# 1. The prime mover which extracts the energy from the flow - a rotor of some sort;

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. The prime mover which extracts the energy from the flow - a rotor of some sort;"

## Transcription

1 Operational Principles Description of the Wave-to-Wire Chain Tidal stream current turbines use similar principles to wind turbines in order to harness the kinetic energy in moving water. Accordingly, the main components of a tidal stream energy converter are (see Figure 1 below): 1. The prime mover which extracts the energy from the flow - a rotor of some sort; 2. The foundation which holds the prime mover in the flow and reacts the loads to the seabed; 3. The power train (i.e. gearbox & generator); 4. The power take-off system (power electrical and control system, and submarine cable to onshore grid connection point) Figure 1: Basic components of a marine current turbine Three steps are involved in the energy transformation: The turbine rotor is driven by the current. This converts the energy of the current into rotational energy of the shaft. The power is optimised by adjusting the angle between the rotor blades and the current. The gearbox converts the low rotational speed of the turbine shaft to the higher speed of the generator shaft. Aquatic Renewable Energy Technologies (Aqua-RET) is an aquatic renewable energy e-learning tool funded by the EU Leonardo Da Vinci Programme. Revision December 2008

2 The generator converts its shaft energy to electric energy which is transmitted to the shore by a cable on the sea bed. The kinetic energy of a flowing tidal stream per unit time, which is the same as the power (P s ), can be readily calculated in terms of the velocity (v), cross-sectional area (A) perpendicular to the flow direction, and the density of water (ρ, which for sea water is approximately 1025 kg/m 3 ). Providing the velocity is uniform across the cross-sectional area (approximately true for small areas), at any instant in the tidal cycle P s = ½ ρ A v 3. This function is convenient to quickly estimate the maximum power of a site s tidal stream resource, but because the velocity changes constantly, a time-weighted calculation is needed to determine the energy resource. The cubic relationship between velocity and power is the same as that underlying the power curves of wind turbines, and like in wind power, there are practical limits to the amount of power that can be extracted from tidal streams. Some of these limits relate to the design of tidal stream devices and others to characteristics of the resource. This means that some constraints are the same as in wind power, but others are not. During operation, conditions of tidal stream energy vary over time. For tidal stream, two parameters are relevant: current speed and direction. With some devices, direction is not a factor (e.g. vertical axis tidal stream devices), but even for devices that do depend on direction, the other parameter is generally most important. The description of tidal stream power capture can be reduced to two dimensions, power and current speed. Figure 2 is an example tidal stream device power curve and illustrates how the parameters are related. This is an imaginary device, for illustration only; the graphs for real devices may differ. Figure 2: Example tidal stream energy device power curve highlighting conditions where no power is generated

3 An ideal tidal stream device would capture all the power in the tidal stream cross-section that it intersects. This is not possible in practice; there are certain conditions where devices cannot operate and consequently no power is generated. These conditions are illustrated in Figure 1. At all speeds the power captured is less than the maximum. This is because the prime mover can never be 100% efficient; there are a number of theories that indicate the maximum energy that can be extracted from a flowing stream; tidal stream situations are the subject of present research. Some of the linear momentum of the moving water is converted to angular momentum of the rotor blades, which delivers mechanical power to the rotor shaft. The shaft power is the product of torque applied to the rotor (τ) and the speed of rotation (ω) (namely, P s = τ.ω), and is expressed as a fraction of the tidal stream power flux by the coefficient of performance (C p ). The torque and speed are strongly influenced by the design of the rotor. A rotor with many blades taking up much of the swept area (i.e. a configuration known as high solidity) will produce high torque at low speeds, but also reach maximum power at a relatively low rotational speed. Conversely, a turbine with few blades (i.e. low solidity) produces low torque at high speeds and is more suitable for electricity generation at 50 Hz. An unconstrained free-stream flow where the turbine is sited some distance from the ground, such that the flow velocity is well developed, has a maximum amount of energy which can be extracted, due to the need for the flow to retain some kinetic energy downstream of the turbine. This is known as the Betz limit and is approximately 59% (for details see Massey, Mechanics of Fluids). This is a physical limit independent of a device s ability to convert the tidal stream energy into electricity i.e. it applies before any mechanical or electrical efficiency is accounted for. Where the rotor is close to either the seabed, channel sides or surface, so that the stream is blocked to a significant degree, Betz will not hold. What happens to tidal stream flows in such situations is complex and depends on the geometry of the fixed flow boundary and the remaining unobstructed area. In some cases the flow may be prevented from diverging around the turbine and slowing to the extent it would do in a free stream. It is possible to create an artificial duct around a turbine to deliberately create a region of greater velocity, and this is a feature of some proposed turbine designs. In operation, performance is reduced due to either the blades turning so rapidly that the turbulent region created by one blade is moved by the following blade, or the rotational speed being so slow that much of the flow passes through the swept area without a blade interfering with it. Hence C p is a function of rotational speed. To achieve the correct balance, there needs to be time for the stream to replenish between the passages of successive blades. This highlights the relationship between the rotational speed and free-stream velocity (v fs ), referred to as the tip speed ratio (λ). This is the linear speed of the blade tips (v t ) divided by the free-stream velocity, (λ= v t / v fs ).

