1 The Ever Increasing Conundrum of the Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Category for School Based Teams: Demystifying the SLD Category, Assessment and Diagnosis Beverly M. Conte, Ed.D., CCC-SLP Administrator of Special Education, Speech and Language Specialist and Adjunct Professor Graduate Level Sally M. Heerde, M.Ed., CCC-SLP Communication Specialist, Certified Professional Coach, Former Public School Speech and Language Specialist
2 What is the Truth about SLD? Answer the following statements either True or False about the category of Specific Learning Disability: 1. In , the highest category nationally was Specific Learning Disability at 37.5% ( for 6.48 million students). 2. Massachusetts identification rate from was 17.80% just below Rhode Island at 18.68%, the highest in the US. 3. Over the last 10 years nationally, the numbers of students identified in the SLD category dropped from 6.1% (2.86 million students) to 4.9 % (2.43 million students). 4. Experts state the downward trend for SLD is more subjective and influenced by changes in policies and procedures, budgets and personnel. Scull, J. and Winkler, A.M., Shifting Trends in Special Education , Thomas B. Fordham Institute, Washington, DC
3 What is the Truth about SLD? Answer the following statements either True or False about the category of Specific Learning Disability: 5. In the 10 year period of gathering statistics, Massachusetts experienced the greatest percentage decrease in the SLD category from 9.8% in 2001 to 5.9% in RTI ( implemented at 61% in school districts in 2010) is seen as the best support to impact the SLD population, thus preventing mislabeling of struggling learners as well as misidentified learners who need more enhanced and redundant instruction and practice. 7. The highest categories of disabilities in Massachusetts as of 2010 was autism, developmental delay, speech and language impairments emotional disturbance and SLD. 8. In Massachusetts, RTI is the reason behind the decreased trends in the SLD category due to more rigorous procedures to reduce the over identified learners with SLD, thus proving its effectiveness. Scull, J. and Winkler, A.M., Shifting Trends in Special Education , Thomas B. Fordham Institute, Washington, DC
4 What is the Truth about SLD? Answer the following statements either True or False about the category of Specific Learning Disability: 9. The nature of Specific Learning Disabilities may coexist with sensory deficits, language impairment, behavior problems but not caused by these conditions. Learners with SLD frequently have a disability in reading (over 80%). 10. The SLD category can morph from the original category of developmental delay, speech and language impairment (communication). Scull, J. and Winkler, A.M., Shifting Trends in Special Education , Thomas B. Fordham Institute, Washington, DC
5 Intention for this Session Review of eligibility determination for SLD. Comprehensive Formal and /or Informal Assessment for SLD. ( cursory overview of reliable batteries) Assessment including History and Observations Determining consistency of patterns through review of the history and testing. Determining the finding of no special needs Case studies: No special needs Communication Category.to SLD Developmental delayed Category to SLD
6 Specific Learning Disability Definition based on the current law as a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. Specific Learning Disability category includes conditions such as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. This category excludes children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, motor impairments, emotional disturbances, cognitive impairment or environmental disadvantage. IDEA 2004, Section 602
7 Elements for SLD Determination Historical Review and Educational Assessment Area of Concern and Evaluation Method Exclusionary Factors Observation
8 Elements for SLD Determination As of 2008, the determination process is a more authentic assessment of the student in his/her learning environment. Specialists review and evaluate the instruction, the methods, the communication with parents, as well as other factors, and determine if the student s lack of achievement is due to a Specific Learning Disability or to other factors.
9 Elements for SLD Determination Historical Review Official Intention: to determine if poor or lack of instruction is not the reason for the student s low achievement in reading or math by answering the following two questions: 1. Has the student received high-quality instruction in ELA and Math from qualified teachers? 2. Have the parents been informed of the student s progress through grade reports, standardized testing, weekly quizzes, or other assessment measures?
10 Elements for SLD Determination Historical Review Work samples are important to gather; reading records, writing samples from a variety of assignments, a variety of assessments: quizzes and tests; not just the content,but also the formatting of the assessments. Documenting a variety of instructional approaches serves to respond to these questions, such as group activities, simulations, jigsaw approach, projects and presentation, and use of technology. Review of the student s files. Search for patterns of skills and learning trends through their education history. Historical grade and standardized testing reports as well as teachers comments provide an insight into a student s consistent growth and development or inconsistencies in their learning basic skills.
