Advanced Cardiac Life Support

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1 Advanced Cardiac Life Support Dr Teo Wee Siong NATIONAL RESUSCITATION COUNCIL Singapore Guidelines 2006

2 Prof Anantharaman A/Prof Lim Swee Han Dr Chee Tek Siong A/Prof Peter Manning A/Prof Eillyne Seow Dr Lim Boon Leng Dr Baldev Singh Dr Philip Eng Dr Goh Ping Ping ACLS subcommitte

3 Role of ACLS in CPR Last link in chain of survival Early access- early CPR, early defibrillation - early ACLS However critical role in hospital resuscitation ACLS is the most important treatment for potential lethal rhythms ie SVTs and VTs Early Access Early CPR Early Defibrillation Early ACLS

4

5 Early Recognition of potential cardiac arrest patient Early identification of high risk patients and the immediate arrival of a Medical Emergency Team (MET) (also known as Code Blue Team, Rapid Response Team) to care for the patient may help prevent cardiac arrest 2005 International Consensus Conference.Circulation 2005;112:III-17 17

6 Vasopressors ACLS Drugs Adrenaline / Epinephrine Vasopressin Antiarrhythmic drugs Adenosine, amiodarone, lignocaine, verapamil Atropine Magnesium Sodium bicarbonate

7 Vasopressors Despite the lack of human data, it is reasonable to continue to use vasopressors on a routine basis 2005 International Consensus Conference.Circulation 2005;112:III-17 17

8 Adrenaline 1 iv, given after failed 1 st shock Repeated again if failed 2 nd shock Repeat later if necessary Singapore Guidelines 2006

9 Adrenaline vs Vasopressin A meta-analysis of 5 randomized trials showed no statistically significant differences between vasopressin and epinephrine for ROSC, death within 24 hrs or death before hospital discharge. There is thus insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of vasopressin as an alternative to or in combination with epinephrine in any cardiac arrest rhythm. Aung K, Htay T. Vasopressin for cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. analysis. Arch Intern Med 2005: International Consensus Conference.Circulation 2005;112:III-29 29

10 Universal algorithm for ACLS Assess responsiveness If unresponsive, out-of-hospital activate EMS (995) in-hospital call for resus trolley + defib A - assess airway and breathing open airway, look, listen and feel B - if not breathing out-of-hospital give 2 breaths in-hospital ventilate with bag valve mask, intubate C - Assess Circulation, Immediate Chest compression D - Defibrillation / Drugs

11 Figure 1 : Universal/International ACLS Algorithm Adult Adult Cardiac Cardiac Arrest Arrest A B C D Primary Primary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Focus Focus :: basic basic CPR CPR and and defibrillation defibrillation Check Checkresponsiveness Activate Activateemergency emergency response response system system Call Callfor for defibrillator defibrillator Airway Airway :: open open the the airway airway Breathing Breathing :: provide provide positive-pressure positive-pressure ventilations ventilations Circulation Circulation :: check check pulse, pulse, give give chest chest compressions compressions Defibrillation Defibrillation :: attach attach monitor monitor // defibrillator defibrillator Assess Assess rhythm rhythm

12 Chest compressions during CPR The 2005 guidelines recommend giving 30 chest compressions for every 2 breaths instead of the traditional 15 compressions for 2 breaths. This is based on studies showing that circulating blood increases with each chest compression in a series and must be built back up after interruptions. Checks to heart rhythm, inserting airway devices, and administration of drugs should be done without delaying compressions International Consensus Conference.Circulation 2005;112:III-17 17

13 Simultaneous recording of aortic diastolic (red) and right atrial (yellow) pressures during CPR in which 2 ventilations are delivered within 4-second time period Ewy, G. A. Circulation 2005;111:

