1 The Way Constructions Grow 1 Michael Israel UC San Diego This paper examines the history of the Modern English wayconstruction, a construction which has recently been the focus of a number of theoretical works on argument structure constraints in synchronic grammar (Levin & Rapoport 1988, Jackendoff 1990, Marantz 1992, Goldberg, in press). The present work seeks to show the relevance of a diachronic perspective to the general issues of synchronic grammatical representation raised by these studies. It will be shown that the modern construction arose out of three distinct, but related early usages, and that each of these usages developed independently through a process of gradual, analogical extensions. Drawing on a diachronic corpus of 1,211 examples from the OED on CD-ROM, along with contemporary examples from the Oxford University Press corpus, I will argue that the evolution of this construction provides strong support for a usagebased model of grammar in which linguistic knowledge is organized around the two complementary principles of (global) schema extraction and (local) analogical extension (cf. Bybee 1988, Langacker 1988, Barlow & Kemmer 1992). Following Langacker, I assume that the grammar of a language is properly understood as a structured inventory of conventional linguistic units (1987: 57), and that the organization of this inventory largely reflects the experience speakers have of actual linguistic usage. This usage-based approach to language is distinguished from traditional generative approaches by being maximalist, non-reductive and bottom-up. The approach is maximalist in that it views language as a massive, highly redundant inventory in which conventional units run the gamut from full generality to complete idiosyncrasy (1988: 131). It is non-reductive in that it allows for both general rules (or schemas) and specific instances of those rules as part of a speaker s grammatical competence. Finally, it is bottom-up in that the general rules are 1 This paper has benefitted from the comments of Kathleen Ahrens, Michael Barlow, Kathy Carey, Rich Epstein, Gilles Fauconnier, Adele Goldberg, Ron Langacker and Karin Pizer. Special thanks are due to Suzanne Kemmer who first set me on this project and whose influence pervades its results. The foolish things that remain are entirely my own fault.
2 themselves understood as schematizations over experienced instances, so that the overall structure of the grammar is determined not by general cognitive principles alone, but also crucially by the probabilistic vagaries of experienced linguistic usage. In what follows, I provide empirical support for this general theoretical view of language. 1. The Modern Way-Construction The modern way-construction is illustrated below in (1-3). (1) Rasselas dug his way out of the Happy Valley. (2) The wounded soldiers limped their way across the field. (3) %Convulsed with laughter, she giggled her way up the stairs. Each of these examples in its own way entails the movement of the subject referent along the path indicated by the prepositional phrase. In (1) the verb codes a means of achieving this motion, i.e. the creation of a path. In (2) the verb elaborates the manner in which this motion is achieved. And in (3) the verb describes an incidental activity of the subject as she moves along the path. These three usages--means, manner, and incidental activity--give a rough sense of the range of the present day construction, though we should note that examples like that in (3) are at best marginal for many speakers. As will be seen, this usage is a late entry in the history of the construction. A variety of facts justify us in viewing these sentences as instances of a grammatical construction, that is, as a conventional pairing of form and meaning (Fillmore, Kay and O Connor 1988, Fillmore and Kay 1993; for further arguments that the construction is a construction, see Jackendoff 1990 and Goldberg 1995, in press). First, the construction assigns an idiomatic interpretation to sentences having the general form [NPj [V NPj s way OBL]]: in all cases the subject s movement is entailed, whether or not that entailment can be derived from the normal lexical semantics of any part of the sentence. Moreover, the argument structure of these sentences is often not regularly projected from the meaning of the verb: in (2) the normally intransitive limp takes a direct object; in (3) giggle acts like a motion verb with both a direct object and a directional PP. Finally, despite this idiomatic interpretation and unusual argument structure, the construction is used productively with a diverse array of predicates.