11 Elements for SLD Determination Educational Assessment This assessment, completed by a general education teacher or teachers, focuses on basic skills for classroom performance. The teachers have knowledge of the student in the general educational setting. Assessments of the student s attention skills participation behaviors communication skills memory social relations with groups, peers, and adults
12 Based on the teacher or teachers documentation, the evidence indicates one of the following about said student: consistently performed within the range of performance of same-age peers. Educational Assessment and Performance History consistently performed better than same-age peers. consistently performed less well than same-age peers. demonstrated inconsistent performance throughout his/her educational history.
13 Area of Concern and Evaluation Method Area of Concern The student is not adequately achieving due to his or her inability to process (understand and use) spoken or written language in one or more of the following areas: Oral Expression Written Expression Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Reading Fluency Skills Listening Comprehension Mathematics Problem Solving Mathematics Calculation
14 Area of Concern and Evaluation Method Area of Concern When the student is using skills and knowledge to the best of his/her ability, when trying to listen, think, speak, read, read fluently, write, spell, or do math calculations and is not demonstrating progress (achievement is not adequate), then the Team must determine if that lack of achievement is due to an obstruction in the student s ability to process (understand or use) spoken or written language. Areas of Concern are within ELA and Math, since they are the foundation of all areas of learning. A student must have these skills to succeed in all academic areas. When the referral is made, there should be a conversation with the person(s) who made the referral to determine the Area of Concern. It is going to be in this area where the evaluation will focus. In order to find a student eligible with a SLD, inadequate achievement is only necessary in one of these eight areas, although more areas may be affected.
15 Evaluation Method Response to Scientific, Research-Based Intervention IQ / Achievement Discrepancy If you can meet the requirements for a response to scientific, research-based intervention method, then you can use it or the IQ/Achievement discrepancy method. If you cannot meet the requirements for a response to scientific, research-based intervention method, then you must use the IQ/Achievement discrepancy method. One method is required, but you can use both if you wish.
16 RTI Different tiers of intensity or services. Most popular models use three tiers, but any number of tiers can be used. Continuous student progress monitoring occurs. Data is used to inform instructional decision making.
17 RTI In implementing a response to scientific, research-based intervention as an evaluation method, best practice would advise the student should already be participating in the RTI process before the referral for an evaluation begins. If gathered data through the response to scientific, researchbased intervention provides limited information to how the student learns, impacting the development of an IEP, then supplementary data may be required. Appropriate diagnostic tests could supplement how the student learns and what is impeding learning.
18 Evaluation Method Prior to any assessments, the specialist(s) should review: previous grade level records teacher reports district or out-of-district testing These documents could provide a snapshot of the potential shift in strengths and weaknesses over time and improvements that have been gained. In addition, analyzing a variety of the assessments to determine any commonalities of behavior patterns through the classroom/teacher and test reports. This review may hone the specific or comprehensive assessments to be administered.
19 Evaluation Method Discrepancy model examines potential ability and achievement in one or more of the following areas: Oral Expression Written Expression Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Reading Fluency Skills Listening Comprehension Mathematics Problem Solving Mathematics Calculation What information is revealed through the multiple assessment; patterns of strengths and weaknesses as well as consistencies or inconsistencies?
20 Standardized Assessment Tools for Accurate Determination of SLD Reading TORC-4- Test of Reading Comprehension Woodcock-Johnson Reading Mastery Tests GORT-5-Gray Oral Reading Tests GSRT- Gray Silent Reading Test TERA- Test Of Early Reading Ability Written Language TOWL- Test of Written Language TWS- Test of Spelling Early Reading Skills and Phonological Awareness Test of Word Reading Efficiency ( assesses efficiency of sight word recognition and phonemic decoding CTOPP- Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing TOPAS-Test of Phonological Awareness Skills Oral Language CELF-4- Clinical Evaluation of Language Functions PPVT-4- Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised EVT-2-Expressive Vocabulary Test-Revised CASL-Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language TOPS-2-Test of Problem Solving ( elementary and adolescent levels)
21 Evaluation Method Diagnostic test results are only as outstanding as the examiner s ability to administer and interpret those assessment findings and the raw data. Training and practice increases the testing outcomes. Observation skills during testing support the premise of identifying patterns of consistency and inconsistency along with the standardized test scores.
