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1 kogudes kadunud aegu collecting the Lost Times 1

2 Näitus Kadunud aegade aarded / Exhibition Treasures of Lost Times Mikkeli muuseumis At Mikkel Museum Kataloog/Catalogue Koostaja/Editor: Pekka Erelt Tekst/Text: Anu Allikvee, Pekka Erelt Keeletoimetajad/Proofreading: Dana Karjatse (Estonian), Richard Adang, Rolf von Kiaer (English) Tõlge inglise keelde / English translation: Kadi Heinloo, Pekka Erelt Fotod/Photos: Stanislav Stepaško, Andres Tennus Kujundus/Design: Tuuli Aule Copyright 2010 Pekka Erelt, Eesti Kunstimuuseum Kadrioru kunstimuuseum 2

3 Sisukord/Contents Saateks/Foreword 4 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti / Estonia and collecting classical antiquities 6 Anu Allikvee Sir W. Hamiltoni vaasikollektsioonide kataloogid ja J. H W. Tischbeini roll nende illustraatorina / Catalogues of Sir William Hamilton s vase collections and the role of J. H W. Tischbein as the illustrator thereof 26 Egiptuse, Vana-Ida, Kreeka ja Kolumbuse-eelsete kultuuride muistiseid Pekka Erelti kogust / Egyptian, Near-Eastern, Greek and Pre-Columbian antiquities from the collection of Pekka Erelt 46 Joonistusi raamatule Collection of engravings from Ancient Vases... (Napoli, ) ühest Eesti erakogust / Drawings for the book Collection of engravings from Ancient Vases... (Naples, ) from an Estonian private collection 146 Kirjandus/Literature 168 3

4 Saateks Tuhandete aastate tagustest kõrgkultuuridest ei ole fotosid ega filme, mis lubaksid meil suurema vaevata mõista toonaseid inimesi ja nende mõttemaailma. Meie pilt Muinas-Egiptusest ja Mesopotaamiast on pandud kokku pika aja vältel kild-killult, läbi tuliste vaidluste, avastuste ja eksimuste. Iga leitud uus kivisse raiutud hieroglüüftekst või savist kiilkirjatahvel aitab meid mõistmisele lähemale, ent samas on selge see on ikkagi vaid mosaiik, millest jääb palju kilde puudu. Paratamatult ja igavesti. Mikkeli muuseumis veebruaris 2009 avatud näitus Kadunud aegade aarded koosnebki mineviku kõrgkultuuride kildudest, igaüks neist ometi vaatamisväärt ka fragmendina. Me ei tea näiteks, kellele kuulusid need viis tuhat aastat vanad Egiptuses valmistatud kivinõud. Ja kes kandis seda peenelt nikerdatud umbes sama vana Sumeri amuletti või kellele kuulusid need kaunilt maalitud Kreeka vaasid. Võime aga imetleda ammuste aegade kõrget käsitööoskust. Huvi vanade kultuuride vastu ulatub Eestis tagasi juba 18. sajandisse. Üllataval kombel on just siin säilinud ühes erakollektsioonis joonistused maailmakuulsast Sir William Hamiltoni vaasikogust, mille põhjal ilmus 18. sajandi lõpul uhke neljaköiteline raamat. Ehk oli üks nende vaasimaalide mahajoonistajaid selle raamatu tarvis keegi baltisakslane. Või osteti joonistused kellegi baltisakslase kunstikogusse näiteks Peterburist? Valik neid joonistusi on esmakordselt avalikkusele eksponeeritud just näitusel Kadunud aegade aarded ja publitseeritud käesolevas kataloogiski. Meie osa toona Euroopat haaranud vanade kultuuride vaimustuses oli suurem, kui seni oskasime arvata. Näitus Kadunud aegade aarded sai teoks tänu Kadrioru kunstimuuseumi, Mikkeli muuseumi ja Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi entusiasmile ja Eesti Kultuurkapitali toele. Neile siinkohal näituse koostaja siiras tänu. Lisaks kuulub tänu veel paljudele inimestele, nii Eestis kui ka välismaal, kelle lahket vastutulekut ja abi nii näituse kui ka kataloogi tegemisel on raske üle hinnata: Kadi Polli (Kadrioru kunstimuuseum), Ivar-Kristjan Hein (Mikkeli muuseum), Anne Ruussaar (Eesti Ajaloomuuseum), Anu Allikvee (Kadrioru kunstimuuseum), Sergei Stadnikov (Tallinna Ülikool), Amar Annus (Tartu Ülikool), Rolf von Kiaer (Helios Gallery, Kingsdown, Inglismaa), Glenn Janes (Manchester, Inglismaa), dr Bron Lipkin (London, Inglismaa), dr Renee Kovacs (Corte Madera, USA), Olaf Sprenger (Hamburg, Saksamaa). 4

