Performing audits of waste management

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1 Performing audits of waste management WGEA Assembly, Doha,

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3 Overview of the session Learning objective Waste website/wastepaper Waste as an environmental problem International audit experience International agreements - audit criteria Selecting possible audit areas (4 steps) Exercise small group discussions Plenary discussion Summary

4 Learning objective Increase knowledge about auditing waste management The sector and its environmental impacts Systematic approach to performing audits Inspire more audits in this field

5 Waste website spx?tabid=130 How to audit waste issues Environmental audit reports on waste International agreements on waste International organizations and websites on waste Examples of national government on waste management

6 The guidance: Towards Auditing Waste Management Background orientation on waste International agreements on waste National waste management systems How to determine focus for your waste audits Audits of waste management Appendices

7 What is waste? A product or a substance that is no longer suited for its intended use Three main types Solid waste (nonhazardous) Hazardous waste Radioactive waste

8 Life-cycle of a product

9 Problems caused by waste Inefficient use of resources Unsatisfactory handling Contamination of soil Pollution of surface water and groundwater Uncontrolled burning Leaks of radioactive substances Esthetical problems from littering

10 Problems caused by waste (cont.) Area use for landfills and odour Greenhouse gas (methane) emissions from landfills Negative impacts on public health Transmission of diseases Birth defects caused by exposure to polluted drinking water Cancer caused by radioactive exposure Respiratory problems caused by uncontrolled burning

11 International audit experience A large number of audits with focus on The waste stream Pollution from waste treatment Multi-problem management in a certain area Wide geographical coverage

12 International audit experience Examples Waste prevention in the Netherlands Radioactive waste management in Brazil Management of medical waste in China Old hazardous waste sites in Norway Auditing of mining operations in Bhutan Audit on waste tax assessment and collection in Belgium Environmental Management Audit of Customs Administration with Respect to Implementation of Basel Convention (Argentina) Reducing the Reliance on Landfill in England

13 International agreements Audit criteria Solid waste London Convention: Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter MARPOL convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships OECD decision on the transboundary movement of waste destined for recovery operations

14 International agreements Audit criteria Hazardous waste The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal Minimize generation Dispose them close to the source Reduce the movement of hazardous waste

15 International agreements Audit criteria Radioactive waste The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Convention on Nuclear Safety

16 International agreements Audit criteria Problems caused by waste UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol for greenhouse gases The Arhus Convention on Access to Information, Public participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters Persistent Organic Pollutants and heavy metals: Stockholm and Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention

17 Selecting possible audit topics Step 1 Identify environmental and health risk scenarios Step 2 Map out the actors and their responsibility Step 3 Take account of the waste stream Step 4 Consider audit topics and choose focus

18 Step 1 Identify Environmental and Health Risk Scenarios Assess the risk of possible damage from waste Determine the probability of damage from waste

19 Step 2 Map out the Actors and their Responsibilities Legislative body Ministries and national authorities Subordinated agencies Regional, provincial and local level government Waste generators producers Transporters Other waste operators

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22 Step 4 Consider audit topics Topic 1 Existence of waste policy Topic 2 Development of policy instruments in the waste policy Topic 3 Risk management of waste Topic 4 Quality of the implementation process Topic 5 Quality of the performance of the waste management system Topic 6 Compliance with national law and regulations in the waste policy Topic 7 Compliance with international obligations Topic 8 Monitoring the waste policy Topic 9 Management of waste by governmental bodies

23 Topic 1 Existence of waste policy Is there a waste policy for the various stages of the waste stream? Does the policy address waste prevention, waste generation, waste collection, waste transportation etc? Does the policy consider different types of waste? Are there any gaps or inconsistencies in the waste policy? Have quantitative targets been set? Is the waste policy at different stages consistent with specific environmental targets (e.g. heavy metals, dioxins, PAH and climate)?

24 Topic 2 Development of policy instruments in the waste policy Have the waste policy been reflected, specified, and put into concrete terms in instruments such as legislation, plans, guidance, budgets or other financial tools? Are there any gaps or inconsistencies in the policy instruments that are developed? Are there any gaps or inconsistencies between the instruments and the goals in the national waste policy?

25 Topic 3 Risk management of waste Are the risks to environment and health being effectively identified? Are there procedures in place to report on such risks? Are identified risks to environment and health being effectively and sufficiently managed? Are there procedures in place to prevent negative incidents? Are the emergency response measures effective? Are there procedures to reduce long-term risks?

26 Topic 4 Quality of the implementation process Have policies and policy instruments in the waste policy been implemented effectively? Have there been delays in their implementation? Have resource needs for the implementation process been identified and made available? Were the resources well spent (cost/benefit)? Did the government require an environmental impact assessment (EIA) before implementing a new waste initiative?

27 Topic 5 Quality of the performance of the waste management system Is the structure of the waste management system appropriate for solving the challenges that waste entails? Is there a clear distribution of responsibility in the management system? Do the responsible agencies have the necessary instruments (legislation, plans, budgets, fees, fines) for fulfilling their obligations? Does the system achieve the optimum output from the resource input? (efficiency) Does the waste management system achieve its goals? (effectiveness)

28 Topic 6 Compliance with national law and regulations in the waste policy Are the actions of various private and public actors in compliance with the relevant rules and regulations in the national waste policy? Are all waste activities and liabilities accurately accounted for? Are there any illegal practices in connection with the waste handling? Is there sufficient information to assess the compliance with the policy? Is appropriate and effective enforcement in place?

29 Topic 7 Compliance with international obligations Are the waste policies (goals/instruments) in compliance with international obligations and commitments to which the country has agreed (e.g., Basel Convention etc)? Is the management of waste by governmental and nongovernmental actors in compliance with international obligations? This is an area where different SAIs could cooperate

30 Topic 8 Monitoring the waste handling Are there adequate systems for monitoring waste handling? Is relevant information being gathered? Is that information of good quality? Are there control and inspection procedures to ensure compliance with requirements? Do these procedures work well? Have necessary sanctions been established? Are the sanctions been adequately used?

31 Topic 9 Management of waste by governmental bodies Is the waste from government environmental or nonenvironmental activities or programmes properly managed? Do the public ministries, departments and agencies manage the waste created by activities under their authority?

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