4 Figure 3: Power coefficient (C p ) against tip speed ratio (λ) for an example horizontal axis turbine Figure 3 shows how the power coefficient of an example horizontal-axis tidal stream turbine relates to the tip speed ratio. The maximum C p occurs for a certain value of λ. If a turbine could operate at a fixed tip speed ratio, then the power produced would be constant, as indicated by the yellow line of Figure 2; one would naturally choose λ to give a constant maximum C p. In practice this is not possible; to achieve a constant tip speed ratio would require the tip speed and angular velocity to change proportionally with free stream velocity, over the entire range of v fs. It is not practical to let the rotor turn very fast since this would mean that the blades experience large forces, and the likelihood of structural failure (or the costs of avoiding it) would increase. Speed of rotation also affects the blades energy capture performance, because each blade experiences drag due to the pressure difference across it. At moderately fast speeds, cavitation can occur; this is when the water pressure local to the blade surface falls below the vapour pressure, causing bubbles to appear, rapidly expand and collapse. The resulting small shock loads can damage the blade surfaces and reduce their efficiency. The implication is that for a rotor of any diameter, there is a maximum permissible tip speed. Notwithstanding these constraints, there is scope for generating power close to the maximum C p over a range of v s by varying the blades pitches (i.e. feathering). This permits control of the blades aerodynamic efficiency, and has been proposed for some designs of tidal stream turbine. Below the rated speed, the objective is to generate as much power as possible, and varying the pitch angle allows the aerodynamic efficiency to be maintained as the free-stream velocity changes. Above the rated speed, pitch control can be used to shed power and control the forces experienced by the rotor.

5 An alternative power control strategy is passive stall, whereby fixed-pitch blades are designed so that when a particular free-stream speed is achieved, a region of turbulence created behind the blades overcomes the lift force and causes the rotor to slow. Although rotor efficiency (i.e. transfer of the tidal stream s power flux to shaft power) is best maintained by varying the rotational speed, the opposite may be true for generation efficiency (i.e. conversion of the shaft power to electricity); constant rotational speed is most straightforward to generate at constant voltage and frequency. An approach which facilitates the two ideals is to de-couple the rotor and generator by using a frequency converter, although this is at the expense of some electrical loss. It is possible to employ a synchronous generator in this case, but otherwise, an induction machine may be necessary, due to the need to apply damping in the drive train to accommodate cyclic variations in torque developed by the rotor. Direct-drive generators (i.e. mitigating the need for a gearbox) have also been proposed for some tidal stream devices. Losses will occur within the power take-off system components. These can be reduced, but in practice there is likely to be an economic minimum beyond which increased costs deliver only modest performance improvements. The device does not operate over the entire range of speeds and generation begins only after the speed has reached a certain level. This is known as the 'cut-in' speed, and reflects the lowest speed at which it is economic to capture power. The device designer might also choose to limit the output at high speeds, as indicated by the 'cut-out' speed. Effectively the device sheds some of the available power in this range, and the choice of cut-out power is related to the generator rating. The designer must weigh up the extra cost of installing a higher-rated generator against the relative advantage of capturing more power. The cut-out region is not to avoid over-speed situations; since the maximum tidal stream speed is within the range, it would be possible to absorb power over and is highly predictable. This is unlike wind energy, where extreme wind speeds occur randomly and are often faster than it is economic to capture energy from. Various designs are available for the power train linking the horizontally mounted turbine to the generator from which output is delivered through a marine cable laid across the seabed to the shore at voltages of 11 or 33kV. There are a number of options but the primary generators are likely to be either induction generators or synchronous machines. Induction generators on their own will provide a cheaper generator than a synchronous machine. However the use of synchronous machines will permit the control of power factor and give a higher efficiency for lower-speed machines. A key feature is the size and cost of the generator, which will increase with reduced speed, and the cost of the gearbox, which will increase with increasing gear ratio. The power train s components, functions and operations of a tidal stream s turbine include:

6 Component Function Options I Rotor Extracts power from flow Horizontal axis Vertical axis II Gearbox Steps up rotational speed from rotor Planetary Gears Hydraulics III Generator Converts rotational power to electricity Induction Permanent Magnet IV Foundation Secures turbine to seabed Monopile Gravity Chain Anchors Depending on the power train configuration, after transferring the tidal stream s power flux to shaft power, the remaining steps of energy transfer may include the following: 1. Increase the shaft rotational speed/reduce the torque (i.e. gearbox); 2. Convert the shaft power into electricity (i.e. generator); 3. Convert the generation voltage and frequency to the grid voltage and frequency (i.e. frequency converter). The efficiency of each stage (η 1, η 2, η 3 ) can be expected to be at around 95% each. The electricity generated at any instant (P e ) is the product of the tidal stream power flux, rotor coefficient of performance and the applicable power train efficiencies:

7 Dimensions and Performance The most straightforward way to develop tidal stream energy is to borrow from horizontal axis wind turbines, where the technology, components and know-how have been developed over the last 30 years. A tidal stream turbine like a wind turbine underwater; however, the density of seawater is 800 times greater than air, and flow rates typically one fifth. A properly rated tidal turbine would have a rotor diameter about half that of a wind turbine of the same rated power. Some of the factors affecting wind and tidal stream turbines are provided in the table below: Compared to the largest wind turbines (i.e. rated power 2 MW), the power output and the size of a tidal stream turbine are extremely promising. The annual power output of wind turbines depends upon the annual wind speed variation which usually follows a Weibull distribution. Taking an annual average wind speed of 7 m/s and applying it to a 2 MW rated turbine, blade diameter of 60 m, the average output is of the order of 600 kw.

8 Assuming a marine current site with a mean velocity of 2 m/s with a maximum variability of 10%, the annual average velocity would be 1.8 m/s. This corresponds to a rotor diameter of 24 m producing a rated power as that of the wind turbine example. With constant or highly predictable marine currents, a tidal stream turbine could not only rival the largest wind turbines in being more manageable in size, but also in generating highly predictable power. In general, it is difficult to provide exact dimensions, geometrical factors and relationships of MCTs, as the devices developed to date are of various configurations, settings and sizes, and follow different technology concepts. However, as per a survey performed by EPRI in 2005 (EPRI TP-004-NA, TISEC Device Survey and Characterization), the following table provides a summary of the eight devices examined with axis type, diameter of the rotor and rated power: GCK Lunar MCT OpenHydro Seapower SMD Hydro UEK Verdant V axis V axis Lift Duct Dual Rim Gen Drag Dual Dual 1 m dia 21 m dia 18 m dia 15 m dia 1 m dia 8 m dia 3 m dia 5 m dia 7 kw 2 MW 1.5 MW 1.5 MW 44 kw 1 MW 400 kw 34 kw With respect to the size of the park-scale installations of these technologies, and according to relevant studies made by the corresponding device developer, an array of 22 tidal stream SST turbines will occupy an area of just one square kilometre. At 4 MW per turbine, this could provide an output of 88 MW. The equivalent power capacity of a nuclear power station (e.g MW) could be obtained from just 14 square kilometres of sea area. A wind farm of the same power rating could require roughly four times the area of upland or sea area, i.e. 56 square kilometres, with a far less predictable energy output.

### AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BLADE 1.5 KW OF DUAL ROTOR HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BLADE 1.5 KW OF DUAL ROTOR HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE HITENDRA KURMI Research scholar, School of Energy and Environmental Managment,UTD, RGPV Bhopal,MP,INDIA htr.ptl@gmail.com

### Wind Turbine Power Calculations

Wind Turbine Power Calculations RWE npower renewables Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Power Industry INTRODUCTION RWE npower is a leading integrated UK energy company and is part of the RWE Group,

### Primer: Power from Ocean Waves and Tides

Primer: Power from Ocean Waves and Tides The United States has significant ocean wave and tidal energy resources. The technology to convert those resources to electricity, though in its infancy, is here

### Power Generation, Distribution and Substation System for Development of Offshore Wind Farms

Hitachi Review Vol. 63 (2014), No. 4 167 Power Generation, Distribution and Substation System for Development of Offshore Wind Farms Shinzo Inoue Tatsuji Ishibashi Takashi Matsunobu OVERVIEW: With use

### WIND ENERGY AS A POWER GENERATION OPTION CHAPTER 3

WIND ENERGY AS A POWER GENERATION OPTION CHAPTER 3 Wind energy is firmly established as a mature technology for electricity generation, with a reported 65 000 MW installed base worldwide. It is one of

### Case Study 5 Use of Wind Turbine Technology

Case Study 5 Use of Wind Turbine Technology 1. Context Hong Kong relies on an adequate and reliable electricity supply for its economic development. Our electricity needs are met by the two electricity

### SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a three-phase synchronous machine are practically identical

### Wind turbine database: Modelling and analysis with focus on upscaling. Master s thesis in the Master programme Applied Mechanics

