ECE422 Labs with SDR and Amateur Radio

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1 ECE422 Labs with SDR and Amateur Radio Prof. Sean Victor Hum VA3SHV 1 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

2 Background Information The SDR kit is an HF radio receiver operating from ~8-16 MHz (λ = 40m - 18m) This is very different from your average radio Different frequency range and propagation characteristics Different modes (shortwave / amateur radio use) Goal is to receive very, very distant signals (DX) building a radio to receive AM/FM radio would be far too easy... Software-defineable 2 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

3 SDR Kit SDR kit including PCB, components, magnet wire, and transformer/inductor cores 1 USB type A/B cable 1 3.5mm stereo cable (male/ male) 1 BNC-to-bare-wire adapter 1 Syba USB sound card Approximately 11m worth of wire for fashioning wire antennas 3 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

4 SDR Kit Overview / Operation 4 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

5 SDR Kit Modules Consult web site for detailed module instructions Modules sets A-C should be completed first and in any order Module sets D and E require A-C and must be done in order 5 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

6 Assembly / Open Access Consult lab schedule for SDR time when you can access GB347 for assembly / testing You can also use time after the structured experiments # 1-3 You can assemble and do testing outside of GB347 Design Centre At home Measurement and observation report due at end of term, 1 per student 6 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

7 HDSDR Free software program implementing the SDR HDSDR functions Controlling the SDR (LO) Sampling I/Q signals from soundcard Processing and displaying downconverted radio spectrum Selection, filtering, and demodulation of signals 7 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