5 Foreword In Estonia, interest in ancient cultures dates back to the 18 th century. Surprisingly, it is here that we find a private collection with drawings of a famous set of vases belonging to Sir William Hamilton, which was the basis for an impressive four-volume publication at the end of the 18 th century. It is possible that one of the artists copying the drawings from the vases was of Baltic German origin, or the sketches might have been bought for some Baltic German s art collection from St. Petersburg. A selection of these drawings is, for the first time, laid out for the audience at the exhibition Treasures of Lost Times, as well as being printed in this catalogue. Our role in the general European fascination with old cultures was more significant than we thought. There are no photos or films of high culture dating back thousands of years that would make understanding the people of the time and their thoughts less difficult. Our images of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia have developed piece by piece over the course of time, accompanied by heated discussions, numerous discoveries and mistakes. Each new discovery of a text carved in stone in hieroglyphs, or a slate tablet with cuneiform writing, helps us to come nearer to an understanding of the past, but at the same time we cannot forget that this is nothing but a mosaic with many missing pieces. This is an inevitable and insurmountable problem. Virtually, the exhibition Treasures of Lost Times consists of pieces of high cultures from the past, whereas each piece carries significant importance also as a fragment. We do not know, for example, who the stoneware made in Egypt 5000 years ago belonged to, who wore the fine Sumerian amulet that dates back to the same period or who owned the beautifully painted Greek vases. But we can admire the examples of high skill in artisanship. The exhibition Treasures of Lost Times became a reality thanks to the enthusiasm of the Kadriorg Art Museum, Mikkel Museum and Estonian History Museum, and with the support of the Cultural Endowment of Estonia. The organiser of the exhibition would like to express his heartfelt thanks to the abovementioned, as well as to many others in Estonia and abroad, whose kindness and help in putting together both the display and the catalogue cannot be underestimated, namely Kadi Polli (Kadriorg Art Museum), Ivar-Kristjan Hein (Mikkel Museum), Anne Ruussaar (Estonian History Museum), Anu Allikvee (Kadriorg Art Museum), Sergei Stadnikov (Tallinn University), Amar Annus (Tartu University), Rolf von Kiaer (Helios Gallery, Kingsdown, Great Britain), Glenn Janes (Manchester, Great Britain), Dr. Bron Lipkin (London, Great Britain), Dr. Renee Kovacs (Corte Madera, USA) and Olaf Sprenger (Hamburg, Germany). 5