3 These facts are amply illustrated by modern attested examples in which we find, among other things, a woman crunching her way across a glass-strewn room, a gadget that bleeps and snoops its way into answering machines, a man who knits his way across the Atlantic, a film with Glenn Gould brooding his way across a frozen lake, and some unfortunate people who snorted and injected their way to oblivion. Such diverse examples show that we are dealing here with a very productive pattern. One way or another, the construction must be listed as a conventional part of English grammar. Still the question remains, how should the construction be represented? The most economical way would be to posit a single schematic entry that captures all and only the range of possible usages. Such is the strategy advocated by Jackendoff, who proposes the correspondence rule reproduced in figure 1 (1990: 221): [ V [ NP 's way ] PP ] may correspond to VP h NP j k GO ( [ α], [ Path ] ) j k AFF ( [ ] α, ) i [WITH/BY AFF ( [ α ], ) - BOUNDED EVENT Figure 1 ] h Abstracting from the formal details, Jackendoff presents the construction as a conventional correspondence between a syntactic form and a conceptual structure. As he notes, the representation is much like that of a simple lexical entry, differing only in that instead of specifying the syntactic head and leaving the complements open, it specifies a complement (NP s way) and leaves the head open (1990: 222). But there is reason to think that the head is perhaps not quite so open. As noted above, not all verbs are equally felicitous in the construction, the incidental activity usage in (3) being for many speakers marginal or worse. For this reason, Goldberg (in press) suggests that minimally the construction should be viewed as a simple polysemy network, with the incidental activity interpretation
4 counting as an extension from a more basic means sense 2. This minimal enrichment effectively splits the representation in two, thus capturing the construction s variable interpretation (note the WITH/BY split in Jackendoff s conceptual structure) and according a different status to each of the two interpretations. The split has the further advantage of allowing us to associate different semantic constraints with each interpretation. As Goldberg notes, while the means interpretation is generally limited to coding motion achieved despite some obstacle or difficulty, no such constraint appears to hold for the incidental activity usage. Still, there is reason to think that the simple polysemy hypothesis does not go far enough. As Goldberg herself points out, a survey of attested examples reveals that usage tends to cluster around certain narrowly defined semantic verb classes. Thus we commonly find examples with verbs of winding motion (pick, thread, wind, wend, worm, snake, serpent, weave) and laborious motion (plod, crawl, grind, slog, stumble); with fighting verbs (fight, force, claw, elbow, knee, push) and cutting verbs (cut, hack, plow, dig, tunnel, eat, chew); and with noisy verbs (crash, crunch, clang, warble, sob, snarl), among others. As Goldberg has argued for the English ditransitive construction, clusterings of this sort suggest that speakers are aware, not only of general syntactic patterns, but also of the particular ways those patterns tend to be instantiated in use (1995: ). In what follows, I argue that speakers are indeed aware of both the general patterns and their specific instances, and further that the specific instances play an important role in the grammar. The wayconstruction will thus be viewed as a massive and highly redundant network of related usages represented at multiple levels of schematicity. At the most fine-grained level, the representation includes information about specific verbs and their frequency of occurrence in the construction. Moving up a level of schematicity, verbs are clustered into types along a variety of semantic parameters. Because these types more or less fill up all of semantic space (or that portion covered by unbounded activity verbs) they provide ample motivation for higher order representations schematizing over prominent subsets of usages, and ultimately for Jackendoff s maximally schematic entry specifying only that the verb should mark an unbounded activity. These schematic categories may then 2 My terminology differs from that of Goldberg, who uses manner for what I term incidental activity and handles examples like 1 and 2 both as instances of a means usage.
5 serve as the basis for novel usages of the construction, and thus can be seen to play an important and complementary role to that of the specific instantiations. 2. Growth and History of the Construction The modern way-construction can be traced back to three early usages in which a possessed way appeared in direct object position with verbs of motion, path creation and possession. All three of these proto-usages were independently motivated by the lexical semantics of way, and each formed the basis for an independent thread of analogical extensions. In this section I briefly trace the development of two of these analogical threads from the fourteenth century to the present, confining my attention, for the most part, to the verbs which characterize them. The manner thread started with simple verbs of motion and gradually evolved to include a wide range of very colorful predicates coding a manner of motion. The means thread began with verbs of path clearing and creation and evolved to include predicates coding almost any means of achieving motion 3. Not until the nineteenth century, when both threads were already quite richly elaborated, did they begin to tangle into a single category and so to obscure their original, independent motivations The Manner Thread. The manner thread has its roots in a much more general ME construction, the go-your-path-construction, in which a motion verb took an optional possessed path argument: as (4-5) suggest, any noun meaning something like way appears to have worked in this construction. (4) To madian lond, wente he his ride. (c Genesis & Exodus, 3950) (5) Tho wente he his strete, tho flewe I doun. (1481. Caxton, Reynard (Arb), 55) Examples with way constitute a special case of this more general construction and are common from at least 1350 on. Early instances 3 The third thread, which I omit for lack of space, involved usages with verbs like keep, hold, take, snatch and find coding the acquisition or maintenance of possession of a path. These usages were very common in early stages of the construction. But unlike the other two threads, this usage shrank rather than expanded over time, so that now only find (still one of the most of the common predicates in the modern construction) and a few other verbs remain to represent it.