8 HDSDR 8 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

9 OBILE MARITIME What Can you Receive in the Radiolocation AERONAUTICAL (R) AERONAUTICAL (OR) * ** 3.4 AERONAUTICAL (R) 3.5 AMATEUR 4.0 MARITIME MARITIME * AERONAUTICAL (R) HF Band? RADIONAVIGATION Radiolocation MARITIME MARITIME MARITIME AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION AERONAUTICAL (OR) 4.75 * STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (5000 KHZ) STANDARD FREQ. Space Research ** 5.45 AERONAUTICAL (R) AERONAUTICAL (OR) * * 5.95 AMATEUR 6.2 MARITIME RADIOLOCATION AERONAUTICAL (R) MARITIME AERONAUTICAL (OR) 2065 MARITIME (TELEPHONY) Mobile LAND MARITIME AMATEUR MARITIME AMATEUR (TELEPHONY) SATELLITE (DISTRESS AND CALLING) MARITIME AMATEUR (TELEPHONY) Mobile 7.35 LAND Mobile STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (2500kHz) MARITIME STANDARD FREQ. Space Research MARITIME AERONAUTICAL (R) AERONAUTICAL (OR) 9.4 AERONAUTICAL (R) STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (10,000 khz) STANDARD FREQ. Space Research AERONAUTICAL (R) AMATEUR Mobile* 3 MHz ISM 6.78 ±.015 MHz MARITIME STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (60 khz) MARITIME AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION Aeronautical Mobile Maritime Radionavigation Aeronautical Mobile AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION (Radio Beacons) Aeronautical Radionavigation (Radio Beacons) MARITIME RADIONAVIGATION (RADIO BEACONS) 300 khz (AM RADIO) Radiolocation RADIO- LOCATION MARITIME STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL MARITIME LAND 3000 TRAVELERS INFORMATION STATIONS (G) AT 1610 khz 3 MHz ARITIME OBILE AERONAUTICAL (R) AERONAUTICAL (OR) STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (10,000 khz) STANDARD FREQ. Space Research AERONAUTICAL (R) AMATEUR Mobile* AERONAUTICAL (OR) AERONAUTICAL (R) MARITIME AERONAUTICAL (OR) AERONAUTICAL (R) RADIO ASTRONOMY Mobile* Mobile* AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE AMATEUR Mobile* STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (15,000 khz) STANDARD FREQ. Space Research AERONAUTICAL (OR) MARITIME AERONAUTICAL (R) AERONAUTICAL (OR) AMATEUR SATELLITE AMATEUR Mobile MARITIME MARITIME STAND. FREQ. & TIME SIG. Space Research STANDARD FREQUENCY & TIME SIGNAL (20,000 KHZ) STANDARD FREQ. Space Research Mobile AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE AERONAUTICAL (R) MARITIME Mobile* AERONAUTICAL (OR) ** AMATEUR SATELLITE AMATEUR STANDARD FREQ. AND TIME SIGNAL (25,000 khz) STANDARD FREQ. Space Research LAND MARITIME LAND ** RADIO ASTRONOMY MARITIME LAND ** ** ** LAND. AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE LAND STING ELS 5-6) AERONAUTICAL OBILE 88.0 Amateur Military and governmental communication systems (FM RADIO) AERONAUTICAL RADIONAVIGATION AERONAUTICAL (R) AERONAUTICAL AERONAUTICAL AERONAUTICAL (R) Aviation air-to-ground communications Amateur radio AERONAUTICAL (R) AERONAUTICAL (R) (AERONAUTICAL TELEMETERING) SAT. ile ** (Space to Earth) AERONAUTICAL 9 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum RADIONAVIGATION OCATION BILE RADIOLOCATION 1240 VIGATION ITE (S-E) OCATION Amateur Radiolocation AUTICAL VIGATION RADIOLOCATION ** -SAT (E-S) ** LAND NOMY EARTH EXPL SAT (Passive) SPA CE RESEARCH ( Passive) Fixed (TLM) ISM ±.007 MHz (TLM) BILE (TLM) LAND (TLM) S-E) (TLM) IXED** AERONAUTICAL (R) MET. SAT. (S-E) MET. SAT. (S-E) MET. SAT. (S-E) MET. SAT. (S-E) MOB. SAT. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E) Mob. Sat. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E) MOB. SAT. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E) Mob. Sat. (S-E) SPACE RES. (S-E) SPACE OPN. (S-E) E SAT. SAT. Mobile rth) (Space to Earth) (Aero. TLM) OBILE SATELLITE e to Earth) SATELLITE (S-E) SATELLITE (S-E) AMATEUR AMATEUR SATELLITE AMATEUR SATELLITE (E-S) RADIONAV-SATELLITE SATELLITE (E-S) 1545 Mobile Satellite (S- E) OBILE SATELLITE (R) e to Earth) SATELLITE (Space to Earth) SATELLITE (R) e to Earth) UTICAL SATELLITE (R) (space to Earth) LAND RADIONAVIGATION RADIONAV. SATELLITE (Space to Earth) IGATION RADIO DET. SAT. (E-S) SAT(E-S) LAND RADIO ASTRONOMY SAT. (E-S). RADIO DET. SAT. (E-S) SAT. (E-S) Mobile Sat. (S-E) RADIO DET. SAT. (E-S) LAND MARITIME MARITIME SATELLITE (E-S) LAND LAND MARITIME MARITIME LAND STRONOMY SAT. (E-S) SPACE RESEARCH (Passive) STRONOMY LAND MARITIME METEOROLOGICAL AIDS (RADIOSONDE) TRONOMY 1670 BILE** 1675 METEOROLOGICAL AIDS (Radiosonde) OLOGICAL LITE (s-e) Land Mobile Fixed Shortwave broadcasting Maritime sea-to-shore services (TV CHANNELS 7-13) SATELLITE OTH radar systems Global Maritime Distress 300 MHz and Safety System XED XED 1850 XED 2000 SATELLITE (E-S) 2020 IXED 2025 FX. MOB. SPACE OP. (E-S)(s-s) EARTH EXPL. SAT. (E-S)(s-s) 2110 XED 2155 S) IXED SATELLITE (S-E) Amateur EARTH EXPLORATION Radiolocation SPACE OPERATION (s-e)(s-s) OBILE (LOS) Radiolocation LAND AMATEUR SAT. (s-e)(s-s) SPACE RESEARCH (s-e)(s-s) Fixed Mobile Radiolocation.(S-E) ** Amateur RADIOLOCATION ** Mobile Fixed MOB FX R- LOC. B-SAT Radiolocation Fixed BCST-SATELLITE B-SAT R- LOC. FX MOB Fixed Mobile 2360 Fixed RADIOLOCATION BILE AMATEUR AMATEUR Amateur adiolocation Radiolocation ISM ±.163 MHz INATION SAT. (S-E) SATELLITE (S-E) T. ** FX-SAT (S - E) adio Ast Space res. MOB** B- SAT. FX FX-SAT RESEARCH EXPL SAT RON. SPACE EARTH 30 MHz Radiolocation METEOROLOGICAL AIDS ICAL TION 2900 Radiolocation ITIME VIGATION

