Mobile Application Design and Development With the use of J2ME Technology & UML m.khlaif Computer Science Dept

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1 Benghazi University Press Journal of Science and Its Applications Vol. 3, No. 1, pp 83-93, April Mobile Application Design and Development With the use m.khlaif Computer Science Dept Benghazi University ABSTRACT Systematic Study is carried out for programming mobile system include mobile telephone, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistance) and other small devices under the Analysis and Design tools of UML,(unified modeling Language) and J2ME Technology. A development tool will be used under the environment of CLDC (connected limited Device Configuration) and CDC (Connected Device Configuration) using WKTool (wireless K tool) for J2ME. J2ME (the smallest of the three Java version J2EE, J2SE and J2ME ) has been developed to provide a way to easily develop applications for mobile devices. With the use of UML(Unified Modeling Language) to Design an application with the help of special notation which are extended to model the mobile applications.the main tools of the structured analysis methods with object oriented diagrams that are provided by UML [UML01]. Mobile applications uses XP as well as All other OS deal with WKTool environments of software development kit (Software Development Kit SDK). Key Words : J2me, UML, WKTOOL, J2se, mobile INTRODUCTION Cell phones(mobile Telephones) have become part of our life style, and new mobile devices like the palm pilot, the pocket PC, and auto PC can be added to the list. Some of the exicting features of these new mobile devices are the ability to connect to the internet and to execute web application [1]. With mobile applications can now be developed to deliver any type of data to any user, any place in world; with use of different programming languages. programming with J2ME need to understand more about the following : 1- Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP). 2- WK Tool. 3- windows XP or other OS. 4- CLDC and CDC. 5- emulation devices(include Bluetooth). With the support of wireless Devices such as WAP(Wireless Access Protocol) and WML( wireless Modeling Language), some support limited version of HTML( Hyper Text Markup

2 m.khlaif 84 Language)which can beused in developing internet mobile applications [2] Mobile support :- To support all types of mobile devices, developers must create one different application for each language [2]. The advanced mobile technology enables people to exchange messages, pictures and E- mails between them. As an ideal combination of two of the fastest growing technologies mobile technology and computer network technology including the internet which are enable to build their own J2ME applications on a mobile,by using mobile programming toolkit [2]. what is J2ME language :- J2ME stands for Java 2,Micro Edition. It is version of Java at devices which have limited processing power and storage capabilities, these include mobile phones, wireless devices [j2me PORTAL]. - J2ME can run on devices with as little as 16 KB. - J2ME is divided into configuration, profiles and optional APIs(Application Programming Interface) demonstrated as following :- configuration :- A configuration defines the minimum Java technology that an application developer can expect on a broad range of implementing devices and also it is designed for a specific type of device based on memory capacity and proce- ssor power. Usually a minimum amount of ROM and RAM is specified. [ j2me.com] it specifies a Java virtual Machine (JVM) which can be used on these devices. most of configuration which are suitable for mobile phones is Connected Limited Devices Configuration(CLDC), it uses a limited JVM called KVM(Kilo Virtual Machine) is provided as part of J2ME and running on devices with limited memory size and Network connected devices. profile :- This is the application environment for wireless devices based on the CLDC A profile is layered on top of a configuration and adds the APIs required to develop applications for a family of devices [3]. Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) is the profile suitable for mobile phone; MIDP includes the idea of a MIDlet, a small Java application similar to an applet but one that is intended for mobile devices. optional APIs :- these define specific additional functionality which may be included in a particular configuration, as Example include the Java API for Bluetooth as an emulation technologies which will discuss later [3]. another j2me configuration the Connected Devices Configuration (CDC),targets advanced consumer electronic and embedded devices such as smart communicators, smart personal