14 Figure 1 : Universal ACLS Algorithm Assess Assess rhythm rhythm VF/VT VF/VT Attempt Attempt defibrillation defibrillation x x 1 1 CPR CPR minutes minutes Secondary Secondary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Focus Focus : : more more advanced advanced assessments assessments & treatments treatments A Airway Airway place place airway airway device device as as soon soon as as possible possible BBreathing BBreathing confirm confirm airway airway device device placement placement by by examination examination (confirmation (confirmation device device is is recommended) recommended) secure secure airway airway device device confirm confirm effective effective oxygenation oxygenation and and ventilation ventilation C Circulation Circulation establish establish access access identify identify & monitor monitor rhythm rhythm administer administer drugs drugs appropriate appropriate for for rhythm rhythm & condition condition D Differential Differential Diagnosis Diagnosis search search for for & treat treat identified identified reversible reversible causes causes Non-VF/VT Non-VF/VT Consider Consider causes causes that that are are potentially potentially reversible reversible Hypovolemia Hypovolemia Tablets Tablets (drug (drug OD, OD, accidents) accidents) Hypoxia Hypoxia Tamponade, Tamponade, cardiac cardiac Hydrogen Hydrogen ion ion - - acidosis acidosis Tension Tension pneumothorax pneumothorax Hyper-/hypokalemia, Hyper-/hypokalemia, other other metabolic metabolic Thrombosis, Thrombosis, coronary coronary (ACS) (ACS) Hypothermia Hypothermia Thrombosis, Thrombosis, pulmonary pulmonary (embolism) (embolism) CPR CPR minutes minutes

15 Defibrillation One shock strategy with monophasic 360 J or biphasic J followed immediately by CPR preferred to the traditional 3 (stack) shocks In prolonged arrest (> 4-5 mins), 1-2 minutes of CPR before defibrillation may be better Monophasic Current Biphasic Current Current (amps) Peak Current Monophasic Biphasic Time (msec) Singapore Guidelines 2006

16 CASE 1: RESPIRATORY ARREST WITH A PULSE

17 Airway intubation Prolonged attempts at tracheal intubation are harmful: the cessation of chest compressions during this time will compromise coronary and cerebral perfusion International Consensus Conference.Circulation 2005;112:III-27 27

18 Confirmation of advanced Airway Placement Clinical assessment Bilateral breath sounds Normal epigastric auscultation Symmetric expansion of chest Palpation of the cuff in the neck Condensation in the tube during expiration Chest X-ray Optional techniques Exhaled CO2 detectors Esophageal detector devices

19 CASE 2: WITNESSED VF CARDIAC ARREST

20 Figure 2 : Ventricular Fibrillation/Pulseless VT Algorithm Primary Primary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Assess Assess rhythm rhythm Pulseless PulselessVF VF // VT VT Defibrillate Defibrillate 1 time time (360 (360 J J for for Monophasic Monophasicor or equivalent equivalent J J J J for for Biphasic) Biphasic) Rhythm Rhythm after after first firstshock? shock? Persistent Persistent or or recurrent recurrent VF/VT VF/VT Return Return of of spontaneous spontaneous circulation circulation PEA PEA Go Go to to Fig Fig 3 Asystole Asystole Go Go to to Fig Fig 4 Assess Assess vital vital signs signs Support Support airway airway Support Support breathing breathing Provide Provide medications medications appropriate appropriate for for blood blood pressure, pressure, heart heart rate, rate, & rhythm rhythm Note : CPR must be continued at all times & also when drugs are given Stop CPR briefly only for analyzing rhythm Continue shock & CPR until Adrenaline is available