6 Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Pekka Erelt 6

7 Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Pekka Erelt 7

8 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Niisamuti nagu mujal Euroopas, tärkas Eestiski huvi vanade kõrgkultuuride vastu juba 18. sajandil. Kohalikke baltisakslasi vaimustas eriti just Egiptus ning selle huvi keskuseks kujunes 19. sajandi algul ootuspäraselt Tartu Ülikool. Eestvedajaks oli noor energiline baltisakslane, Vastse-Kuustest pärit Otto Friedrich von Richter ( ). Tema oli arvatavasti ka esimene eestimaalane, kelle jalg selle tõotatud maa pinnale astus. Egiptusse saabus Richter ühes oma reisiseltsilise, Rootsi Konstantinoopoli saatkonna jutlustaja Sven Fredrik Lidmaniga aprilli keskel Teekond viis neid mööda Karnaki, Luxori, Kom Ombo ja Assuani muististest, kirjutab egüptoloog Sergei Stadnikov oma Richteri-uurimuses. Richteri reisid, aga ka tema tulevikuplaanid said augustis 1816 traagilise lõpu. Äsja 25-aastaseks saanud Richter suri 13. augustil Smürnas düsenteeriasse. Ta oli läbi rännanud Egiptuse, osa Nuubiast, Palestiina, Süüria ja Anatoolia ning kavatses minna Pärsiasse, kus talle Vene saatkonna juures keiser Aleksandri käsu kohaselt oli eraldatud auväärne ametikoht, kirjutati Saksamaal ilmunud nekroloogis. Richter ei olnud siiski ainuke eestimaalane, kes toona Egiptuses ja Nuubias ringi rändas. Aastatel viibis seal teinegi baltisakslane, Haimre mõisa pärija Alexander von Üxküll ( ). Richteri reisidel kogutud muistised jõudsid Rootsi kaudu Eestisse tema isa kätte, kes kinkis need aastal Tartu Ülikooli kunstimuuseumile (asutatud aprillis 1803). 19. sajandi lõpul kuulus muuseumi Egiptuse kollektsiooni 124 eset, kogu põhiosa moodustas Richteri pärand. Oma mahult ja teaduslikult kaalult oli muuseumi egüptoloogiline kollektsioon võrreldav Venemaa suuremate kogudega, iseloomustab seda Stadnikov. Lisaks kuulus aastast 1893 Kaunite Kunstide Muuseumi nime kandnud muuseumile 228 antiikkeraamika eset, 5000 münti-medalit, 23 pronks- ja marmorskulptuuri (1915. aasta seisuga). Need olid annetanud-hankinud muuseumi asutaja ja direktor, Tartu Ülikooli professor Johann Karl Simon Morgenstern ( ), muuseumi järgmised direktorid professorid Ludwig Schwabe, Georg Loeschcke ja Woldemar Malmberg, mõisnikud J. H. von Blankenhagen ja G. von Rennenkampf, arst C. M. Bartels jt. Kuid aastal viidi see väärtuslik kollektsioon, v.a üksikud erandid, Venemaale sõjavarju. Kogu asub vaatamata Eesti riigi korduvatele tagastamispalvetele praeguseni Voroneži oblasti kunstimuuseumis, kuigi pidi juba pärast Tartu rahulepingut (1920) kodumaale naasma. Kurb on seegi, et neid meie jaoks hindamatu väärtusega esemeid hoiti Venemaal pikka aega halbades tingimustes ning rikuti asjatundmatu restaureerimisega. Toonane egüptomaania ei jätnud puutumata ka Tallinna. Just Tallinna arstile ja raeapteekrile, baltisakslasele Johann Burchardile ( ), peame tänulikud olema, et Eesti Ajaloomuuseumis on praegu parim riiklik klassikaliste muististe kollektsioon. Juba aastal asutas Burchard Tallinnas hiljem ka linnarahvale avatud muinsuste kabineti Mon Faible (minu nõrkus) aastal otsustati Tallinnas samal aastal asutatud Eestimaa Kirjanduse Ühingu juurde luua muuseum Eestimaa Kirjandusühingu Provintsiaalmuuseum (alustas tegevust aastal Kanuti Gildi ruumes Pikal tänaval). Just sellele muuseumile kinkisid Burchardi pärijad aastal tema mitmekülgse muististe kollektsiooni, kuhu kuulus esemeid nii Egiptusest kui ka Kreekast ja Roomast. Tähelepanuväärt on eriti Egiptuse muististe päritolu. Mitmed neist (Stadnikovi andmeil vähemalt 16) annetas Burchardi eramuuseumile kapten-leitnant Ivan Butenev, 8

9 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Similarly to other parts of Europe, old high cultures started to excite the interest of Estonia in the 18 th century. Local Baltic Germans were particularly enraptured with Egypt, and in the 19 th century the University of Tartu became the centre of interest. The initiator was Otto Friedrich von Richter ( ), a young and energetic Baltic German from Vastse-Kuuste. He was probably the only Estonian whose foot touched the Promised Land. Richter arrived in Egypt along with his fellow passenger, a preacher at the Swedish legation in Constantinople, Sven Fredrik Lidman, in mid- April Their voyage took them past the antiquities of Karnak, Luxor, Kom Ombo and Aswan, writes Sergei Stadnikov, an Egyptologist, in his Richter study. In August 1816 Richter s travels were tragically ended, along with his plans for the future. Richer, who had just turned 24, died of dysentery in Smyrna on 13 August. He had travelled through Egypt, a part of Nubia, Palestine, Syria and Anatolia, and he planned to go on to Persia, where, according to an order by Emperor Alexander, an honourable position was waiting for him with the Russian Embassy, reads the obituary published in Germany. Richter was not the only one from Estonia to wander around in the Egypt and Nubia of the past. In the years , another Baltic German travelled in the area, namely the heir of the Haimre manor, Alexander von Üxküll ( ). Via Sweden, the antiquities collected during the travels reached Richter s father in Estonia, who gave them to the Museum of Tartu University (founded in April 1803). At the end of the 19 th century, the Egyptian collection of the museum included 124 items, the basic part of which belonged to the Richter legacy. In respect to its volume and scientific importance, the Egyptological collection of the museum can be compared to the biggest collections in Russia, says Stadnikov, describing the collection. Additionally, since 1893, the Museum of Fine Arts has also included 228 items of antique pottery, 5000 coins and medals, and 23 bronze and marble sculptures (as of 1915). These items had been donated-obtained by the founder and the director of the museum, a professor in the University of Tartu, Johann Karl Simon Morgenstern ( ), the succeeding directors of the museum, Professors Ludwig Schwabe, Georg Loeschcke, and Woldemar Malmberg, the squires J. H. von Blankenhagen and G. von Rennenkampf, the doctor C. M. Bartels, et al. But in 1915 the valuable collection, with the exception of a few items, was taken to Russia to protect it from the war. Despite repeated requests from the Estonian government to have the collection returned, it is still held in the Art Museum of Voronezh Oblast, although it was agreed to return it to its homeland after the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed in It is sad that in Russia these invaluable objects have been kept in poor conditions for a long time and some of them have been ruined due to incompetent restoration. The Egyptomania of the time also affected Tallinn. We should be grateful to Johann Burchard ( ), a Baltic German doctor and pharmacist, for the only available national collection of classical antiquities, held in the Estonian History Museum. In 1802 Burchard established a cabinet of antiquities, Mon Faible (My weakness) in Tallinn, which was later also open to the general public. In 1842 it was decided to open a museum The Estonian Provincial Museum (it opened in 1864 on Pikk Street, on the premises of the St. Canute s Guild) by the Estonian Literary Association, established the same year. It was this very museum to which, in 1870, the successors of Burchard donated his versatile collection of antiquities, which included items from Egypt, Greece and Rome. 9