3 Mobile Application Design and Development With the use 85 digital assistants(pdas), these devices run a 32-bit microprocessor/controller and have then 2MB of total memory for the storage of Virtual Machine (VM) [3].The CDC contains the C virtual machine (CVM). the CLDC contains the K virtual machine (KVM). Comparative between CLDC and CDC :- - J2ME Connected, Limited Device Configuration(CLDC) specifies the Java environment for mobile devices. CLDC devices are usually wireless KB of memory available for Java. typically has limited power. CLDC with KVM architectures. network connectivity, often wireless, low bandwidth (9600 BPS or less ). J2ME Connected Device Configuration(CDC) describes the Java environment for personal digital assistants(pdas). 2MB or more of total memory available for Java. powered by a 32-bit processor network connectivity,often wireless, low bandwidth (9600 BPS or less ). CDC with CVM architectures [3]. these two configuration differ only in their respective memory and display capabilities. Virtual Machines (VM) :- The CLDC and the CDC each require their own virtual machine because of their different memory and display capabilities. - the CLDC virtual machine is far smaller than required by the CDC and supports less features. - The virtual machine for CDC is called the CVM [4]. J2ME Tools : First make sure that, the Java 2(Software Development Kits SDK ) is standard Edition (J2ME SDK), this is essential for Application development by J2ME SDK which are installed before install the Java wireless toolkit (WTK) to run MIDlets [4]. To develop software we need a set of tools to write, compile and debug programs, or an "environment" for writing software and then it s run for any application on any devices. The software development environment that is used to develop for OS is a collection of tools : A combination of compilers, libraries, code generators and emulators for run any application on mobile phone [5]. Research Objective :-

4 M.khlaif 86 The aim of this research paper is to create mobile applications at much higher level of design and analysis. reader can create a good application to run on any mobile phone devices by:- 1- Understanding the basic concepts of the use of mobiles. 2- Understanding the basic element for installing Java J2ME. 3- Understanding how one can build an application in Java environment and then run them. 4- Understanding the mobile operating system. 5- Making the right choices to help your work for any application for any devices. in this research work we have used UML modeling language for the Analysis and design stages of the research Project. Using is UML :- UML is a language for specifying, constructing and documenting the software systems, as well as for business modeling and other non software systems. - UML is a standard set by the object management group OMG[ ] for the modeling of all phases of software development from requirements, analysis, design, programming and testing. application Analysis and Design using UML :- In this phase we can show how high level UML models of mobile application can be analyzed for performance and implements objects of application by the use of UML tools [6]. The UML can be used to design and specify Java software for embedded systems. The modeling of UML :- Why use models : Modeling is common in all engineering disciplines that deals with complex systems. Models are abstractions used to better understand complex problems and their potential solution. Architectures, for example could not build even simple dwellings if the the map have not been prepared prior to construction in order to achieve success and quality. models are a simplification of the real world and help us to understand what we are building [6]. the specifications of UML is owned by the OMG (Object Management Group ) [9]. Model Development :- - structural diagrams :- UML define a set of structural diagrams that are used to show relationships between Objects in a system as the following :- Class Diagram :the class diagram show the relationships between a set of classes. this is the most common diagram in UML and is a structural view of how classes are related.

5 Mobile Application Design and Development With the use 87 Collaboration diagram :- the collaboration shows the structural organization of objects that communicate with each other. Component diagram :- the component diagram show the relationship between components. components are built and combined to form applications. Behavioral diagrams :-shows the system behavioral aspect when changing system status through events and actions carried out by the system. use case diagram the use case diagram shows the relationships between actors and use case where the actor are external entities to the system such as users and other systems. state diagram :-the state diagram contains a finite state machine that describes the behavior of a class. state machines are an excellent way to describe the event of a system activity diagram :- the activity diagram shows the flow of control through activities in a system [7]. Mobile modeling using UML : We have discussed the UML and J2ME so that we need to understanding how does UML apply to J2ME. The configuration and profile class can be made into UML library, for example : the developer can access the class as a set of visual tools (classes, diagrams ) and use them as needed. For example developer writing a Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) application can use the available classes from the Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC). The figure[1] illustrate the ability to use of the classes and applications as a visual model and UML class diagram showing how a MIDP MIDlet is created from CLDC/MIDP,note that the MIDlet class realizes relationships from interface.

6 M.khlaif 88 Fig[1] classes relationship When building a system with UML, many models are built for the development of the system. There are distinct models in different phases of developments and design of the applications. - the purposes of models are separated between analysis and design phases. in the analysis phase, the purpose of the model is to capture or uses of all requirements of the system and to model the basic classes and collaboration between them. - in the design phase, the purpose of the model is to expand the analysis model into working technical solution with consideration for the implementation environment [7].

