to language and memory? Consult the Language & Memory Index score for ages Classroom adaptations would incorporate controlling length and complexity.
20 An RTI Perspective How does the disorder affect reading and written language? Consult the Understanding Written Paragraphs and Structured Writing scores and ORS Reading and Writing ratings. Follow-up with reading and written language tests using KTEA-3. Does the disorder affect social interactions? Consult the Pragmatics Profile scores and Pragmatics Activities ratings. Consult the ORS Listening and Speaking ratings. Based on CELF 5 results and additional assessment information collected, consider what are the best ways to address the student s needs (classroom adaptations, classroom interventions, focused language intervention, other).
21 DSM 5 Areas (315.39) DSM V specific areas of impairment Corresponding CELF 5 subtests Impairments in Vocabulary Knowledge and Use Impairments in Word and Sentence Structure Impairment in Discourse and Conversation Vocabulary and Word definitions Following Directions Listening comprehension Morphology Syntax Clarity or organization of oral expression Pragmatics (299.0)* Reading Writing Word Definitions (WD) Linguistic Concepts (LC) Word Classes (WC) Semantic Relationships (SR) Following Directions Understanding Spoken Paragraphs (USP) Word Structure (WS) Sentence Comprehension (SC) Recalling Sentences (RC) Sentence Assembly (SA) Formulated Sentences (FS) Pragmatics Profile (PP) Pragmatics Activities (PA) Understanding Written Paragraphs Structured Writing: Structure, Word Form, and Punctuation error analysis categories
22 CELF 5 Scores and IDEIA IDEIA Areas of Achievement Corresponding CELF-5 Subtests Oral Expression Expressive Language Index (ELI) ORS Speaking Listening Comprehension Receptive Language Index (RLI) Understanding Spoken Paragraphs (USP) ORS Listening Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension (RC) ORS Reading Written Expression Structured Writing (SW) ORS Writing
23 Case Study
24 Case Study Kim is a 9-year old girl with reading and writing problems and failing grades in Language Arts and Science.
25 A step wise approach to assessment Are deficits related to cognitive ability? WISC-V: Verbal Comprehension 102 Processing Speed 84
26 A step wise approach to assessment Are reading difficulties related to phonological skills? KTEA-3: Phonological Processing 94 Average performance, paired with Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) analysis available in the WISC- V and KTEA-3 report, was not consistent with a phonologically-based reading disorder.
27 A step wise approach to assessment Are retrieval skills contributing to Kim s difficulties? KTEA-3: Rapid Automatic Naming 81
28 A step wise approach to assessment Due to Kim s history of spelling and written composition, additional testing was conducted WIAT-III: Written Expression 78 Essay Composition showed a specific deficit in grammar and mechanics. The PSW analysis between the WISC-V and WIAT-III report, signified a pattern of scores consistent with a learning disability profile.
29 A step wise approach to assessment Due to the pattern of Kim s difficulties on the WIAT-III, are language deficits contributing to her difficulties in the classroom?
30 Case Study Summary Index Scores Core Language 84 Receptive Language 90 Expressive Language 75 Language Content 95 Language & Memory 80 Difficulties with language structure, especially formulation of compound and complex structures.
31 Case Study Summary Selected Test Scores Recalling Sentences 6 Following Directions 3 Formulated Sentences 4 Sentence Assembly 5 Pragmatics Profile 7 Observational Rating Scale (ORS) Listening difficulties: Almost never/sometimes Speaking difficulties: Often/almost always
32 A step wise approach to assessment Kim exhibits basic communication skills within normal limits on CELF-5. What else could be affecting performance in the classroom? Students with language disorders may have adequate linguistic knowledge and perform in the low-average range on CELF-5. They may not have crossed the bridge to metalinguistic awareness and abilities that are separate from linguistic skills.
33 Test Objective Evaluates metalinguistic awareness as demonstrated by being able to talk about, analyze, and think about language independently of the concrete meanings of words. In other words, the student must make a momentary shift from the content or meaning to the form or linguistic expression (Edwards & Kirkpatrick, 1999). An Illustration Think of the many meanings of the word BRIDGE. Now identify which interpretation gives evidence of metalinguistic ability.
34 Metalinguistic Ability Some metalinguistic skills, assessed by CELF-5 Metalinguistics, are known to have an impact on academic performance. They are: the ability to make and understand inferences using and understanding multiple meanings words using figurative language and understanding humor and sarcasm formulating spoken or written sentences that meet cultural expectations for conveying messages or expressing emotions or opinions
35 Test Overview CELF-5 Metalinguistics is used to assess metalinguistic skills with five stand-alone tests for ages 9:00-21:11 Metalinguistics Profile Making Inferences Conversation Skills Multiple Meanings Figurative Language Provides Total Metalinguistic, Meta-Pragmatics and Meta-Semantics Index scores. Designed for students who have adequate linguistic knowledge, but lack the metalinguistic skills needed for literacy in Grades 3 and up. Ideal for students with subtle language disorders or students on the autism spectrum.
36 Total Metalinguistic Index 72 Meta-Pragmatics Index 82 Meta-Semantics Index 73 Metalinguistic Profile 7 Making Inferences 9 Conversation Skills 5 Multiple Meanings 6 Figurative Language 4 CELF-5 Core Language Index 84 Receptive Language Index 90 Expressive Language Index 75 Language Content Index 95 Language & Memory Index 80 WIAT-III Written Expression 78
37 Learning Objectives (1) To develop knowledge and expressive use of compound and complex sentences for speaking, written language expression, and editing and revising. (2) To develop conversation and narrative writing skills, as they apply to the descriptive, expository, and emerging argumentative genres. (3) To develop awareness of multiple meanings and ambiguities in spoken and written sentences and text. (4) To develop knowledge of idiomatic and figurative language use in spoken and written expression and awareness of humor and sarcasm.
38 What are the thought processes for each of these students? The clinician as detective.
39 Clues, Teams, Evidence, Integration, Action!
40 Suggested Assessments
41 Intervention Resource References Wiig, E. H. (1989). Steps to language competence: Developing metalinguistic strategies. San Antonio, TX: Psych Corp; Now available in digital version; contact Knowledge Research Institute Inc., Arlington, Texas. Wiig, E. H., & Wilson, C. C. (2000). Map it Out! Visual tools for thinking, organizing, and communicating. Greenville, SC: SuperDuper/Thinking Publications. Now available in digital version; contact Knowledge Research Institute Inc., Arlington, Texas. Wiig, E. H., & Wilson, C. C. (2001). The learning ladder: Assessing and developing text comprehension. Greenville, SC: SuperDuper/Thinking Publications. Now available in digital version; contact Knowledge Research Institute Inc., Arlington, Texas. Wiig, E. H., Lord-Larson, V. & Olson, J. A. (2003) S-MAPs: Rubrics for curriculum-based assessment and intervention. SuperDuper/Thinking Publications. Now available in digital version; contact Knowledge Research Institute Inc., Arlington, Texas. Semel, E. & Wiig, EH, (1990) Clinical language intervention program: syntax worksheets. Pearson, Bloomington, MN. Semel, E. & Wiig, EH, (1990) Clinical language intervention program: morphology worksheets. Pearson, Bloomington, MN. Semel, E. & Wiig, EH, (1991) Clinical language intervention program: semantics worksheets. Pearson, Bloomington, MN. Semel, E. & Wiig, EH, (1992) Clinical language intervention program: pragmatics worksheets. Pearson, Bloomington, MN. Semel, E. & Wiig, EH, (1997) Clinical language intervention program, preschool. Pearson, Bloomington, MN.
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