Wind turbine database: Modelling and analysis with focus on upscaling Master s thesis in the Master programme Applied Mechanics JUAN PABLO SÁNCHEZ DE LARA GARCÍA Department of Applied Mechanics Division

### PMDD WIND TURBINE 1.5MW

1.5MW PMDD WIND TURBINE Generator Stator Rotor Blade Wind Measurement Equipment Casted Hub Auxiliary Crane Pitch System Base Frame Generator PM Rotor GOLDWIND 1.5MW PERMANENT MAGNET DIRECT-DRIVE (PMDD)

### V52-850 kw The turbine that goes anywhere

V2-8 kw The turbine that goes anywhere Versatile, efficient, dependable and popular The highly efficient operation and flexible configuration of the V2 make this turbine an excellent choice for all kinds

### 1.0 Background 1.1 Historical background 1.2 Cost of wind turbines

1.0 Background 1.1 Historical background Wind energy has been used for thousands of years for milling grain, pumping water and other mechanical power applications. Wind power is not a new concept. The

### Transient Wind Events and Their Effect on Drive-Train Loads INTERNATIONAL. siteurpublications

Transient Wind Events and Their Effect on Drive-Train Loads INTERNATIONAL April/May 2015 siteurpublications Volume 11 No. 3 Feature Although wind turbines have been around for decades, recent research

### Wind Energy What is Wind Energy?

Wind Energy What is Wind Energy? People have known how to make use of energy from the wind for centuries. The kinetic energy of the wind can be changed into other forms of energy, either mechanical energy

### How Noise is Generated by Wind Turbines The mechanisms of noise generation. Malcolm Hayes Hayes McKenzie Partnership Ltd Machynlleth & Salisbury

How Noise is Generated by Wind Turbines The mechanisms of noise generation Malcolm Hayes Hayes McKenzie Partnership Ltd Machynlleth & Salisbury Overview Main sources of noise from wind turbines Causes

### Turbine Description REpower MM 92

Turbine Description REpower MM 92 Table of Contents 1 MM 92 - Technical Description and Data... 3 1.1 Concept... 3 1.2 Rotor... 3 1.3 Drive Train... 4 1.4 Gear Box... 4 1.5 Electrical System... 4 1.6 Brake

### Micropower from Tidal Turbines

Micropower from Tidal Turbines Brian Polagye 1, Rob Cavagnaro 1, and Adam Niblick 2 1 Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, University of Washington 2 Creare, Inc. 13th International Symposium

### GE Renewable Energy BEST-IN-CLASS CAPACITY FACTOR. GE s

GE Renewable Energy BEST-IN-CLASS CAPACITY FACTOR GE s 1.7-103 www.ge.com/wind GE S 1.7-103 PITCH Since entering the wind industry in 2002, GE Renewable Energy has invested more than \$2 billion in next-generation

### Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

### Dimensional analysis is a method for reducing the number and complexity of experimental variables that affect a given physical phenomena.

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity Dimensional analysis is very useful for planning, presentation, and interpretation of experimental data. As discussed previously, most practical fluid mechanics problems

### WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY

Module 2.2-2 WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY Electrical System Gerhard J. Gerdes Workshop on Renewable Energies November 14-25, 2005 Nadi, Republic of the Fiji Islands Contents Module 2.2 Types of generator systems

### The Synchronous Machine

Experiment No. 5 The Synchronous Machine Synchronous ac machines find application as motors in constant speed applications and, when interfaced to the power source with a variable-frequency converter system,

### Wind Energy Math Calculations Calculating the Tip Speed Ratio of Your Wind Turbine

Wind Energy Math Calculations Calculating the Tip Speed Ratio of Your Wind Turbine The Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) is an extremely important factor in wind turbine design. TSR refers to the ratio between the

### Context and purposes. Wind characteristics

Context and purposes The SWIP project ( New innovative solutions, components and tools for the integration of wind energy in urban and peri-urban areas ) aims to expand the market for Small Wind Turbines

### DIRECT MATCHING TO GRID WITHOUT INVERTER VARIABLE PITCH. 20/24/30 mt TOWER WITH HYDRAULIC SYSTEM YAWING SYSTEM SAFETY LEVELS PLC CONTROL

Wind turbine EW 50 Ergo Wind srl can boast of thirty years experience in the field of renewable energies as a producer of low environmental impact systems. The core business is represented by small wind

### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WELLS TURBINE FOR WAVE POWER CONVERSION

Engineering Review Vol. 32, Issue 3, 141-146, 2012. 141 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WELLS TURBINE FOR WAVE POWER CONVERSION Z. 1* L. 1 V. 2 M. 1 1 Department of Fluid Mechanics and Computational Engineering,

### GE Renewable Energy. GE s 3 MW Platform POWERFUL AND EFFICIENT. www.ge.com/wind

GE Renewable Energy GE s 3 MW Platform POWERFUL AND EFFICIENT www.ge.com/wind GE S 3 MW PLATFORM PITCH Since entering the wind industry in 2002, GE Renewable Energy has invested more CONTROLS than \$2 billion

### WIND ENERGY CONVERSION THEORY, BETZ EQUATION

WIND ENERGY CONVERSION THEORY, BETZ EQUATION M. Ragheb /0/04 INTRODUCTION Wind machines performance is described by Betz s theory which applies to horizontal axis wind machines. However, the efficiency

### Hydrodynamics for Ocean Engineers Prof. A.H. Techet Fall 2004

13.012 Hydrodynamics for Ocean Engineers Prof. A.H. Techet Fall 2004 Marine Propellers Today, conventional marine propellers remain the standard propulsion mechanism for surface ships and underwater vehicles.

### Development of 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine and 2-MW Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Technology

Hitachi Review Vol. 63 (2014), No. 7 414 Featured Articles Development of 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine and 2-MW Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Technology Mitsuru Saeki Ikuo Tobinaga Junichi Sugino Takashi

### FMV New Vestas products. vestas.com

FMV 2010-01-28 New Vestas products vestas.com V112-3.0 MW Approved for IECII and IECS Suitable up to 9,5 m/s depending on turbulence intensity Nominal rating 3.0 MW Tower range 84-119 m Tip height range

### THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS

THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS Dr Andrew Pollard Principal Engineer GKN Technology UK INTRODUCTION There is a wide choice of flexible couplings for power transmission applications,

### MAXIMIZING THE OUTPUT OF YOUR BRAKES Getting Your Pedal Geometry Right

MATCO mfg 2361 S 1560 West Woods Cross, UT 84087 801-335-0582 801-335-0581 (F) www.matcomfg.com MAXIMIZING THE OUTPUT OF YOUR BRAKES Getting Your Pedal Geometry Right Brake Specifications Energy Rating

### WIND POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Mrs. N.V. Vader Mrs. V.A. Joshi

WIND POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Mrs. N.V. Vader Mrs. V.A. Joshi Abstract: The paper deals with the technical details involved in the generation of power through wind technology. It discusses the factors

### Offshore Wind Farm Layout Design A Systems Engineering Approach. B. J. Gribben, N. Williams, D. Ranford Frazer-Nash Consultancy

Offshore Wind Farm Layout Design A Systems Engineering Approach B. J. Gribben, N. Williams, D. Ranford Frazer-Nash Consultancy 0 Paper presented at Ocean Power Fluid Machinery, October 2010 Offshore Wind

### SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE GENERATOR COUPLING TO VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES TO URBAN APPLICATIONS

EWEA 11 - Europe s Premier Wind Energy Event 14-17 March 11, Brussels, Belgium SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE GENERATOR COUPLING TO VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES TO URBAN APPLICATIONS Jorge A. Villar Alé, Damien

### PHYS 101-4M, Fall 2005 Exam #3. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

PHYS 101-4M, Fall 2005 Exam #3 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A bicycle wheel rotates uniformly through 2.0 revolutions in

### The Delft Offshore Wind Turbine Concept (DOT)

December 2009 The Delft Offshore Wind Turbine Concept (DOT) A hydraulic solution for offshore wind energy Antonio Jarquín Laguna Delft University of Technology Challenge the future Table of Contents Current

### Marine and Hydrokinetic U.S. Resource Assessments and Technologies

Marine and Hydrokinetic U.S. Resource Assessments and Technologies Presented by Brooke White, Knauss Fellow, Wind and Water Power Program U.S. Department of Energy September 6 th 2012, Silver Spring MD

### Onshore Wind Services

GE Renewable Energy Onshore Wind Services www.ge.com/wind PITCH TABLE OF CONTENTS: 3 Operate and Maintain 3 Asset and Park Management 5 Turbine Maintenance 8 Enhance and Optimize 8 Wind PowerUp * Services

### Lecture 4 Energy Conversion in Wind Turbine

Tuuli- ja aurinkovoimateknologia ja -liiketoiminta Wind and Solar Energy Technology and Business BL20A1200 Lecture 4 Energy Conversion in Wind Turbine LUT Energia, Olli Pyrhönen Equations for energy conversion

### Belt Drives and Chain Drives. Power Train. Power Train

Belt Drives and Chain Drives Material comes for Mott, 2002 and Kurtz, 1999 Power Train A power train transmits power from an engine or motor to the load. Some of the most common power trains include: Flexible

### Problem Solutions. B.1 Problem Solving. B.2 Chapter 2 Problems

Problem Solutions B. Problem Solving Most of the problems in this text can be completed without reference to additional material than is in the text. In some cases, new information is introduced in the

### CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc. 1 Centrifugal Pump- Definition Centrifugal Pump can be defined as a mechanical device used to transfer liquid of various types. As

### A Method for Generating Electricity by Fast Moving Vehicles

A Method for Generating Electricity by Fast Moving Vehicles S.Bharathi 1, G.Balaji 2, and M. Manoj Kumar 2 1 Angel College of Engineering & Technology/ECE, Tirupur, India Email: bharathiseven@gmail.com

### UCCS PES/ENSC 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2014 Test 3 name:

UCCS PES/ENSC 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2014 Test 3 name: 1. When a wind turbine is positioned between radio, television or microwave transmitter and receiver it can sometime reflect some of the in

### UCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name:

UCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name: 1. These waves travel through the body of the Earth and are called S waves. a. Transverse b. Longitudinal c. Amplitude d. Trough 2. These waves

### The Reliance on Wind Energy Depends on Advancements in Blade Pitch Control

INSIGHT# 2010-23MPH JULY 6, 2010 The Reliance on Wind Energy Depends on Advancements in Blade Pitch Control By Sal Spada Overview Source: GWEC Many nations are in the process of making wind power an integral

### Nordex SE. Capital Markets Day Products & Sales - Lars Bondo Krogsgaard

Nordex SE Capital Markets Day Products & Sales - Lars Bondo Krogsgaard Rostock, 13 October 2011 SUMMARY The situation in the wind industry has changed: Attractive medium-term growth prospects Overcapacity

### BWEA Summary Report for the C&F Green Energy Small Wind Turbine, Model No. CF20 (Phase A)

Cleeve Road, Leatherhead Surrey, KT22 7SB UK Telephone: +44 (0) 1372 370900 Facsimile: +44 (0) 1372 370999 www.intertek.com BWEA Summary Report for the C&F Green Energy Small Wind Turbine, Model No. CF20

### V90-1.8/2.0 MW. Maximum output at medium-wind and low-wind sites. vestas.com

V90-1.8/2.0 MW Maximum output at medium-wind and low-wind sites vestas.com We deliver on the promise of wind power SUPERIOR YIELD AT MEDIUM-WIND AND LOW-WIND SITES Built on experience The V90-1.8/2.0

### MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 4 MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION TUTORIAL 1 SIMPLE MACHINES

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 4 MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION TUTORIAL 1 SIMPLE MACHINES Simple machines: lifting devices e.g. lever systems, inclined plane, screw jack, pulley blocks, Weston differential

### Low-noise wind turbine design

Low-noise wind turbine design Stefan Oerlemans, Peter Fuglsang Siemens Wind Power A/S email: stefan.oerlemans@siemens.com Outline Sound characteristics Noise sources Rotor design considerations Design

### Miniature High-Torque, DC Servomotors and DC Gearmotors

typical applications Robotics Factory automation Medical equipment Computer peripherals and office equipment Portable, battery-operated equipment Textile machinery Packaging machinery Actuators Miniature

### Nordex SE. Nordex goes Offshore

Nordex SE Nordex goes Offshore Hannover, April 2011 Content 1. Offshore Wind Market 2. Nordex Offshore History & Future 3. Competition & Technical Development 4. The N150/6000 2 Strong growth prospects

### Basics of Electricity

Basics of Electricity Generator Theory PJM State & Member Training Dept. PJM 2014 8/6/2013 Objectives The student will be able to: Describe the process of electromagnetic induction Identify the major components

### Report Tidal Power Generation Systems

The American University in Cairo Engineering Department ENGR 318 Spring 2001 Report Tidal Power Generation Systems Submitted to: Prof. Dr. Mahmoud Gilany By: Sherif Masoud Maher Amer Mohamed Samir Introduction

### Torque motors. direct drive technology

Torque motors direct drive technology Why Direct Drive Motors? Fast and effective Direct-drive technology in mechanical engineering is defined as the use of actuators which transfer their power directly

### Rising to the Offshore Challenge Offshore Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande, Denmark

Rising to the Offshore Challenge Offshore Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande, Denmark Content Siemens Wind Power A/S, Offshore Business Segment Our Performance Our Market Perspectives Common Challenges Our

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 7 PERFORMANCE TEST OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 7 PERFORMANCE TEST OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OBJECTIVE The primary objectives of this experiment is to measure the performance of a centrifugal pump and compare the results to the manufacturers

### Offshore Windpower M5000. Efficient. Reliable. Powerful. MULTIBRID

Offshore Windpower M5000 Efficient. Reliable. Powerful. MULTIBRID The future has already begun with us. The wind energy of tomorrow will be generated on open seas. The development of high-performance offshore

### HYDROPOWER Basics Glossary of Terms

Alternating current (AC) Electric current that reverses direction many times per second. Ampere A measure of electric current (similar to describing water volume in cubic feet per second). Ancillary services

### A CFD Study of Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

A CFD Study of Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Chris Kaminsky *, Austin Filush *, Paul Kasprzak * and Wael Mokhtar ** Department of Mechanical Engineering Grand Valley State University Grand Rapids, Michigan

### Relevance of Modern Optimization Methods in Turbo Machinery Applications

Relevance of Modern Optimization Methods in Turbo Machinery Applications - From Analytical Models via Three Dimensional Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Optimization of a Wind Turbine - Prof. Dr. Ing.