22 Informal Assessments Reading Time sampling Reading record Written Language Analysis of Written Assignments ( creative and expository) Early Reading Skills and Phonological Awareness Informal assessment of rhyming, phoneme and word production Oral Language Story telling and retelling Analysis of quality and quantity of language from a language sampling
23 Cultural factors Exclusionary Factors Cultural differences may impact the student s learning and educational history. Linguistic or cultural elements related to learning should be taken into account and not considered as a contributing factor to the student s disability. Environmental or economic disadvantage It is important that environmental or economic disadvantage not be considered when assessing the student s actual ability to learn. Limited English proficiency A student s lack of knowledge of the English language alone is not an indicator of a disability. Language proficiency, both receptive and expressive, in relation to all aspects of school communication must be assessed to determine the relationship of linguistic/cultural background to school achievement. The lack of comprehension of language impacting the student's lack of achievement is not considered a disability.
24 Visual, hearing, or motor disability Exclusionary Factors Reading problems can be the result of poor visual acuity. Examining a student s vision is critical to the evaluation; to eliminate visual impairment as the cause. Hearing loss can impact understanding what is being said or responding. Assessing the student s hearing is important to determine if a hearing loss is involved. a disability that impacts fine or gross motor skills could not be considered a SLD, and needs to be assessed as part of considering a writing difficulty. Cognitive Impairment Cognitive Impairment is defined as significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child s educational performance [ 300.8(c)(6)]. Cognitive Impairment is a separate disability category under IDEA. Emotional disturbance An emotional disturbance can impact learning in multiple ways similar to a specific learning disability. However, it is defined as a separate disability category under IDEA. If a student s learning difficulties are principally the outcome of an emotional disturbance, then the student cannot qualify a SLD.
25 Observations Observation is a critical component of the assessment process. The observation can contribute to understanding why the student is not doing well in the areas of concern. Additionally, an observation can be a powerful tool to rule out the exclusionary factors. The Observation should be in one of the following areas of concern: Oral Expression Written Expression Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Reading Fluency Skills Listening Comprehension Mathematics Problem Solving Mathematics Calculation Consider that more than one observations may be required in order to gain an accurate understanding of the student s abilities. When observing keep explicit notes focused on the behaviors being evaluated.
26 Types of Observations Behavioral Observations resulting in quantifiable results: Time sampling Event recording Interval recording Methods relating to a student s classroom behavior to instructional conditions. Informal and anecdotal recordings to focus on: referral questions instructional practice student performance instructional reliability Observations should be conducted in different classes and by different team members. A rotation of team members could be implemented.
27 Finding of No Special Needs This can be a challenge! Complete all the Elements for SLD Determination: Historical Review and Educational Assessment Area of Concern and Evaluation Method Exclusionary Factors Observation Determine patterns of consistency and inconsistency in the data collected: historical review and educational assessment, RTI, standardized and informal assessments, and observations. One or two formal test results that are below average do not indicate a true disability. Team members must be able to document a disability in an area of concern. Poor homework grades is not a disability!
28 Category Determination Shifting Overtime While a student s disability may be identified during preschool or kindergarten, the nature of this disability shifts and morphs overtime. Thus, requiring educators and specialists to determine the appropriate category for continued special education services. Language based-learning disabilities morph from early speech and language disorders to more subtle, but still significant, disabilities in reading comprehension of content, written language and below average academic performance. (Wallach, Charlton, &Christie, 2010) the link between early and later language disorders, remains a critical one ( Ehren, 1994). As children grow and develop, the language problems continue into adolescents and adulthood. Thus,determining the nature of the language difficulties and the impact on reading, written language and spoken language is also critical. (Ehren, 1994) Research study results have indicated that 40% to 75% of preschoolers with language disorders have reading problems including word recognition and comprehension ( Aram, Ekelman, & Nation, 1984; Scarborough & Dobrich, 1990.) Further studies (Lierbergott et all, 1989) with students with specific language impairments reported that 70% of the children with language impairments had problems with syllable and phoneme segmentation of words, judging grammatical correctness, labeling and story recall.
29 Category Determination Shifting Overtime We are proposing that determination of SLD should be considered with students who have an initial evaluation and determination of Communication or Developmental Delay. Updated evaluations in the areas of concern are critical. Students with language based learning disabilities experience challenges as the demand of the curriculum and skill level increases. The disability morphs from difficulty with phonological awareness to reading chapter books as well as writing a sentence to organize and drafting an essay.
