Research on the Impact of. Gender on CLTS Processes. UNC WATER AND HEALTH CONFERENCE 13th 19th OCTOBER By Mary Namwebe

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1 Research on the Impact of Gender on CLTS Processes UNC WATER AND HEALTH CONFERENCE 13th 19th OCTOBER 2014 By Mary Namwebe

2 Presentation outline Back ground Research Objectives Methodology Research Findings Recommendations

3 Back ground Africa, 231 million people defecate in the open 11 million people in Uganda have no access to sanitation OD costs Uganda $41 million annually & results in the death of 19,700 chn > 5 each year from diarrhoea CLTS empowers communities to stop open defecation so that they build and use latrines without any hardware subsidy Involvement of women in sanitation activities is vital, not only b se it raises their status in the community, but also it improves programming

4 Research Objectives Find out how CLTS processes have facilitated the participation of men, women, boys and girls and disadvantaged groups in decision making processes Examine existing power relations within the communities and how they affect responses to CLTS facilitation & the potential to collective action towards ODF

5 Research Objectives Determine the extent to which CLTS processes have improved opportunities for men, women, girls, boys & deprived groups to access sanitation, own & control other resources. To identify gender concerns and cultural factors inhibiting the CLTS processes & recommend solutions. Propose strategies to improve gender mainstreaming within CLTS processes.

6 Methodology Target areas: 3 parishes in Tororo and 2 in Luwero,ODF & Non ODF Research mtds: Purposive sampling Popn: Heads of HH, natural leaders, children, health inspectors, CDOs, Village Health Teams, local leaders, PLWHAs & PWDs

7 Methodology Utilized quantitative & qualitative techniques to collect data Document analysis,key Informant Interviews & Focus Group Discussions 38 Key informants & 22 Focus Group Discussions

8 Research Findings Participation, inclusion & decision making Both men & women were involved in CLTS activities Disadvantaged grps were enthusiastic about CLTS activities but powerlessness & poverty limited their participation - Need to develop a strategy to include them in collective action

9 Participation, inclusion & decision making Children participated in motivational activities i.e. fetching water, refilling tippy taps, removing younger siblings faeces from the compound Everyday after coming from school my daughter used to whimper for a latrine at home. She had learn t that OD caused illness & hampers dignity. Then one day she refused taking meals. As a result, I went to buy materials for latrine construction. Parent ;Tororo

10 Gender & Power relations Women were fully involved both in decision making & implementation of CLTS activities. Women regarded themselves key leaders and men supervisors of CLTS. 42.9% respondents reported the number of female facilitators of the CLTS process was one-three CLTS inspired other social changes in women s lives. i.e. latrine installation in HHs contributed to better relations with neighbors & family. Working together created good social networks (VSLA,Visits)

11 Gender & Power Relations Latrine construction was presumed to be a man s initiative, though the study found that women equally participated in putting a latrine in place-women headed HHs Change in gender division of labour at hh level. i.e.men not only construct latrines, but also clean latrines, provide anal cleansing materials & water for hand washing. Women can now engage in other economic activities.

12 Opportunities, ownership & control of resources Improved skills for sanitation & hygiene (squat covers) stimulated additional skills i.e. mats, pots, cook stoves. Increased prodn; Due to improved cleanliness women grew more vegetables to improve family diet & to boost hsehold income.

13 Opportunities,ownership & control of resources since I started participating in CLTS, I have stopped sleeping from7.00 p.m to 7.00 a.m. I am now involved in other work and business Male respondent Maintaining rubbish pits has enabled members to make compost manure to increase the soil fertility, thus boosting agricultural production

14 Socio-cultural barriers to achieving & sustaining ODF status Women were overburdened with reproductive & productive tasks which left them with limited time to take care of sanitation In-laws not sharing facilities for defecation Disability inhibited some HH heads to fully participate in CLTS activities latrine construction

15 Recommendations Hold gender awareness sessions to enable them appreciate gender relations in CLTS Conduct exchange visits between communities to foster learning on gender equality & ODF sustainability. CLTS programs should be informed by a gender analysis. Identify issues & solutions Initiate dialogues on how to support the disadvantaged groups to access & maintain latrine facilities

16 Reaction to survey results Gender analysis integrated in CLTS program design & implementation Gender dialogues at community level Provision of safe water in ODF communities Focus on menstrual hygiene management in ODF communities Exchange visits at community level

17 End Thank you Asante Merci

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