10 Propagation Characteristics in Propagation mechanisms Sky waves (refraction from ionosphere) Ground waves Ionospheric propagation allows for intercontinental communication! However, it depends on sunspot activity / cycles the HF Band 10 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

11 Tips on Receiving Place your antenna high and place it outside Horizontal polarization is best For sky-wave propagation, angling the beam towards the ionosphere improves range 20m propagation is reasonable both day and night, but night time is always better (more on that later in class) Check solar activity reports (web page) SF antenna being installed 11 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

12 Shortwave Broadcasting International broadcasting: news, propaganda, cultural stations Domestic broadcasting: religious, alternative, paid-broadcast media stations Numbers stations Radio clock stations: WWV / WWVH (2.5 / 5 / 10 / 15 / 20 MHz) CHU (Canada) (3.33 / 7.85 / MHz) 12 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

13 Example: WWV 13 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

14 Example: Radio Havana (6 MHz) 14 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

15 Amateur Radio Use of radio spectrum by licensed operators for communication, experimentation, training, recreation, and emergency service Amateur radio operators (hams) must earn a license and callsign by completing examinations on regulations / electronics In Canada: Basic and Advanced Classes In US: Technician, General, Extra Classes 15 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

16 Amateur Radio Bands HF Band 80m 60m 40m 30m 20m Frequency MHz ~5 MHz MHz MHz MHz 17m MHz 15m 12m 10m MHz MHz MHz VHF/UHF Band Frequency 6m MHz 2m MHz 1.25m ~220 MHz 70cm MHz 33cm MHz 23cm MHz 13cm ~2.4 GHz 16 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

17 Amateur Radio Modes Analog CW (Morse Code) Voice SSB (HF) FM (VHF) Slow-scan television (SSTV) Digital Packet radio AX.25 (file transfer) Text messaging modes (Q)PSK31 / (Q)PSK63 (HF) OLIVIA FSK Radio teletype RTTY JT65 Voice (D-STAR) 17 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

18 Amateur Radio Communications Terrestrial Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) Amateur satellites (nanosats) AMSAT Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP) Remote access to amateur radio stations around the world by VoIP 18 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

19 Example: 40m 19 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

20 Example: 20m 20 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

21 Example: 20m 21 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

22 JT65 22 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

23 JT65 Stations Received in 1 Night on 20m 23 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

24 Why Amateur Radio? After all, there are phones, and the internet Why read books when there is TV? Why ride a motorcycle when there are cars? In short, amateur radio is fun. Licensure allows you to transmit hundreds to thousands of watts with equipment you can design/build yourself Compare to the ISM (WLAN) band: 1 W only! You can talk to someone across the world using no wires and equipment you built yourself. 24 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

25 Want to become a ham? Basic and advanced exams can be arranged 50 questions, multiple choice Basic focuses on regulations Advanced focuses on electronics theory There is no Morse code requirement Join a club Working with ECE club to install a transmitter in SF University of Toronto Amateur Radio club 25 ECE422 / Prof. S. V. Hum

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