6 tend to feature high-frequency motion verbs like go, ride, run, pursue, wend and pass. (6) He lape one horse and passit his way. (1375. Barbour, The Bruce xxxiii) (7) The kyng took a laghtre, and wente his way. (1412. Hoccleve, De Reg. Princ., 3400) (8) Now wyl I go wende my way With sore syeng and wel away. (1450. Coventry Mysteries, Cain & Abel 193) (9) I ran my way and let hym syt Smoke and shitten arse together. (1557. Welth & Helth) Up to 1700 only sixteen distinct verb types are attested in this thread, and most of these are common, basic-level words. The construction gradually expands, as verbs coding path shape, rate, and manner of motion find their way into usage by analogy with the more basic motion verbs already established in the construction. In addition to those shown in (10-12), these novel verbs include sweep, wale, creep, plod, pick and wheel, among others. (10) From Samos have I wing d my way. (1667. Congreve, Semele ii. i. 2) (11) He windes his oblique way Amongst innumerable Stars. (1667. Milton, P.L, iii. 563) (12) The moving legions speed their headlong way. ( Pope, Iliad, ii.) By the early nineteenth century, the construction had become fairly productive, and between 1826 and 1875 we find as many as 38 distinct verbs of motion occurring in the construction. By now the role of analogy as a guiding force in the construction s evolution is apparent, as new forms entering the construction tend to cluster around certain well-defined semantic prototypes. In particular, we find a large number of verbs coding difficult or laborious motion-- plod, totter, shamble, scramble, churn, sap, grope and grabble, grind, flounder and fumble--as well as a good number of verbs coding winding, tortuous paths--wend, wind, thread, corkscrew, worm, serpentine and insinuate. The examples in (13-16) give some small sense of the construction s range at this point. (13) She started up, and fumbled her way down the dark stairs. (1801. Gabrielli s Mysterious Husband, III. 80)
7 (14) The poor Dominie..weariedly plodded his way towards Woodbourne. (1815. Scott, Guy M. xxviii) (15) Mr. Bantam corkscrewed his way through the crowd. (1837, Dickens, Pickwick Papers xxxv) (16) He was merely serpentining his way to the part of the details. (1837. T. Hook, Jack Brag viii) Finally, by the end of the nineteenth century we begin to find verbs like crunch, crash, sing, toot and pipe--encoding not motion per se, but rather the noise that inevitably accompanies certain forms of motion. While this extension begins with a few isolated instances (examples with ring (1836) and crunch (1851) lead the way), a welldefined usage quickly emerges as novel verbs are added by analogy with these innovating leaders. (17) There is a full stream that tumbles into the sea..after singing its way down from the heights of Burrule. (1890. Hall, Caine Bondman, ii. iii) (18) Such a paltry collection of commonplace tunes..as jingle-jangles and drums its way through the piece. (1899. Westminster Gazette, 13 Feb 3/1) (19) The cars that buzzed and clanged their way past Wayne were filled to the running-boards. (1917. Mathewson, Second Base Sloan, 248) The remarkable thing about this long evolution is the consistency of usage over the centuries. In every period certain predicates--go, make, work, pursue, wing--tend to recur and predominate in usage. And as new usages modestly build on the range of established of predicates, the construction gradually increases in productivity. Long strings of analogical extensions lead to discrete clusters of usage, which then license the extraction of more abstract schemas for the construction. These basic observations turn out to hold equally for the means thread The Means Thread. The created path usage which forms the basis for the means thread comes in fairly late at the end of the sixteenth century. By 1650, examples include verbs like pave and smooth from the domain of road building, verbs of path clearing like cut, furrow out, poke out and eat out, as well as the more general force out coding the general physical exertion required to make one s way.
8 (20) Like as a fearefull Dove, which through the raine Of the wide ayre her way does cut amaine. (1590. Spenser, F. Q. i. v. 28) (21) Arminius paved his way first by aspersing and sugillating the fame and authority of Calvin. (1647. Trapp, Com. Acts xxi. 28) (22) Bacon was one of those that smoothed his way to a full ripeness by liquorish and pleasing passages. (1653. A. Wilson, Jas. I, 37) Over the next hundred years many of these predicates recur and many similar ones enter into usage. By 1750 we find several more examples from the domain of road building--bridge, chalk out--and many more coding some notion of clearing or cutting--hew out, sheer, shave out, corrode, plough, dig, clear, free. Note that usages like these necessarily imply that the motion is not easy (otherwise, why build a path?), and so lay the basis for Goldberg s constraint that motion be achieved despite some obstacle. The cutting category remains the main attractor of new predicates for some time, but extensions do gradually emerge. The fighting usage, illustrated in (23) and (24), is a particularly prominent example, entering into usage around 1770 and rapidly becoming entrenched as a new source of analogical extensions. (23) Every step that he takes he must battle his way. (1794. Southey, Bot. Bay. Eclog. iii) (24) Fighting his way to a chair of rhetoric. (1816. Scott, Antiquities, xxxi) The usage here is presumably motivated by the common use of force in the construction and, perhaps, by a frequent occurrence of the cutting usage for battle scenes. By 1875 examples include uses with push, struggle, jostle, elbow, shoulder, knee, beat and shoot. In the nineteenth century, as the manner thread experiences a rapid expansion, the means thread begins to allow verbs encoding increasingly indirect ways of reaching a goal. In (25-28) the verbs do not depict any physical exertion but rather mark various social and psychological sorts of activity which enable (literal or metaphorical) motion. In (29-30), where the overtly coded action only incidentally enables motion, the causal link is even more indirect. Cattermole may get to oblivion by means of his bad painting, but there is no sense in which this activity necessarily leads to this end, nor even that Cattermole was ever trying to get there.
