The Role of the Project Manager in Motivating the Team. Prof. Dr. Neo Mai

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1 The Role of the Project Manager in Motivating the Team Prof. Dr. Neo Mai

2 This Section Motivation Theories Maslow Hierarchy of needs Herzberg s Two factor theory How to motivate your team Motivational Techniques

3 Project Management The Direction and Motivation of Others to carry out Group of Activities within a clearly defined Time and Cost to reach a set of Specified Objectives.

4 Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Motivational theory has its roots in psychology. The major thinker on motivation is the American Abraham Maslow, who devised a six-level hierarchy of motives that he claimed determined human behavior.

5 Maslow Ranking 1) physiological, 2) security and safety, 3) love and feelings of belonging, 4) competence, prestige and esteem, 5) self-fulfillment, and 6) curiosity and the need to understand.

6 Stimuli Psychologists have also debated whether or not humans are motivated to reduce stimulation or to optimize it. Some physiological systems clearly seem to seek reduction of stimulation, Cognitive theories of motivation describe humans as seeking optimal stimulation, which some feel accounts for exploratory behavior as well as a human need for variety, aesthetics, and curiosity

7 Behaviorist? The idea that humans can be motivated at all, suggests behavioral changes. Behaviorism concentrates upon changes in behaviors created by stimuli (learning and doing). Motivational theory deals with the processes and structures that cause us to want to learn and do.

8 Dimensions of motivation 1) Interest - whether curiosity is aroused and whether that arousal is sustained over time 2) Relevance perception of personal needs or goals being satisfied 3) Expectancy - perceived likelihood of success and how much in control of that success 4) Satisfaction - intrinsic motivations and reactions to extrinsic rewards.

9 The goal of motivational theory Motivation can be defined as intensity at a task. The higher the motivation, the more persistent and intense at a task the worker will perform. Motivation - what a person will do Ability - what a person can do. Motivation directly involves choices that people make as to what they will do or not do and how intense their effort will be. The aim is to exploit these choices and direct them to make a task more interesting.

10 Frederick Herzberg Motivational Theory Frederick Herzberg's motivation and hygiene factors Frederick Herzberg's book 'The Motivation to Work', 1959, first established his theories about motivation in the workplace. Herzberg was the first to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors, and were not simply opposing reactions to the same factors.

11 Motivators & Hygiene He showed that certain factors truly motivate ('motivators'), whereas others tended to lead to dissatisfaction ('hygiene factors'). According to Herzberg, Man has two sets of needs; one as an animal to avoid pain, and two as a human being to grow psychologically. Certain parallels can clearly be seen with Maslow.

12 Herzberg's research proved that people will strive to achieve hygiene needs because they they are unhappy without them. hygiene needs are policy, relationship with supervisor, work conditions, salary, company car, status, security, relationship with subordinates, personal life. but satisfaction is temporary. Motivators are: achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and personal growth.

13

14 It s not the Money People commonly argue that money is a primary motivator. It's not. Surveys repeatedly show that other factors motivate more. Survey by Development Dimensions International in 2004 interviewed 1,000 staff from companies employing more than 500 workers, and found many to be bored, lacking commitment and looking for a new job. Pay came fifth in the reasons people gave for leaving their jobs.

15 It s Status and Interest The main reasons were lack of stimulus jobs and no opportunity for advancement - classic Herzberg motivators 43% left for better promotion chances, 28% for more challenging work; 23% for a more exciting place to work; and 21% and more varied work.

16 How to Motivate a Team 1. Desirability: The value of achieving the goal Increase commitment by clarifying your project s benefits 2. Feasibility: The likelihood that you can achieve the goal Encourage persistence by demonstrating project feasibility 3. Progress: Your accomplishments as you work to reach your goal Let people know how they re doing 4. Reward: The payoff when you reach the goal Provide rewards for work well done

17 How to Motivate a Team 1. Explain the positive outcomes of achieving the objective if it benefits your team members 1. Build a sense of curiosity within your team member's mindsets so that that they are interested enough to want to achieve the goals you expect. 1. Establish a plan of action that requires cooperation between team members so that they are forced to work together to achieve that goal. 1. Challenge your team members to achieve an objective. 1. Create a competitive environment that will inspire your team members to achieve their goals. 1. Put your team members in control of their own destiny when instilling team motivation. 1. Design a tool for recognition when motivating your team.

18 Practical Tips #1 Want More Innovation? If you want more innovation from your people: let them know that their employment is secure, even if their job changes. People worried about losing their jobs tend to find ways to stretch out the work, not innovative ways to do it better.

19 Practical Tips #2 Don't Demotivate Demeaning team members, to their face or to others, erodes their motivation. So does dismissing their ideas as "stupid". Be sure you aren't defeating your own efforts by demotivating your team.

20 Practical Tips #3 People Primary Intellectual Capital You can have the best, high tech, equipment available. but, without the people you have no team. Treat your team with greater care than you do your equipment.

21 Practical Tips #4 Fan the flame. When people join your organization they are enthusiastic. The Project Manager can erode enthusiasm. Instead, do what you can to fan the flames of their enthusiasm and you will be amazed at their output.

22 Practical Tips #5 Let the team contribute It doesn't make any sense to spend all that time and effort to find and hire the best people if you are just going to ignore their input.

23 Practical Tips #6 Be organic and relevant in policies Review policy to make sure it is relevant. Avoid writing on tablets of stone.

24 Practical Tips #7 Transparency Avoid unnecessary confidentiality.

25 Practical Tips #8 Get the team involved. It's a lot easier to get the team to support a decision if they have the opportunity to participate in the discussion. However you still has to make the decision. If they have had the opportunity to make their point of view known the team is more likely to stand behind the ultimate decision, even if they don't agree with it.

26 Practical Tips #9 Active listening. Listening is the most difficult communication skill to master. Honestly evaluate what your team to say, without letting your ego get in the way, and you will probably learn something that benefits the project.

27 Practical Tips #10 Quality customer service is based on three essentials: respect, value, and a human approach. When you first apply these to the way you manage your own staff, you will be able to apply them towards Customers. TREAT YOUR STAFF AS CLIENTS

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