30 Case Study A: Finding No Special Needs Student A WISC IV Description %Rank Qualitative VCI 75 High Average PRI 70 Average WMI 55 Average PSI 58 Average FSIQ 73 Average FSIQ 112
31 Finding of No Special Needs Student A WIAT-III SS Classification LC 103 Average RC 91 Average Math PS 99 Average Sent. Comp. 110 Average Word Read 86 Average Essay Comp. 116 Above Average Pseudoword 94 Average Num. Operation 98 Average Oral Expression 104 Average Oral Read Fluency 88 Average Spelling 87 Average Math FL (Add) 96 Average Math Fl (Sub) 87 Average Math Fl (Mult) 94 Average
32 Finding of No Special Needs Student A GORT-5 % Classification Rate 37 Average Accuracy 37 Average Fluency 37 Average Comprehension 63 Average Total Test: % 50 Oral Reading Quotient: 100 GSRT- % 65 th Silent Reading Quotient: 106
33 Finding of No Special Needs Student A TOWL-4 % Vocabulary 25 Average Spelling 50 Average Punctuation 25 Average Logical Sent. 63 Average Sent. Comb. 63 Average Context Conv. 50 Average Story Comp 37 Average
34 Finding of No Special Needs No consistent pattern(s) in the area(s) of concern. Student s grades are average. Cs are average. Student s standardized testing and MCAS are proficient. Student is demonstrating consistent progress in academics. The evaluations /testing evidenced within the average range in areas of original concern. The challenge for parents is they desperately want their child to have better grades( As and Bs). Parents want their child to complete the homework more consistently.
35 Case Study B: Communication Category morphing to SLD Child B-referred for Speech/Language Evaluation due to multiple articulation errors at age 5 year, 10 mos. (K) Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 Concepts & Following Directions- Below Average Word Structure Subtest-Below Average Sentence Recall-Below Average EVT-2-Average PPVT-4-Average
36 Case Study B: Communication Category morphing to SLD Child B-Articulation testing formally assessed using Goldman-Fristoe 2 Test of Articulation. Twenty-three sounds in initial, medial, and final word positions and 16 consonant blends were tested. Results revealed the child scored in the 5 th percentile, indicating below average performance.
37 Case Study B: Communication Category morphing to SLD Child B-one year after initial evaluation- Difficulty in pronoun usage Irregular plurals Sentence structure Difficulty blending and segmenting words Child s reading skills are below grade level Written language skills are below grade level
38 Case Study C: Developmental Delay Category morphing to SLD Child C- Initially identified as Developmental Delay WISC-IV % Classification VC 37 Average PR 66 Average WM 42 Average PS 16 Below Average FSI 95 Average
39 Case Study C: Developmental Delay WIAT-III LC OE RC WR Pseudwords Sent Comp Essay Comp Spelling Math PS Num Operations Math Fluency (Add) Math Fluency (sub) Math Fluency (mul) Category morphing to SLD Average Average Average Below Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Below Average Below Average Below Average
40 Case Study C: Developmental Delay Category morphing to SLD GORT % Classification Rate 5 Poor Accuracy 16 Below Average Fluency 9 Below Average Comprehension 16 Below Average ORQ 10 Below Average GSRT 16 Below Average
41 Case Study C: Developmental Delay Category morphing to SLD TOWL % Classification Vocabulary 37 Average Spelling 5 Poor Punctuation 16 Below Average Logical Sentences 37 Average Sentence Comb. 63 Average Contextual Con 16 Below Average Story Comp 16 Below Average Contrived Writing 27 Average Spontaneous 14 Below Average Overall Writing 21 Below Average
42 Case Study D: Preschooler Child D-was very slow to begin talking. When she was three, she said very few words-mostly one word utterances. Her mother worried that her older siblings did most of the talking for her and that is why she did not need to talk. Everyone, including her doctor told the mother not to worry that the child would outgrow the delay. When she was four, she was speaking in short sentences, but was difficult to understand and made many phonological errors. She left off ending of words like plurals and past tense markers off words. She had made some progress by the time she got to kindergarten, but the teacher noted that she was having trouble identifying letter sounds and words that started with a particular letter. By Grade 1, she was having trouble with reading. By the end of Grade 2, she was quite behind her peers in reading and was not receiving any service. She was referred for a special education evaluation at this time.