9 (25) Sad deeds bewailing of the prowling fox; How in the roost the thief had knav d his way. (1821. John Clare, The Village Minstrel I. 18) (26) He...smirked his way to a pedagogal desk. (1823. New Monthly Magazine VII. 386) (27) Not one man in five hundred could have spelled his way through a psalm. (1849. Macaulay, History of England iii. I. 405) (28) The passionate absorbedness with which..intellect has plumbed its way forward in search of God. (1881. Robertson, in Sunday Mag., April, 245) (29) Cattermole...now prostitutes his talent...and blots his way to emolument and oblivion. (1844. John Ruskin, Modern Painters Pref. 67) (30) Addison wrote his way with his Whig pamphlets to a secretaryship of state. (1890. T. F. Tout, History of England, 111) By the time examples of this sort appear in the construction, the cutting and fighting usages were well entrenched, and these, along with the well established manner uses, allowed for the extraction of increasingly abstract schemas which could generalize over the range of established usages. Such schemas naturally supply a solid basis for increasingly far-flung extensions. The farthest-flung are cases in which the verb codes neither a means nor a manner of motion, but rather some incidental activity that happens to accompany motion. As noted in section 1, usages of this sort are still unacceptable for many speakers; however, they have been around since at least (31) He..whistled his way to the main front-door. (1866. Blackmore, Cradock Nowell xvi) (32) He ahs and ers, and hums and hawes his way through an incredibly fatuous pronouncement. (1931. Time & Tide 12 Sept. 1057) Note that this extension appears to be equally well-motivated as stemming from either the means or the manner thread. Until well into the twentieth century instances of this sort consistently involve sounds produced in the process of moving, and as such they appear to be extensions from examples like (17-19) in which the verb encodes a noisy manner of motion. On the other hand, it is equally plausible to think of these as extensions from the means thread, since the notion of an incidental activity that accompanies motion is really but one small step away from cases like (29-30) coding activities that incidentally enable motion.
10 Really, there is no reason we should have to choose. By the time such usages begin to emerge, the two threads are already so entangled that it is often difficult to decide for a particular novel extension whether it should count as means or manner. The growth of the two threads had inevitably led to areas of overlap between them, and the extreme range of established usages naturally led speakers to reanalyze the categories that underlay them. Doubtless, the reanalysis was not sudden, for there is no discernible break in the long chain of analogical extensions that clearly precipitated it. Still, speakers must have gradually reorganized the links that mediated this increasingly vast network of usages, uniting them into what then became the modern construction Generalizations and Discussion The basic developments that characterize the growth of the wayconstruction appear to be remarkably straightforward. Early predicates associated with the construction tended to be less unusual and more schematic, while later predicates include nonce forms (e.g. in 32), onomatopoetic noisy verbs, and generally a variety of unusual and highly specific subordinate-level words. As usage began to include increasingly recherché sorts of verbs, the construction s conceptual range gradually expanded: in early stages the construction was limited to verbs which were somehow directly related to motion or path creation; in later stages, the construction allows verbs which are only marginally or incidentally related to the actual expressed motion. It is useful, in this light, to consider the construction, in the terminology of Fauconnier and Turner (1994, this volume), as an example of a syntactic blend--that is, as a specialized grammatical pattern serving to combine disparate conceptual contents in a single, compact linguistic form. Essentially, the modern construction provides a way to blend the conceptual content of an activity verb with the basic idea of motion along a path. The trend toward verbs coding activities which are increasingly marginal to the achievement of motion thus reflects the construction s gradually increasing power to blend different types of events into a single conceptual package. 4 For similar developments in which diachronic pressures led to the reconceptualization of a complex category see Geeraerts (1990), Melis (1990) and Winters (1989).
11 Crucially, the construction did not acquire this power over night. The transition from the early simple uses to the later more elaborate ones involved a long process of local extensions, with each successive phase of usage building on the established patterns of earlier generations. While this paper has emphasized the conceptual side of these extensions, it is important to note that the construction s emergence has a formal side to it as well, and that this formal development was also very gradual in nature. Note that several of the diachronic examples (6-10, 12) lack an overtly expressed oblique argument, despite the fact that in modern usage the oblique is essentially obligatory in the construction. In coding the corpus, my strategy was to accept as an instance of the construction any sentence which: (1) includes a non-oblique possessed way argument; (2) has the possessive coindexed with the subject; and (3) entails, or at least allows the implicature, that motion was achieved. The result is that many examples without overt obliques are included in the corpus; interestingly, however, their distribution is hardly random. Table 1 Total Tokens # No Obl. % No Obl % % % % % % % % % % Table 1 lists the total number of tokens occurring at each stage in the history of the construction, and shows in the rightmost columns the number and percentage of tokens occurring without an overt oblique. As can be seen, while such instances were common in early stages of the construction, originally including more than half of the attested examples, their frequency gradually declined over several centuries. Indeed, by the twentieth century what few examples remain tend to occur in specialized, idiomatic instances of the construction, as in the expression I went my own way. The gradual disappearance of such examples follows a linear function. It thus