21 CASE 3: MEGA VF REFRACTORY VF/PULSELESS VT

22 Figure 2 : Ventricular Fibrillation/Pulseless VT Algorithm Persistent Persistent or or recurrent recurrent VF/VT VF/VT Secondary Secondary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Adrenaline Adrenaline 1 1 Defibrillate Defibrillate within within 1 1 min min Adrenaline Adrenaline 1 1 Lignocaine Lignocaine Defibrillate Defibrillate within within 1 1 min min Lignocaine Lignocaine Defibrillate Defibrillate within within 1 1 min min or Amiodarone Amiodarone Defibrillate Defibrillate within within 1 1 min min Amiodarone Amiodarone Defibrillate Defibrillate within within 1 1 min min Give Give appropriate appropriate medication medication as as indicated indicated Defibrillate Defibrillate J J monophasic monophasic or or J J biphasic biphasic within within 1 1 min min after after each each dose dose of of medication medication Pattern Pattern should should be be drug-shock, drug-shock, drug drug shock shock Consider Consider Buffers Buffers Mg Mg SO SO g g if if polymorphic polymorphic VT VT / / Torsades Torsades Note : CPR must be continued at all times & also when drugs are given Stop CPR briefly only for analyzing rhythm

23 Antiarrhythmic drugs Antiarrhythmic drugs can be used after failure of 2 shocks to convert hemodynamically unstable VT or VF Amiodarone can now be considered as first line for shock-refractory VF and VT There is limited evidence for the use of lignocaine but can be considered as an alternative Only 1 antiarrhythmic drug should be attempted Singapore Guidelines 2006

24 Amiodarone In 2 blinded randomized controlled clinical trials in adults (level of evidence 1), Amiodarone 300 (5 /kg) to pts with refractory VF/pulseless VT in the out-of-hospital setting improved survival to hospital admission when compared with placebo or lignocaine (1.5 /kg) Kudenchuk PJet al. Amiodarone for resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 1999: Dorian P et al. Amiodarone as compared with lidocaine for shock-resistant ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002:884-90

25 ARREST Trial Amiodarone in out-of-hospital resuscitation of refractory sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 504 pts Pts received at least 3 unsuccessful shocks before study entry Iv amiodarone 300 given significant improvement in the proportion of pts surviving to the emergency department following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in amiodarone-treated pts. 27% more admitted alive to hospital 26% more successful resuscitation in VF subset 56% more successful resuscitations in pts treated with iv amiodarone when electrical defibrillation could temporarily restore but not maintain a pulse However the effect on survival to hospital discharge was inconclusive, as there was no significant difference. Kudenchek et al. NEJM 1999

26 347 pts (mean age, 67±14 yrs) amiodarone, 22.8 % 180 pts survived to hospital admission, as compared with 12.0 % of 167 pts treated with lidocaine (P=0.009; odds ratio, 2.17; 95 percent CI, 1.21 to 3.83). ALE Trial Paul Dorian, et al. NEJM 2002 Amiodarone as Compared with Lidocaine for Shock-Resistant Ventricular Fibrillation

27 Magnesium Magnesium should be given for hypomagnesemia and Torsades de pointes, but there is insufficient data to recommend for or against its routine use in cardiac arrest International Consensus Conference.Circulation 2005;112:III-29 29

28 Pulseless Electrical Activity Any rhythm or electrical activity that fails to generate a palpable pulse Includes : EMD Pseudo EMD Idioventricular Rhythms Ventricular Escape Rhythms Brady - Asystolic Rhythms Postdefibrillation Idioventricular Rhythms

29 Narrow QRS PEA Important to exclude: Hypovolemia Acute pulmonary embolism Cardiac Tamponade

30 Some rhythms have Broader QRS Complex less likely to be associated with Hypovolemia, usually poor survival rate if due to massive AMI or dying myocardium May be due to specific rhythm disturbances (eg: severe hyper K+, hypothermia, hypoxia, acidosis, drug overdose)