10 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti kes sai need aastal Egiptuses olles sealselt Rootsi peakonsulilt Anastasilt. Burchard ei piirdunud lihtsalt kogumisega, ta üritas oma kogu esemete kohta ka rohkem teada saada. Näiteks Egiptuse muististe osas küsis ta nõu Vene teaduste akadeemialt ja Helsingi ülikoolilt, aga ka Leipzigi egüptoloogilt professor Gustav Seyffarthilt. Vaatamata sõdadele ja muudele ajaloovapustustele on Burchardi kogu õnneks suuresti säilinud. Siiski läks Teise maailmasõja ajal kaotsi kaks Egiptuse kivisteeli. Sisuliselt oli Burchardi muinsuste kabinet provintsiaalmuuseumi eelkäija ja nii võiks Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi pidada meie vanimaks muuseumiks. Sel näitusel on eksponeeritud ka valik klassikalisi muistiseid, mis kuulusid ühte 20. sajandil loodud mitmekülgsesse kogusse ning mis nüüd asuvad Eestis. Nende omanik oli Saksa arhitekt ja arheoloog Udo Schwalm ( ). Oma kollektsioonile pani diplomeeritud insener Schwalm aluse juba aastatel, soetades mitmesuguseid Egiptuse ja Kreeka antiikesemeid. Kahjuks hävis suur hulk kogust sõjapäevil nii nagu juhtus ka Johannes Mikkeli kollektsiooniga. Ja sarnaselt Mikkelile ei heitnud Schwalm meelt, vaid soetas järgnevate aastakümnete jooksul uue, väga mitmekülgse kogu. Pärast Teist maailmasõda osales Schwalm paljudel arheoloogilistel kaevamistel aastate lõpul oli ta mitmel pool Mesopotaamias, kuid peamiseks tegevuspiirkonnaks sai talle Anatoolia (tänapäeva Türgi) aastatel võttis Schwalm osa muistse Hetiidi riigi tähtsate keskuste Hattusa, Kültepe ja Karatepe väljakaevamistest. Schwalm töötas koos mitme maailmas tuntud arheoloogiga näiteks Karatepes professor Helmut Th. Bossertiga. Oma tähtsaimateks pidas Schwalm aga Nemrud Dagi väljakaevamisi, mida juhtis kuulus Ameerika arheoloog Theresa Goell. Ühed viimased kaevamised, millel Schwalm Anatoolias osales, olid aastal Cavustepes, muistses Urartu tsitadellis. Huvi vanade kõrgkultuuride vastu tundis ka Eesti üks olulisemaid kunstikogujaid Johannes Mikkel ( ), kuigi tema kogumisvaldkonda klassikalised muistised ei kuulunud. Ometi on tema kollektsiooni üks väärtuslikumaid töid just Faijumi portree sajandi Egiptusest. Selle pildi ostis Mikkel siinse kunstikoguja Eduard Bramani käest, kes sajandi algul oli töötanud Ermitaažis konservaatorina. Braman omakorda oli portree hankinud enne Teist maailmasõda Riiast. Legendi järgi pärineb maal krahv Rumjantsevi kogust Peterburis. Need Faijumi portreed on ju põhiliselt toodud krahv Rumjantsevi poolt Egiptusest. Ta oli Aleksander I ajal välisminister ja hiljem saadikuks Egiptuses ning säält ta siis sai vanu Egiptuse antiikesemeid ja ka Faijumi portreesid, jutustas Mikkel ise. Oma mahuka ja mitmekülgse kunstikogu kinkis Mikkel Eesti Kunstimuuseumile. Juunis 1997 alustas tegevust Mikkeli muuseum, kus on Lääne-Euroopa vanema maalikunsti ja graafika, Eesti klassika ning erinevate maade portselani kõrval eksponeeritud ka Faijumi portree. Tänu näitusele Kadunud aegade aarded tuli ilmsiks väga põnev leid. Ühes Eesti erakogus asub mahukas käsikiri pealkirjaga Collection of engravings from Ancient Vases.... Jah, tegemist ei ole millegi muu kui eeltööga Sir William Hamiltoni ( ) Kreeka vaaside kollektsiooni põhjal 18. sajandi lõpul koostatud kuulsale neljaköitelisele raamatule. Eestis asuvas käsikirjas on umbes paarsada nummerdatud joonistust kõigile neljale osale. Šoti aadlik Sir Hamilton oli Briti saadik Napoli kuningriigis aastatel Osalt ostes, osalt ise Apuulia ja Sitsiilia endistes Kreeka kolooniates arheoloogilisi 10