12 appears that, just as the construction s general productivity emerged from a long series of analogical extensions and increasingly abstract constructional schemas, so did the construction s modern form slowly emerge as general statistical tendencies became strengthened into rigid, categorial constraints. 4. Conclusions The way-construction emerged gradually over the course of several centuries. There is no single moment we can point to and say, This is where the construction entered the grammar. Rather, a long process of local analogical extensions led a variety of idiomatic usages to gradually gain in productive strength even as they settled into a rigid syntax. As the range of predicates spread, increasingly abstract schemas could be extracted from them and this in turn drove the process of increasing productivity. Trivially, any synchronic model of grammatical organization must be reconcilable with the observed facts of linguistic change. Since the growth of the way-construction only makes sense if speakers somehow kept track of which verbs were used in it and how frequently they were used, it follows that such information must be available to speakers as part of their knowledge of a language. The evidence from the way-construction suggests that while speakers surely do rely on abstract grammatical knowledge, the role of actual linguistic usage in organizing that knowledge may be much greater than is generally supposed. I should emphasize that these conclusions are not just special facts about unusual idioms like the way-construction. One clear result from work on grammaticalization is that change tends to occur in local contexts (Hopper and Traugott 1993:2). Recent work by Carey (1994, this volume) demonstrates that the shift from resultativity to the coding of perfect aspect in English started with narrowly defined usages involving verbs of mental state, perception and communication, and only gradually expanded to uses with other verbs. Similarly, Hare and Elman (in press) provide a connectionist model showing how the growth of English strong and weak verb classes was driven by analogical extensions within narrowly defined verb classes (cf. Tabor 1993 for similar work on the degree modifiers kinda and sorta). More generally, the work reported here reflects a tendency in theoretical work towards viewing the organization of grammar as driven by and arising from the demands of actual linguistic processing and usage (Barlow and Kemmer 1992,
13 Bates and MacWhinney 1987, Bybee 1988, Kemmer and Israel 1994, Langacker 1987, 1988). By way of conclusion, I would like to suggest two very general principles that might be invoked to explain the sorts of phenomena discussed in this paper. 1. The Production Principle (Analogical Usage): Utterances should sound like things the speaker has heard before. 2. The Comprehension Principle (Schema Abstraction): Representations should capture similarities across experienced usages. These principles are intended to capture the complementary roles of schema extraction and analogical extension in the organization of grammatical knowledge. The production principle represents a tendency toward conservatism and reflects the fact that people tend to talk like the people they identify with. The comprehension principle, on the other hand, is a force for innovation and reflects the fact that, in general, people will seek to accommodate and make sense of even the most unexpected novel utterances. Of course, individuals may be expected to show considerable variation both in their commitment to these principles and in their ability to execute them (not everyone is a perfect mimic, and not everyone will extract the same generalizations). Still, I would suggest that the two principles together do provide a useful basis to begin thinking about the complementary roles of innovation and imitation in mediating between abstract linguistic abilities (i.e. competence) and actual linguistic usage (i.e. performance). References Barlow, Michael & Suzanne Kemmer A Schema-Based Approach to Grammatical Description. Paper delivered at the 21st Annual Linguistics Symposium, The Reality of Linguistic Rules, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Bates, Elizabeth, & Brian MacWhinney Competition, Variation, and Language Learning. In B. MacWhinney, ed., Mechanisms of Language Acquisition, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
14 Bybee, Joan Morphology as Lexical Organization. In Michael Hammond and Michael Noonan, eds., Theoretical Morphology, San Diego: Academic Press. Carey, Kathleen Pragmatics, Subjectivity and the Grammaticalization of the English Perfect. PhD dissertation, UC San Diego. Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner Conceptual Projection and Middle Spaces. Technical Report Dept. of Cognitive Science, UCSD. Fillmore, Charles J., and Paul Kay Construction Grammar. Ms., U.C. Berkeley. Fillmore, Charles J., Paul Kay, & Mary Catherine O Connor Regularity and Idiomaticity in Grammatical Constructions: The Case of Let Alone. Language 64: Geeraerts, Dirk Homonymy, Iconicity, and Prototypicality. Belgian Journal of Linguistics 5, Goldberg, Adele Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.. In press Making One s Way through the Data. In Alex Alsina, Joan Bresnan & Peter Sells, eds., Complex Predicates, Stanford: CSLI. Hare, Mary, & Jeff Elman. In press. Learning and Morphological Change. In Cognition. Hopper, Paul & Elizabeth Traugott Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridged Univ. Press. Jackendoff, Ray Press. Semantic Structures. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Kemmer, Suzanne & Michael Israel Variation and the Usage- Based Model. In Papers from the Parasession on Variation and Linguistic Theory. Chicago: CLS. Langacker, Ronald W Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. I: Theoretical Prerequisites. Stanford: Stanford University Press A Usage-Based Model. In Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn, ed., Topics in Cognitive Linguistics, Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Levin, Beth & T. Rapoport Lexical Subordination. CLS 24.