31 Figure 3 : Pulseless Electrical Activity Algorithm Primary Primary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Assess Assess rhythm rhythm Pulseless PulselessElectrical Activity Activity (PEA (PEA = rhythm rhythm on on monitor, monitor, without without detectable detectable pulse pulse Secondary Secondary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Review Review for for most most frequent frequent cases cases Hypovolemia Hypovolemia Tablets Tablets (drug OD, OD, accidents) accidents) Hypoxia Hypoxia Tamponade, Tamponade, cardiac cardiac Hydrogen Hydrogen ion ion --acidosis acidosis Tension Tension pneumothorax pneumothorax Hyper-/hypokalemia Hyper-/hypokalemia Thrombosis, Thrombosis, coronary coronary (ACS) (ACS) Hypothermia Hypothermia Thrombosis, Thrombosis, pulmonary pulmonary (embolism) (embolism) Adrenaline Adrenaline1,, repeat repeat every every 3 to to 5 minutes. minutes. Atropine Atropine (if (if PEA PEA rate rate is is slow), slow), repeat repeat every every 3 to to 5 minutes minutes as as needed, needed, to to a total total dose dose of of 0.04/kg 0.04/kg

32 Specific Therapies for PEA Hypovolemia Hypoxia Hypothermia Hyperkalemia Hydrogen ion -Acidosis Tamponade Tension Pneumothorax Thrombosis- AMI Thromboembolism Tablets -Overdose Volume Infusion Ventilation Rewarming CACL 2, Insulin-Glucose, NAHCO3, Dialysis NAHCO3 Pericardiocentesis Needle Decompression Rx Cardiogenic Shock Embolectomy Lavage, Activated Charcoal, Specific RX

33 Flat line - possible causes : Power Off Leads not attached Lead selection Fine VF (rare) Asystole

34 Figure 4 : Asystole: The Silent Heart Algorithm Primary Primary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Assess Assess rhythm rhythm Asystole Asystole Confirm Confirm Asystole Asystole in in more more than than one one lead lead Secondary Secondary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Adrenaline Adrenaline 1 1,, repeat repeat every every 3 3 to to 5 5 minutes. minutes. Atropine Atropine Search Search for for & correct correct reversible reversible causes causes (Refer (Refer to to PEA PEA algorithm) algorithm)

35 Sodium Bicarbonate (1mEq/kg) Role has been de-emphasized Adequate ventilation and CPR should correct the metabolic acidosis of arrest Side effects Na Hyperosmolality Metabolic alkalosis Unfavourable shift of O 2 -Hb dissociation curve Indications Pre-existing metabolic acidosis, K Tricyclic Antidepressant or phenobarbitone overdose Prolonged arrest > 10 min (Class IIb) Contraindicated in hypoxic lactic acidosis

36 Figure 5 : Bradycardia Algorithm Primary Primary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Assess Assess rhythm rhythm Bradycardia Bradycardia Slow Slow (absolute (absolute bradycardia bradycardia = = rate<60 rate<60 bpm bpm or or Relatively Relatively slow slow (rate (rate less less than than expected expected relative relative to to underlying underlying condition condition or or cause) cause) Secondary Secondary ABCD ABCD Survey Survey Serious Serious signs signs or or symptoms? symptoms? Due Due to to the the bradycardia? bradycardia?

37 Figure 5 : Bradycardia Algorithm Serious Serious signs signs or or symptoms? symptoms? Due Due to to the the bradycardia? bradycardia? No Yes Type Type II II second-degree second-degree AV AV block block or or Third-degree Third-degree AV AV block? block? No Yes Intervention Intervention sequence sequence Atropine Atropine to to a a Transcutaneous Transcutaneous pacing pacing if if available available Dopamine Dopamine 5 5 to to µg/kg µg/kg per per minute minute Adrenaline Adrenaline 2 2 to to µg/min µg/min Infusion Infusion Observe Observe Note a. Atropine should be given in repeat doses every 3-5 min up to total of kg. It has been suggested that atropine should be used with caution in AV block at the His-Purkinje level (type II AV block and new third-degree block with wide QRS complexes) (Class IIb). Prepare Prepare for for transvenous transvenous pacer pacer If If symptoms symptoms develop, develop, use use transcutaneous transcutaneous pacemaker pacemaker until until transvenous transvenous pacer pacer placed placed