43 Action Plan Consider one practical action step you can take to impact the process for SLD Determination with your current teams and in your schools. What step could you take on Tuesday morning?
44 Bibliography Bashir, A. S. and Scavuzzo, A. (1992) Children with Language Disorders: Natural History and Academic Success Journal of learning Disabilities 25 (1), Boser, U. (2009) Examination of Special Education, Prepared for the Center of Public Education, published in Washington Post, Washington, DC. Brown, S. A., (2012) Wisconsin s Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) Rule: A Technical Guide for Determining the Eligibility of Students with Specific Learning Disabilities, Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Madison, WI, National Association of School Psychologists. ( 2007). Identification of students with specific learning disabilities ( Position Statement). Bethesda, MD. Greene, J. P. and Winters, M.A., (2007) Debunking a Special Education Myth; Don t blame private options for rising costs, Education Next, Hehir, T., Grindal, T., and Eidelman, H. ( 2012) Review of Special Education in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Report commissioned by the Massachusetts Department Of Elementary and Secondary Education. Scull, J. and Winkler, A. M., (2011) Shifting Trends in Special Education The Thomas Fordham Institute, Washington, DC. Wallach, G.P., Charlton, S., Christie, J. (2010) What Do You Mean By That? Constructive Beginnings When Working With Adolescents with Language learning Disabilities, Perspective on Language Learning and Education, 17(3),
45 Bibliography Specific Learning Disabilities: Eligibility Determination under IDEA 2004, (2008); Special Education Planning and Policy Development (SEPP), Massachusetts Department of Special Education.
46 Thank You Question? Addresses: Beverly Conte: Sally Heerde:
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY 24:05:24.01:18. Specific learning disability defined. Specific learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding
Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses in L.D. Identification October 3, 2013 Jody Conrad, M.S., N.C.S.P School Psychologist, SOESD Definitions of SLD Federal and State A disorder in one or more basic psychological
I. DEFINITION "Specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself
Frequently Asked Questions about Making Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Eligibility Decisions This document is part of the department s guidance on implementing Wisconsin SLD criteria. It provides answers
3030. Eligibility Criteria. 5 CA ADC 3030BARCLAYS OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness Title 5. Education Division 1. California Department
National(Association(of(Pediatric(Nurse(Practitioners,(April(2013 EDUCATION RELATED EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION: EVALUATION, EDUCATION AND THE LAW Once a pediatric healthcare provider recommends that a child
7. CATEGORIES and DEFINITIONS of EXCEPTIONALITIES Purpose of the standard To provide the ministry with details of the categories and definitions of exceptionalities available to the public, including parents
Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Standards and Procedures for Identification of Students with Suspected Specific Learning Disabilities March, 2010 Table of Contents Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses
Comprehensive Special Education Plan Programs and Services for Students with Disabilities The Pupil Personnel Services of the Corning-Painted Post Area School District is dedicated to work collaboratively
Document No. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION CHAPTER 43 Statutory Authority: Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq. (2004) 43 243.1. Criteria for Entry into Programs
Comprehensive Reading Assessment Grades K-1 User Information Name: Doe, John Date of Birth: Jan 01, 1995 Current Grade in School: 3rd Grade in School at Evaluation: 1st Evaluation Date: May 17, 2006 Background
Spring School Psychologist RTI² Training Q &A Clarification on the use of the Gap Analysis Worksheet: As part of the RTI² decision making process, teams meet to review a student s rate of improvement to
Writing Instructionally Appropriate IEPs Special Populations Tennessee Department of Education Sullivan County Teacher Training July 2014 Norms Please sit with your identified group there is a purpose.
DRAFT RtI Response to Intervention A Problem-Solving Approach to Student Success Guide Document TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 1 Four Essential Components of RtI... 2 Component 1... 3 Component 2...
The Scoop on Understanding Psych Testing: What do all those numbers really mean??? Caley Schwartz, Ph.D. Caley Schwartz Psychological Services, LLC (203)464-9053! Clinical Instructor Yale Child Study Center
READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV. Components of Reading: The Reading Specialist applies knowledge of the interrelated components of reading across all developmental
23 Chapter 4: Eligibility Categories In this chapter you will: learn the different special education categories 24 IDEA lists different disability categories under which children may be eligible for services.