15 Marantz, Alec The way-construction and the Semantics of Direct Arguments in English: A Reply to Jackendoff. In Syntax and Semantics Vol. 26: Syntax and the Lexicon. New York: Academic Press. Melis, Ludo Pronominal verbs in Old and and Modern French, or How prototypes can be restructured on the basis of permanent meaning effects. Belgian Journal of Linguistics 5: Tabor, Whitney The Gradual Development of Degree Modifier Sort of and Kind of: A Corpus Proximity Model. to appear in CLS 29. Chicago: CLS. Winters, Margaret Diachronic Prototype Theory: on the evolution of the French subjunctive. Linguistics 27:
CURRICULUM VITAE Whitney Tabor Department of Psychology University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06269 U.S.A. (860) 486-4910 (Office) (860) 429-2729 (Home) email@example.com http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~ps300vc/tabor.html
331 SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR AND CONSTRUCTION GRAMMAR Francis Y. LIN Alex X. PENG (School of Foreign Languages and Literatures / Beijing Normal University) ABSTRACT: Construction Grammar (CG) as developed
Grammar: Functional Approaches William Croft MSC03 2130, Linguistics 1 University of New Mexico Albuquerque NM 87131-0001 USA Abstract The term functional or functionalist has been applied to any approach
COMPARATIVES WITHOUT DEGREES: A NEW APPROACH FRIEDERIKE MOLTMANN IHPST, Paris firstname.lastname@example.org It has become common to analyse comparatives by using degrees, so that John is happier than Mary would
C h a p t e r 4 USAGE-BASED THEORY AND EXEMPLAR REPRESENTATIONS OF CONSTRUCTIONS joa n l. by be e 4.1. Introduction: Usage-based Theory The basic premise of Usage-based Theory is that experience with language
Doe wat je niet laten kan: A usage-based analysis of Dutch causative constructions Natalia Levshina RU Quantitative Lexicology and Variational Linguistics Faculteit Letteren Subfaculteit Taalkunde K.U.Leuven
SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE OBJECTIVES the game is to say something new with old words RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Journals (1849) In this chapter, you will learn: how we categorize words how words
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI ROMA TRE FACOLTÀ DI LETTERE E FILOSOFIA DIPARTIMENTO DI LINGUISTICA DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN LINGUISTICA SINCRONICA, DIACRONICA E APPLICATA XIX CICLO A.A. 2005/2006 Parole sintagmatiche
Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes Julia Krysztofiak May 16, 2006 1 Methodological preliminaries 1.1 Generative grammars as theories of linguistic competence The study is concerned with
Lexical Competition: Round in English and Dutch Joost Zwarts * Abstract This paper studies the semantic division of labour between three Dutch words, om, rond and rondom, all three corresponding to the
J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature
The case of over 95 Reconsidering prepositional polysemy networks: the case of over * Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans 1. Introduction We focus here on the issue of semantic polysemy, the phenomenon whereby
Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. How the Computer Translates Machine translation is a special field of computer application where almost everyone believes that he/she is a specialist.
Historical Linguistics Diachronic Analysis What is Historical Linguistics? Historical linguistics is the study of how languages change over time and of their relationships with other languages. All languages
Orit Hazzan's Column Abstraction in Computer Science & Software Engineering: A Pedagogical Perspective This column is coauthored with Jeff Kramer, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London ABSTRACT
Register Differences between Prefabs in Native and EFL English MARIA WIKTORSSON 1 Introduction In the later stages of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learning, and foreign language learning in general,
Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Phrase Structure Grammar no movement, no transformations, context-free rules X/Y = X is a category which dominates a missing category Y Let G be the set of basic
Acknowledgements This Master thesis would not have its current shape without the help of several people. I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr Marjolijn Verspoor, who guided me through the process of
Department of Psychology University of California, Berkeley Tolman Hall, Rm. 3315 Berkeley, CA 94720 Phone: (650) 823-9488; Email: email@example.com http://ladlab.ucsd.edu/srinivasan.html Education
Movement and Binding Gereon Müller Institut für Linguistik Universität Leipzig SoSe 2008 www.uni-leipzig.de/ muellerg Gereon Müller (Institut für Linguistik) Constraints in Syntax 4 SoSe 2008 1 / 35 Principles
Sounds Like Like Peter Lasersohn University of Rochester Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between one reading where it denotes a two-place relation between individuals and properties,
Author Gender Identification of English Novels Joseph Baena and Catherine Chen December 13, 2013 1 Introduction Machine learning algorithms have long been used in studies of authorship, particularly in
First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he
Overview of MT techniques Malek Boualem (FT) This section presents an standard overview of general aspects related to machine translation with a description of different techniques: bilingual, transfer,
Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group
METAPHOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN S MENTAL CALCULATION Chris Bills Oxfordshire Mathematics Centre, Oxford OX4 3DW, UK. Abstract: In this study 7-9 year old children performed mental calculations and were then