38 Atropine Asystole 2.4 given once only Bradycardia 0.6, up to a maximum of 0.04 /kg

39 Figure 6 : Tachycardia Algorithm Assess Assess responsive responsive Call Call for for help/defibrillator help/defibrillator Assess Assess ABCs ABCs Administer Administer oxygen oxygen Establish Establish ECG ECG monitor monitor Assess Assess vital vital signs signs Review Review history history Perform Perform physical physical examination examination Do Do Lead Lead ECG ECG Unstable, Unstable, with with serious serious signs signs or or symptoms symptoms ie ie : : Heart Heart Failure, Failure, SBP<90, SBP<90, in in shock shock No Yes Immediate Immediate synchronised synchronised Cardioversion Cardioversion Narrow Narrow Complex Complex Tachycardia Tachycardia Wide Wide Complex Complex Tachycardia Tachycardia Polymorphic Polymorphic VT VT

40 Tachycardia Algorithm Narrow Narrow Complex Complex Tachycardia Tachycardia Atrial Atrial fibrillation fibrillation Atrial Atrial flutter flutter Paroxysmal Paroxysmal supraventricular supraventricular tachycardia tachycardia (PSVT) (PSVT) Use Use rate rate controlled controlled drugs drugs eg: eg: amiodarone, amiodarone, Diltiazem, Diltiazem, Verapamil Verapamil or or Digoxin. Digoxin. Consider Consider anti-coagulation/aspirin anti-coagulation/aspirin Vagal Vagal maneuvers maneuvers * * Adenosine Adenosine 6 6 rapid rapid Adenosine Adenosine rapid rapid iv iv * * Verapamil Verapamil 1 1 /min /min (up (up to to maximum maximum ) ) * either drug depending on availability and experience

41 Figure 6 : Tachycardia Algorithm Wide Wide Complex Complex Tachycardia Tachycardia Polymorphic Polymorphic VT VT If strongly suspect aberrancy Adenosine Adenosine 6 6 rapid rapid iv iv Lignocaine Lignocaine If suspect VT Amiodarone Amiodarone over over mins mins Adenosine Adenosine rapid rapid iv iv Lignocaine Lignocaine Amiodarone Amiodarone over over mins mins Note : Blood Pressure low proceed to immediate synchronised cardioversion If If still still VT, VT, synchronised synchronised cardioversion cardioversion Correct Correct abnormal abnormal electrolytes electrolytes Treat Treat ischemia ischemia if if present present Medications: Medications: Magnesium Magnesium Consider Consider overdrive overdrive pacing pacing

42 Torsades De Pointes Abnormal looking & constantly changing QRS complexes Gradually shifting electrical axis (twisting of points) Sinus rhythm shows prolong QT often starts as a short cycle following a long cycle Management : Discontinuation of offending drugs Magnesium sulfate Overdrive pacing

43 Figure 1: Hypotension, Shock, Pulmonary Edema Algorithm Conscious Patient Primary & Secondary ABCD Survey What is the nature of the problem? Volume Problem Including vascular resistance problems Give fluids, blood Treat the underlying cause Consider vasopressors Pump Problem What is the BP? Rate Problem Bradycardia OR Tachycardia See respective algorithms SBP <70 mmhg Signs & symptoms of shock SBP mmhg Signs & symptoms of shock SBP mmhg No signs & symptoms of shock SBP >100 mmhg Consider: Norepinephrine μg/min OR Dopamine 5-20 μg/kg/min Dopamine μg/kg/min (add Norepinephrine if Dopamine >20 μg/kg/min) Dobutamine 2-20 μg/kg/min GTN μg/min, if pain persists, BP, titrate accordingly OR Nitroprusside μg/kg/min

44 Validity of ACLS certification ACLS refresher training should be provided after 2 years Instructors must instruct at least once or twice a year in order to maintain ACLS instructor status

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