ELIGIBILITY GUIDELINES SPEECH PATHOLOGY These guidelines are consistent with the Texas Speech- Language-Hearing Association s (TSHA) eligibility templates. It is recommended that you contact the TSHA Vice
AZ-TAS EVALUATION AND ELIGIBILITY Processes and Procedures From Referral to Determination of Eligibility Exceptional Student Services January 2012 Table of Contents Introduction.. 3 Child Find...3 Response
ARLINGTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND SERVICES Introduction The Arlington Public Schools provides a comprehensive array of programs and services from pre-school through grades 12 designed
Understanding the Standards-based Individualized Education Program (IEP) Many states and local school districts are embracing a new approach to developing Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students
Office of Disability Support Service 0106 Shoemaker 301.314.7682 Fax: 301.405.0813 www.counseling.umd.edu/dss A Guide to Services for Students with a Learning Disability (Revised 4.28.14) Do I Have A Learning
Dennis M. Walcott, Chancellor Michael R. Bloomberg Mayor Dennis M. Walcott Chancellor A SHARED PATH TO SUCCESS A PARENT S GUIDE TO SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES FOR SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN welcome Dear Families,
Position Statement IDENTIFICATION OF STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES NASP endorses the provision of effective services to help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally,
62 Hearing Impaired MI-SG-FLD062-02 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: General Information About the MTTC Program and Test Preparation OVERVIEW OF THE TESTING PROGRAM... 1-1 Contact Information Test Development
Making sure that all of Pennsylvania s children have access to quality public schools GETTING A SPECIAL EDUCATION EVALUATION FOR YOUR CHILD IMPORTANT: ELC's publications are intended to give you a general
SPECIAL EDUCATION HANDBOOK RHODE ISLAND DISABILITY LAW CENTER 275 Westminster Street, Suite 401 Providence, RI 02903-3434 (401) 831-3150 telephone (800) 733-5332 Clients (toll free) (401) 274-5568 facsimile
The Thirteen Special Education Classifications Part 200 Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, Section 4401(1) Student With a Disability: A student as defined in section 4401(1), who has not attained
ETS Policy Statement for Documentation of Intellectual Disabilities in Adolescents and Adults First Edition 2013 Office of Disability Policy Educational Testing Service Princeton, NJ 08541 2013 ETS All
Wappingers Central School District Response to Intervention Plan (RTI) February 2012 Tier III Tier II Tier I 1 Introduction to WCSD s 3 Tier RTI Model The 3 Tier Response to Intervention (RTI) Model provides
Special Education Advocacy for Children in Oregon Brian V. Baker, Juvenile Rights Project, Inc. & Joel Greenberg, Oregon Advocacy Center, Inc. Goals Understand eligibility for special education and Section
Curriculum and Instruction Core curriculum is the foundation of Tier 1 instruction and is the basis for building K-12 literacy in Arizona students. The curriculum at each level must be based upon the 2010
M.A. in Special Education / 2013-2014 Candidates for Initial License Master of Arts in Special Education: Initial License for Teachers of Students with Moderate Disabilities (PreK-8 or 5-12) Candidates
The University of Memphis Guidelines for Documentation of a Learning Disability in Adolescents and Adults Introduction The prevailing legal climate surrounding higher education and disability issues, combined
Dennis M. Walcott, Chancellor Bill de Blasio Carmen Fariña Mayor Chancellor Dennis M. Walcott, Chancellor welcome Dear Families, We ve come a long way since our special education reform initiative, A Shared
Speech-Language SLP s Role in Tiers of RtI Originally developed by Georgia Organization of School Based SLPs http://www.omnie.org/guidelines/files/role-of-the-slp-in-response-to-intervention.pdf http://www.asha.org/slp/schools/prof-consult/newrolesslp.htm
COMMACK UNION FREE SCHOOL DISTRICT Commack, NY 11725 Pupil Personnel Services A Parent s Guide to Special Education in Commack School District This informational document is meant to clarify some commonly
PRESCHOOL PLACEMENT CATEGORIES CASEMIS 20 EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION SETTING Early Childhood Special Education Setting: This is a placement setting where children receive all of their special education
Braintree Public Schools A Parent s Guide to Special Education Programs The purpose of this guide is to provide a general overview of programs and specialized services that are available at the pre-school,
Middleborough Public Schools Pupil Personnel Services Special Education Program Descriptions 2011-2012 pg. 1 Special Education Mission Statement The Special Education Department is committed to providing