The compositional semantics of same Mike Solomon Amherst College Abstract Barker (2007) proposes the first strictly compositional semantic analysis of internal same. I show that Barker s analysis fails
SPADA, Nina. Foreign Language Teaching: an interview with Nina Spada. ReVEL, vol. 2, n. 2, 2004. ISSN 1678-8931 [www.revel.inf.br/eng]. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AN INTERVIEW WITH NINA SPADA Nina Spada
Developing a Theory-Based Ontology for Best Practices Knowledge Bases Daniel E. O Leary University of Southern California 3660 Trousdale Parkway Los Angeles, CA 90089-0441 firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Knowledge
Language Meaning and Use Raymond Hickey, English Linguistics Website: www.uni-due.de/ele Types of meaning There are four recognisable types of meaning: lexical meaning, grammatical meaning, sentence meaning
Course Description (MA Degree) Eng. 508 Semantics (3 Credit hrs.) This course is an introduction to the issues of meaning and logical interpretation in natural language. The first part of the course concentrates
Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all
Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1 1. Introduction Thus far, we ve considered two competing analyses of sentences like those in (1). (1) Sentences Where a Quantificational
Carnegie Mellon University Research Showcase @ CMU Department of Psychology Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences 6-1997 Implicit and Explicit Processes Brian MacWhinney Carnegie Mellon University,
Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT This handout is designed to give you a very brief (and, of necessity, incomplete) overview of the different types of sentence structure and how the elements of
Intro to Linguistics Semantics Jarmila Panevová & Jirka Hana January 5, 2011 Overview of topics What is Semantics The Meaning of Words The Meaning of Sentences Other things about semantics What to remember
Composition as Explanation Gertrude Stein First delivered by the author as a lecture at Cambridge and Oxford, this essay was first published by the Hogarth Press in London in 1926 and revived in the volume
English Descriptive Grammar 2015/2016 Code: 103410 ECTS Credits: 6 Degree Type Year Semester 2500245 English Studies FB 1 1 2501902 English and Catalan FB 1 1 2501907 English and Classics FB 1 1 2501910
Hume on identity over time and persons phil 20208 Jeff Speaks October 3, 2006 1 Why we have no idea of the self........................... 1 2 Change and identity................................. 2 3 Hume
Frege s theory of sense Jeff Speaks August 25, 2011 1. Three arguments that there must be more to meaning than reference... 1 1.1. Frege s puzzle about identity sentences 1.2. Understanding and knowledge
A Beautiful Four Days in Berlin Takafumi Maekawa (Ryukoku University) email@example.com 1. The Data This paper presents an analysis of such noun phrases as in (1) within the framework of Head-driven
Rethinking the relationship between transitive and intransitive verbs Students with whom I have studied grammar will remember my frustration at the idea that linking verbs can be intransitive. Nonsense!
English is a European language of which the grammatical structure is considerably simplified. It has lost much of its former complicated structures consisting of declensions and conjugations, which are
FRAMING EFFECTS A framing effect is usually said to occur when equivalent descriptions of a decision problem lead to systematically different decisions. Framing has been a major topic of research in the
D. MacLaughlin & S. McEwen (eds.), Proceedings of the Boston University Conference on Language Development 19, 543-552. Boston: Cascadilla Press. 1995. 1994 Ann Senghas. The Development of Nicaraguan Sign
Applying Machine Learning to Stock Market Trading Bryce Taylor Abstract: In an effort to emulate human investors who read publicly available materials in order to make decisions about their investments,
Discourse Markers in English Writing Li FENG Abstract Many devices, such as reference, substitution, ellipsis, and discourse marker, contribute to a discourse s cohesion and coherence. This paper focuses
CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) Research has shown that students acquire a second language in the same way that they acquire the first language. It is an exploratory
How Complex Systems Fail (Being a Short Treatise on the Nature of Failure; How Failure is Evaluated; How Failure is Attributed to Proximate Cause; and the Resulting New Understanding of Patient Safety)
What Is Linguistics? December 1992 Center for Applied Linguistics Linguistics is the study of language. Knowledge of linguistics, however, is different from knowledge of a language. Just as a person is
Data Model ing Essentials Third Edition Graeme C. Simsion and Graham C. Witt MORGAN KAUFMANN PUBLISHERS AN IMPRINT OF ELSEVIER AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE
Analysing Qualitative Data Workshop Professor Debra Myhill Philosophical Assumptions It is important to think about the philosophical assumptions that underpin the interpretation of all data. Your ontological
English prepositional constructions An empirical overview of the properties of English prepositional s is presented, followed by a discussion of formal approaches to the analysis of the various types of
CS4025: Pragmatics Resolving referring Expressions Interpreting intention in dialogue Conversational Implicature For more info: J&M, chap 18,19 in 1 st ed; 21,24 in 2 nd Computing Science, University of
Perspective taking strategies in Turkish Sign Language and Croatian Sign Language Engin Arik Purdue University Marina Milković University of Zagreb 1 Introduction Space is one of the basic domains of human