### Siemens D3 platform 3.0-MW, 3.2-MW, 3.3-MW, and 3.4-MW direct drive turbines. Reduced complexity, increased profitability. siemens.

Siemens D3 platform 3.0-MW, 3.2-MW, 3.3-MW, and 3.4-MW direct drive turbines Reduced complexity, increased profitability siemens.com / wind As the major driver of innovation with more than 30 years of

### Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems

Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems Part 1 covered the response of a single degree of freedom system to harmonic excitation without considering the effects of damping. However, almost

### Industrial Steam Turbine Control Application Note 83403 (Revision B)

Industrial Steam Turbine Control Application Note 83403 (Revision B) Woodward Governor Company reserves the right to update any portion of this publication at any time. Information provided by Woodward

### Comparison between OpenFOAM CFD & BEM theory for variable speed variable pitch HAWT

ITM Web of Conferences 2, 05001 (2014) DOI: 10.1051/itmconf/20140205001 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014 Comparison between OpenFOAM CFD & BEM theory for variable speed variable

### Siemens Wind Turbine SWT-2.3-108. The new productivity benchmark. www.siemens.com/wind

Siemens Wind Turbine SWT-2.3-108 The new productivity benchmark www.siemens.com/wind The industry standard, redefined The Siemens 2.3-MW family has firmly established itself as the tried and tested workhorse

### EFFICIENCY COMPARISON OF MODERN VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE TECHNOLOGIES

EFFICIENCY COMPARISON OF MODERN VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE TECHNOLOGIES JUNE 1993 BY EDWARD C. LEE POWERTEC INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION Abstract: Brushless D.C. technology is new to the general industrial maketplace

### Haliade 150-6MW Experiencia funcional con la nueva generación offshore

Haliade 150-6MW Experiencia funcional con la nueva generación offshore Bilbao Marine Energy week 2013 Daniel Castell, Offshore Wind Platform Director 17/04/2013 Alstom Group Three main activities in four

### Configuration study of large wind parks

Configuration study of large wind parks Stefan Lundberg Department of Electric Power Engineering CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden 2003 THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF LICENTIATE OF ENGINEERING

### Induction Motor Theory

PDHonline Course E176 (3 PDH) Induction Motor Theory Instructor: Jerry R. Bednarczyk, P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.pdhonline.org

### C Standard AC Motors

C Standard AC Standard AC C-1 Overview, Product Series... C-2 Constant... C-9 C-21 C-113 Reversible C-147 Overview, Product Series Constant Reversible Electromagnetic Brake C-155 Electromagnetic Brake

### Libellula 50/55 kw WIND TURBINE TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

Sede legale: Via Giuseppe Garibaldi 63, 59100 Prato P.IVA 02110810971 Sede operativa: Via del Mandorlo 30, 59100 Prato tel. (+39) 0574 550493 fax (+39) 0574 577854 - produzione@aria-srl.it Ufficio Commerciale:

### A wind turbine is a machine for converting the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy.

Type of Turbines Page 1 Turbines A wind turbine is a machine for converting the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. mills Turbines If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such

### GEAROLOGY 4-1 WORMS AND WORM GEARS WORMS AND WORM GEARS

GEAROLOGY 4-1 4 4-2 GEAROLOGY COMMON APPLICATIONS: Worm and worm gear sets are used in many, everyday products including: electrical mixers, hubometers, right Now that you have an understanding of two

### Application Information

Moog Components Group manufactures a comprehensive line of brush-type and brushless motors, as well as brushless controllers. The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for the selection and application

### +8, MW platform. A stable return on your investment. Reliable technology proven over generations. Meeting your investment forecasts

2 MW platform. A stable return on your investment Reliable technology proven over generations The 2 MW turbines build on technology proven over several generations, ensuring industry-leading reliability,

### Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic energy).

HYDRAULIC MACHINES Used to convert between hydraulic and mechanical energies. Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic

### V112-3.0 MW. Your best option for low cost energy production at low and medium wind sites. Federico Gonzalez Vives. Director Technology.