The Future of Reading Education Lexia Reading stands as one of the most rigorously researched, independently evaluated, and respected reading programs in the world. A Summary of Published Research Lexia
Guidance for the Determination of Specific Learning Disabilities Washtenaw County Specific Learning Disabilities Work Group Washtenaw Intermediate School District 1819 S. Wagner Road Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Considerations for Special Education Assessment Systems As school district leaders take steps to address concerns about the volume of student testing through an inventory process, they should anticipate
Howard Community College Fall Courses for Educators Fall courses begin August 22, 2015 and end December 14, 2015. For additional information, contact Fran Kroll at 443-518-4854. Fall Semester Tuition &
EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL SUPPORT FOR DIRECT DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES BY ASSESSMENT OF INTRINSIC PROCESSING WEAKNESSES Author Joseph K. Torgesen, Department of Psychology, Florida State University
SERT/Principal Special Education Quick Guide 2008/2009 TO EMPOWER ALL STUDENTS TO DREAM OF THE POSSIBILITIES, TO BELIEVE IN THEMSELVES AND TO ACHIEVE. Quick Guide Contents CONTENTS PAGE Special Education
Special Education Services Program/Service Descriptions SES Program/Service Characteristics Specially Designed Instruction Level Class Size Autism (AU) A developmental disability significantly affecting
FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS PROCEDURES REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION REGULATIONS IN VIRGINIA S PUBLIC SCHOOLS Table of Contents Child Find... 2 Screening... 3 General Screening Procedures...
I. DEFINITION Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment (comprehension and/or expression), or a voice impairment, that
Scientifically Based Reading Programs Marcia L. Kosanovich, Ph.D. Florida Center for Reading Research SLP Academy Fall, 2005 Goals for Today 1. Understand the big picture of an effective reading program.
SPECIAL EDUCATION IN NORTH DAKOTA North Dakota Department of Public Instruction Kirsten Baesler, State Superintendent Office of Special Education 600 E. Boulevard Ave., Dept. 201 Bismarck ND 58505-0440
Appendix F. New Hampshire Certification Requirements for Educational Interpreters/Transliterators and for Special Education Teachers in the Area of Deaf and Hearing Disabilities Educational Interpreter/Transliterator
LEARNING DISABILITIES ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO Recommended Practices For Assessment, Diagnosis and Documentation of Learning Disabilities Diagnosis of Learning Disabilities Accurate diagnosis of learning
Revised Professional Practice Guidelines in the Evaluation of Students Suspected of Having a Specific Learning Disability Approved for Open Comment by the WSASP Executive Board Date: Summary: The purpose
SALT LAKE CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT SPECIAL EDUCATION PROCEDURES This Procedures Manual ensures the implementation of special education services in Salt Lake City School District. It is to be used in coordination
Dyslexia/Reading Disorder What is a reading disorder? - A reading disorder is when one has difficultly in reading or understanding material within a reading. - Most people with reading disorders have problems
Instructionally Appropriate IEPs A Skills Based Approach to IEP Development Division of Special Populations Agenda Division of Special Populations Policy Changes Tier I Instruction Common Core State Standards
How Our Early Childhood Products help strengthen Program Quality & School Readiness With these high-quality, research-based books and assessment tools from Brookes Publishing, you ll strengthen the quality
Scientifically Based Reading Programs: What are they and how do I know? Elissa J. Arndt, M.S. CCC-SLP Florida Center for Reading Research Alternate Assessment Summer Training Institute July, 2007 1 Goals
Questions and Answers about State Policies Regarding Children with Disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 2004 State Board Policy 7219 (referred to hereafter as
C O N C O R D I A C O L L E G E M O O R H E A D M I N N E S O TA COUNSELING CENTER, 901 8 TH STREET SOUTH, MOORHEAD, MN 56562 Guidelines for the Documentation of a Learning Disability in Adolescents and
DUBAI COLLEGE A tradition of quality in education Special Education Needs & Disability (SEND) Policy Statement of Intent Dubai College is strongly committed to inclusive education across all year groups;
To learn to read is to light a fire; every syllable that is spelled out is a spark." Victor Hugo, Les Miserables Development and Management of an Effective Reading Intervention Program Research into Practice