This PDF is a selection from a published volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research Volume Title: Fiscal Policy and Management in East Asia, NBER-EASE, Volume 16 Volume Author/Editor: Takatoshi
1 Concept Formation Robert L. Goldstone Thomas T. Hills Samuel B. Day Indiana University Correspondence Address: Robert Goldstone Department of Psychology Indiana University Bloomington, IN. 47408 Other
Research Into Practice READING Reading Instruction and Reading Achievement Among ELL Students Principles of ELL Reading Instruction Some very straightforward principles, directly supported by research,
Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners (Linse, 2005, pp. 120-134) Very young children learn vocabulary items related to the different concepts they are learning. When children learn numbers or colors in
Best Hand Wins: How Poker Is Governed by Chance Vincent Berthet During the last several years, poker has grown in popularity so much that some might even say it s become a social phenomenon. Whereas poker
p T h e L a s t L e a f IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF Washington Square, the streets have gone wild. They turn in different directions. They are broken into small pieces called places. One street
CINTIL-PropBank I. Basic Information 1.1. Corpus information The CINTIL-PropBank (Branco et al., 2012) is a set of sentences annotated with their constituency structure and semantic role tags, composed
C H A P T E R 1 System Behavior and Causal Loop Diagrams Human beings are quick problem solvers. From an evolutionary standpoint, this makes sense if a sabertooth tiger is bounding toward you, you need
44 ANALYSIS explicating logical truth, and, thus, also consequence and inconsistency. Let C1 and C2 be distinct moral codes formulated in English. Let C1 contain a norm N and C2 its negation. The moral
Semester III Group B Grammar 3 Mrs. Skirdj Sentence structure The subject is a noun, noun phrase or pronoun representing the person or thing that performs the action of the verb. There are two types of
Ratio Juris. Vol. 13 No. 2 June 2000 (133±137) Alexy's Thesis of the Necessary Connection between Law and Morality* EUGENIO BULYGIN Abstract. This paper criticizes Alexy's argument on the necessary connection
Chapter 5 Phrase-based models Statistical Machine Translation Motivation Word-Based Models translate words as atomic units Phrase-Based Models translate phrases as atomic units Advantages: many-to-many
ROMANIAN - AMERICAN UNIVERSITY Foundation Year Learn Romanian and about Romania! Improve your English! The foundation year of Romanian language for foreign students is organized by the Department of Foreign
Syntactic Theory Background and Transformational Grammar Dr. Dan Flickinger & PD Dr. Valia Kordoni Department of Computational Linguistics Saarland University October 28, 2011 Early work on grammar There
Entrevista con... /An Interview with... Gilles Fauconnier by Ana Roldán Riejos Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain) firstname.lastname@example.org The Ins and Outs of Human Cognition in the Construction
Non-nominal Which-Relatives Doug Arnold, Robert D. Borsley University of Essex The properties of non-restrictive relatives All non-restrictive relative clauses include a wh-word. There are no that or zero
General Psychology Lawrence D. Wright Ph.D. Professor Chapter 8, and 6-1 Cognitive psychology: : 8-2 Visual imagery: 8-3 1 Concepts: Prototype: 8-4 Problems: 8-5 Well-defined problems have three specified
1 Roussell The Virtual Profession Immersion Model: Bridging Principles and Practice For Instructional Design Students John M. Roussell, Ph.D. California State University, Chico Introduction Instructional
1 The background Smith on Natural Wages and Profits (Chapters VIII and IX of The Wealth of Nations 1 ) Allin Cottrell When Smith begins work on the specifics of natural wages and profits, he has already
Simulating the Structural Evolution of Software Benjamin Stopford 1, Steve Counsell 2 1 School of Computer Science and Information Systems, Birkbeck, University of London 2 School of Information Systems,
ISA OR NOT ISA: THE INTERLINGUAL DILEMMA FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION FLORENCE REEDER The MITRE Corporation 1 / George Mason University email@example.com ABSTRACT Developing a system that accurately produces
A terminology model approach for defining and managing statistical metadata Comments to : R. Karge (49) 30-6576 2791 mail firstname.lastname@example.org Content 1 Introduction... 4 2 Knowledge presentation...
Semantic Web in 10 years: Semantics with a purpose [Position paper for the ISWC2012 Workshop on What will the Semantic Web look like 10 years from now? ] Marko Grobelnik, Dunja Mladenić, Blaž Fortuna J.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Kinds and generalizations Over the past decades, the study of genericity has occupied a central place in natural language semantics. The joint work of the Generic Group 1, which
Psychological functions of free games for children in kindergarten According to R. Kohnstamm (00, pp. 191) Although the words fun and seriousness are antonyms in our language, having fun is a very serious
Proceedings of the International Multiconference on ISSN 1896 7094 Computer Science and Information Technology, pp. 285 292 2007 PIPS Collecting Polish German Parallel Corpora in the Internet Monika Rosińska
What are idioms? Idioms are words, phrases, or expressions which are often grammatically strange and are not meant to be understood literally. Idioms are a very important part of any language, so learning
Verb Learning in Non-social Contexts Sudha Arunachalam and Leah Sheline Boston University 1. Introduction Acquiring word meanings is generally described as a social process involving live interaction with