V112-3.0 MW Your best option for low cost energy production at low and medium wind sites Federico Gonzalez Vives. Director Technology. Vestas MED REOLTEC. Jornadas tecnicas 17 de junio de 2010 vestas.com

### Technology. Anders Vedel Executive Vice President & CTO

Technology The introduction of the V136-3.45 MW turbine as well as various other upgrades once again proves our ability to develop very competitive offerings based on our existing product portfolio and

### Mech 470 Group Report. Wind Energy

Mech 470 Group Report Wind Energy Members: Chia Wei Yeh, 21236120 Leo (XiaoHang) Fang, 42770115 Date Submitted: 2016/2/23 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Background Information... 5 Sustainability

### IPS Inboard performance system. Volvo Penta IPS, the future for fast vessels

IPS, the future for fast vessels 1 dec 2010 Save fuel and reduce environmental impact 2 dec 2010 Best efficiency with Contra Rotating propellers Double blade area means smaller prop diameter for same output

### Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel

2-7 December 27 Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel M.G. Pullinger and J.E. Sargison School of Engineering University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 71 AUSTRALIA Abstract Computational

### Synchronous motor. Type. Non-excited motors

Synchronous motor A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor in which the rotation rate of the shaft is synchronized with the frequency of the AC supply current; the rotation period is exactly equal to

### Smart Grid and Renewable Energy Grid Integration. Jian Sun, Professor and Director Department of ECSE & Center for Future Energy Systems

Smart Grid and Renewable Energy Grid Integration Jian Sun, Professor and Director Department of ECSE & Center for Future Energy Systems 1 How Smart Can We Make This Grid? 2 Smart Grid Drivers Need to Use

### WIND TURBINE DESIGN. N.D. Fowkes, A.D. Fitt, D.P. Mason and F. Bruce

WIND TURBINE DESIGN N.D. Fowkes, A.D. Fitt, D.P. Mason and F. Bruce Industry representative Richard Naidoo Durban University of Technology, Durban, Natal, South Africa Abstract The brief was to design

### Azimuth thrusters. propulsors

Azimuth s Rolls-Royce is a global leader in the supply of azimuth s. In an azimuth the propeller rotates 360 around the vertical axis so the unit provides propulsion, steering and positioning thrust for

### Survey of CVTs for Robot Joints. Simon Kalouche CMU Robotics Institute

Survey of CVTs for Robot Joints Simon Kalouche CMU Robotics Institute Types of CVTs Friction Drives Cone Drives Disk Drives Spherical Drives Pulley-Belt Drives Torodial CVT Infinitely Variable Transmission

### How to use the Technical Timing Belt Calculation Program

How to use the Technical Timing Belt Calculation Program The Timing Belt Calculation Program is made for beginners as well as for experts. It is designed in a clear and comprehensible way and guides the

### Industrial Vibration Analysis for Predictive Maintenance and Improved Machine Reliability

Connection Technology Center, Inc. 590 Fishers Station Drive Victor, New York 14564 Toll Free: (800) 999-5290 Phone: (585) 924-5900 Fax: (585) 924-4680 Industrial Vibration Analysis for Predictive Maintenance

### GE Power & Water Renewable Energy. Digital Wind Farm THE NEXT EVOLUTION OF WIND ENERGY. www.ge.com/wind

GE Power & Water Renewable Energy Digital Wind Farm THE NEXT EVOLUTION OF WIND ENERGY www.ge.com/wind GE S DIGITAL WIND FARM PITCH Since entering the wind industry in 2002, GE Power & Water s Renewable

### www.northernpower.com A wind turbine for Businesses, Schools and Farms

www.northernpower.com A wind turbine for Businesses, Schools and Farms Direct. To Businesses, Schools and Farms Everywhere. Around the world, turbines are sprouting out of the ground, making wind one of

### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR TWO PHASE FLOW DISTRIBUTION HEADERS IN HEAT EXCHANGERS

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR TWO PHASE FLOW DISTRIBUTION HEADERS IN HEAT EXCHANGERS B.Babu 1, Florence.T 2, M.Punithavalli 3, B.R.Rohit 4 1 Assistant professor, Department of mechanical engineering, Rathinam

Chapter 2 Lead Screws 2.1 Screw Threads The screw is the last machine to joint the ranks of the six fundamental simple machines. It has a history that stretches back to the ancient times. A very interesting

### MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

### Design and Characterization of a Small Wind Turbine Model equipped with a Pitching System

Design and Characterization of a Small Wind Turbine Model equipped with a Pitching System In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the degree Master of Science in Engineering Renewable Energy and

### Tips For Selecting DC Motors For Your Mobile Robot

Tips For Selecting DC Motors For Your Mobile Robot By AJ Neal When building a mobile robot, selecting the drive motors is one of the most important decisions you will make. It is a perfect example of an