TExMaT I Texas Examinations for Master Teachers Preparation Manual 085 Master Reading Teacher Copyright 2006 by the Texas Education Agency (TEA). All rights reserved. The Texas Education Agency logo and
I. Definition and Overview Central Consolidated School District No. 22 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND BEST PRACTICES MANUAL Speech-Language Pathology in the Schools Speech and/or language impairments are those
Guidelines for Documentation of a Learning Disability (LD) in Gallaudet University Students Gallaudet University Office for Students with Disabilities Washington, D.C. 20002 2 Guidelines for Documentation
Guidelines for Documentation of a Learning Disability A. Learning Disability B. Attention Deficit Disorder C. Psychiatric Disabilities D. Chronic Health Disabilities A. Learning Disability Students who
1 Florida Center for Reading Research RAVE-O What is RAVE-O? RAVE-O (Retrieval, Automaticity, Vocabulary, Engagement-Orthography) is a comprehensive, fluency reading and comprehension intervention program
TECHNICAL REPORT #4 General Ability Index January 2005 Susan E. Raiford, Ph.D. Lawrence G. Weiss, Ph.D. Eric Rolfhus, Ph.D. Diane Coalson, Ph.D. OVERVIEW This technical report is the fourth in a series
New Roles in Response to Intervention: Creating Success for Schools and Children November 2006 A Collaborative Project With: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Council of Administrators
Course Credit In-service points St. Petersburg College RED 4335/Reading in the Content Area Florida Reading Endorsement Competencies 1 & 2 Reading Alignment Matrix Text Rule 6A 4.0292 Specialization Requirements
SWEET SPRINGS R-VII SCHOOL DISTRICT DISTRICT ASSESSMENT PLAN BOE Approved: April 2015 SWEET SPRINGS R-VII ASSESSMENT PROGRAM COORDINATOR: Daniel Conner REASONS FOR AN ASSESSMENT PROGRAM Assessment involves
For questions about the implementation of these materials/kits, please contact Shirley Cutshall, Director of Special Programs & Services at 360-299-4098 or firstname.lastname@example.org. To reserve materials, please
BUILDING YOUR CHILD S LISTENING, TALKING, READING AND WRITING SKILLS KINDERGARTEN TO SECOND GRADE PURPOSE This resource was developed to provide information about children s typical development of skills
Accommodations Otis College of Art and Design is committed to providing equality of education opportunity to all students. To assist in increasing the student s learning outcome, Students with Disabilities
MAIN CHALLENGES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN AGED 6-12 For the last 15 years it has become a European standard to introduce foreign languages, especially English, in primary schools and kindergartens.
Developing Standards-Based IEP Goals and Objectives A DISCUSSION GUIDE SPECIAL EDUCATION POLICY DIVISION APRIL 2013 Preface In 2007, the U.S. Department of Education issued regulations to the Elementary
Appendix B Guidelines and Practices: These are the minimum requirements for a standard evaluation for High Plains. These guidelines need to be followed to ensure a uniform and appropriate evaluation across
s for Special Education Michigan Department of Education Office of Special Education October 2013 State Board of Education John C. Austin, President Casandra E. Ulbrich, Vice President Daniel Varner, Secretary
TAS Instructional Program Design/ Scientifically-based Instructional Strategies 2012-2013 Use effective methods and instructional strategies that are based on scientifically based research that strengthens
3000 SPECIAL EDUCATION POLICY 3000.1 All local education agencies (LEA) in the District of Columbia shall ensure, pursuant to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), that all children with
Smart Isn t Everything: The Importance of Neuropsychological Evaluation for Students and Individuals on the Autism Spectrum Ilene Solomon, Ph.D., Spectrum Services The decision to have a child or adolescent
Parent Handbook on Special Education a publication of the Education Directorate/Student Services Branch 4040 North Fairfax Drive Arlington, VA 22203-1635 Parent Handbook on Special Education Table of Contents
Special Education Process: From Child-Find, Referral, Evaluation, and Eligibility To IEP Development, Annual Review and Reevaluation Companion Document to NJOSEP Code Trainings October/November 2006 Updated
Notice of Meeting Letter (s): Student's Name: Student No: Dear Parent(s)/Student, We have completed the assessments necessary to decide if your child is eligible for special education or Section 504 services.
Dyslexia Certificate Program Level 1 Winter/Spring 2016 BACKGROUND & PHILOSOPHY It is estimated that 10 15 percent of the general population has a reading based learning disability. Of those individuals,