7 Mobile Application Design and Development With the use 89 system analysis and design with UML Diagrams :- UML define the notation and semantics for the following domains :- 1- Analysis 1.1- use case model : in this section we will take phone directory as an example of using UML tools. objects are :phone - person - directory. use case description :- 1- a generalized description of how a system will be used. 2- provides an overview of the intended functionality of the system. use case in this example as the following :- Phone directory Open directory item Select phone num. Use case diagram Modification (add - dele -modify) save close Fig(2) Use case Diagram - Use case diagrams are made up of a number of scenarios where one or more actors linked to one or more use-cases. - an actor uses a use-case to perform some piece of work with a system for the applications [8]. Phone directory basic scenario that can be extracted from use case Diagram : 1- a person open a phone. 2- a person determine the component of phone directory. 3- a person select the prepare phone number. 4- a person can do: ٠Add the new number. ٠delete an existing number. ٠modify any existing number. 5- a person save and close phone directory.

8 M.khlaif Class diagram : class diagram also called logical model show the static structure of the object, their internal structure, and their relationships. - class model also describe the classes and objects that will make up the system. - we can illustrate class model of phone directory as the following : Phone control person open Phone dir * performance Class Diagram show 1..* 1 Fig(3) Class Diagram 1.3 state diagram : A state diagram shows the sequences of states an object goes through during it s life cycle with responses and actions. 2- Design 2.1- sequence diagram : sequence diagrams are used to display the interaction between objects and users within the system. they provide a sequential map of message passing between objects over a certain time. in other word, A sequence diagram shows the explicit sequence of messages suitable for modeling a real-time system [10]. the model includes what initiates activity in the system, what actual responsibilities and operations are assigned to which classes, what processing and changes occur internally and what outputs are generated [10].

9 Mobile Application Design and Development With the use 91 Example of a sequence diagram can be illustrated as the following : Person Phone directory Run Open dir. Life cycle Display list modify save Sequence diagram for phone directory close Fig(4) Sequence Diagram 2.2- collaboration diagram : collaboration Diagrams describes the set of interactions and links between classes and show the relationships among objects [10]. the sequence and collaboration diagrams both show interaction,but the first diagram focus on the use of time for sending and receive messages, the second diagram focus on the execution of an operation. Example of a collaboration Diagram as the following : 1:Run Person Phone 5:save 2:Open dir. 4:modify directory 6:close 3:Display list Fig(5) Collaboration diagram for phone director

10 M.khlaif 92 the links show the actual objects and how they are related to each other the case study that have been considered above discusses how the user can be analysis and design application based on this diagrams by requirement analysis [10]. conclusion : A mobile Application and Technologies are going to be particularly useful for using with any type of mobile phone, because this is limited and simple for the use from a user, with small screen, limited bandwidth, as we have shown how by using J2ME for building any application based on using MIDlet and then run it. The most way of design and developing mobile applications need for environment can be determined from the user by chose the language with constructs and configurations together that are needed to be provided for any devices. with design environment would be useful for using applications created before or to future building new applications. References :- [UML01] UML :the unified modeling language. [1] wisdom Assen Bv.,white paper, programming in mobile world, December 2001.[2] Martyn Mallick. Mobile and wireless Design Essentials, published simultaneously in canada. Nov [3] Soma Ghosh. Think small with J2ME, senior Application Developer [4] michael and soma Ghosh. Java development tools, 01 Nov [5] michael J.Jipping. Symbian OS communications programming, copyright c 2002 Symbian L td, England. [6] stephen Gilmore, valentin heanel and D. Jane Hillston. A design environment for mobile applications, the university of Edinburgh, scotland, January 5, [7] BillGraham. Developing embedded and mobile Java Technology- based applications Mobile using Application UML, 24 Design Nov 2003 and Development. With the use [8] B. Alabio. Transformation of Analysis Models in Object oriented approches, Mar.2000.

11 Mobile Application Design and Development With the use 93 [9] OMG.OMG Model Driven Architecture, July 2001.Document ormsc/ , [10] Rolf Hennicker and Nora Koch. Modeling the user requirements of mobile application with UML, university of munich oettingenstr.67 (1998).

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