11 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Special attention should be paid to the origin of the Egyptian antiquities. Many of them (according to Stadnikov, at least 16) were donated to the Burchard private museum by Lieutenant-Commander Ivan Butenev, who had received them from the Swedish Consul General Anastas in Egypt in Burchard did not confine himself to merely collecting antiquities; he also tried to learn more about the objects in his collection. In regard to the Egyptian antiquities, for example, he took counsel from the Russian Academy of Science and the University of Helsinki, but he also consulted Professor Gustav Seyffarth, an Egyptologist in Leipzig. Fortunately, in spite of wars and other dramatic historical events, the Burchard collection is still largely preserved. Nevertheless, two Egyptian stone steles were lost during the Second World War. Practically, the Burchard cabinet of antiquities was the predecessor of the Provincial Museum and thus the Estonian History Museum could be regarded as our oldest museum. The exhibition also displays a selection of classical antiquities, which belonged to one of the most versatile collections of the 20 th century, and which are currently located in Estonia. The owner of these antiquities was the German architect and archaeologist Udo Schwalm ( ). An architect by profession, Schwalm started collecting in the 1930s, purchasing various Egyptian and Greek antiquities. Unfortunately, a large part of the collection was destroyed during the war similarly to the collection of Johannes Mikkel. And similarly to Mikkel, Schwalm did not despair, but in the decades to come he put together a new and an extremely versatile collection. After the Second World War, Schwalm took part in many archaeological excavations. At the end of the 1940s, he worked in many parts of Mesopotamia, but his main region of operation was Anatolia (present-day Turkey). In the 1950s and 1960s, Schwalm participated in the excavations of important centres in the ancient Hittite region Hattusa, Kültepe and Karatepe. Schwalm worked with many world famous archaeologists; in Karatepe, for example, he worked side by side with Professor Helmut Th. Bossert. The most significant excavation for Schwalm was that of Nemrud Dagi, which was led by the famous American archaeologist Theresa Goell in One of the last excavations in Anatolia in which Schwalm participated took place in Cavustepe, an ancient Urartian fortress, in Johannes Mikkel ( ), one of the most important art collectors in Estonia, was also interested in old high cultures, although classical relics were not a major part of his collection. Yet one of the most valuable works in his collection is the portrait of Faiyum, which dates back to 1 st 4 th century Egypt. Mikkel bought the picture from a local art collector, Eduard Braman, who had worked as a conservator in the Hermitage at the beginning of the century. Braman, in turn, had obtained the picture in Riga before the Second World War. According to legend, the painting originates from the collection of Count Rumyantsev in Saint Petersburg. These portraits of Faiyum were mostly brought back from Egypt by Count Rumyantsev. He was the foreign minister during the rule of Alexander I and later became the ambassador to Egypt, and thus he obtained old Egyptian antiquities, including the portraits of Faiyum, said Mikkel. Mikkel gave his great and versatile art collection to the Art Museum of Estonia. In June 1997 the Mikkel Museum opened; there a portrait of Faiyum is exhibited next to older paintings from Western Europe, