Software Defined Radio Implementation for Maritime Cognitive Radio Communications

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1 Software Defined Radio Implementation for Maritime Cognitive Radio Communications Germano Capela António Rodrigues José Sanguino Eduardo Bolas 8 th Congress of the Portuguese Committee of URSI - ''Drones and autonomous vehicles: present and future challenges'' November 28 th, 2014 Instituto Superior Técnico 1

2 Outline Introduction and Motivation Objectives / Contributions Background Proposed Solution Tests and Results Conclusions Future work Q&A 2

3 Introduction and Motivation Maritime Communications Overview Source: ICS Electronics 3

4 Introduction and Motivation Maritime Communications Overview System Band Throughput Application NAVTEX HF, MF 100 b/s Information / Distress DSC VHF MF/HF 1.2 kb/s 100 b/s Short messaging / Distress AIS VHF 9,6 kb/s - 2 ch. Automatic vessel tracking SATCOM SHF < 4 Mb/s IP data / Telephony Terrestrial networks: GSM, UMTS, LTE 4

5 Introduction and Motivation New Demands Sensor Networks e-navigation Personal Communications Source: Times of Malta 5

6 Introduction and Motivation What about coverage? Most ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communications use the VHF Band ~ 30 nautical miles High Traffic Density Low Traffic Density Traffic Density. Source: Marine Traffic 6

7 Introduction and Motivation Radio Resources Overview The VHF Band Source: ANACOM 7

8 Introduction and Motivation Radio Resources Overview The VHF Band 8

9 Introduction and Motivation Solutions Spectrum refarming? New spectrum allocations? 9

10 Introduction and Motivation Opportunistic Systems (Smart Solutions) Source: IEEE Working Group 10

11 Introduction and Motivation Opportunistic Systems (Smart Solutions) Source: Bolas et. al

12 Objectives Broadband VHF Communication System Opportunistic Use of Maritime VHF Spectrum Spectrum Sensing, Transceiver Techniques, Network Synchronization Cognitive Radio 12

13 Contributions Implementation of a custom system for the VHF maritime band; Implementation and integration of the major components of a cognitive radio; Development and implementation of a cognitive engine, as well as a network synchronization protocol; Coexistence evaluation between opportunistic and primary users. 13

14 Background Cognitive Radios Source: Haykin

15 Background Spectrum Sensing Detection of Primary User Activity in a Multichannel Scenario 100kHz 120kHz 30kHz 30kHz 30kHz 15

16 Background Spectrum Shaping with a Multicarrier Modulation: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 16

17 Background OFDM It s awesome, but 256 bin OFDM Signal OOB disabled subcarriers 10 NC disabled subcarriers FFT Bin Radiation leakage Relatively high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) 17

18 Background 20 db Out Of Band (OOB) Radiation FFT Bin FFT Bin 19 db Non Contiguous (NC) Radiation 16 db FFT Bin FFT Bin 18

19 Proposed Solution Opportunist Use of Radio Spectrum in the Maritime context Most Common Primary Users Analogue Telephony DSC AIS 19

20 Proposed Solution Multiuser Scenario Multichannel Detector 20

21 Proposed Solution Reconfigurable radio transceiver Software Defined Radio RF Digital Baseband 21

22 Radio Architecture Master Station Proposed Solution 22

23 Proposed Solution Network Synchronization 23

24 Proposed Solution Cognitive Engine and Network Synchronization 24

25 Tests And Results Spectrum Sensing - Results 25

26 Tests And Results Transceiver Analysis Simulation Results (k Rice Factor) 26

27 Tests And Results Transceiver Analysis OOB and NC Radiation Transmitted Received w/ AWGN (simulation) 27

28 Tests And Results Transceiver Analysis OOB and NC Radiation Received by the USRP (over the air) 28

29 Tests And Results Subjective Coexistence Analysis 29

30 Tests And Results Subjective Coexistence Analysis 30

31 Tests And Results Subjective Coexistence Analysis In Band OOB NC 31

32 Tests And Results Subjective Coexistence Analysis In Band OOB NC 32

33 Tests And Results Subjective Coexistence Analysis In Band OOB NC 33

34 Tests And Results Subjective Coexistence Analysis In Band OOB NC 34

35 Tests And Results Tunneling IP Data Packet Analysis 35

36 Conclusions Prototype, fully functional broadband cognitive radio system; Innovative aspects concerning cognitive radio implementations; Results demonstrate the ability to detect multiple primary users Acceptable behavior for a digital communication system in terms of packet performance and radiation profile; Regulatory and coexistence issues; Transport of IP data. 36

37 Future Work Network and Radio Architecture; Transceiver and Sensing Techniques Network Synchronization; Coexistence Analysis and Evaluation. 37

38 Thank you for your attention! Q&A

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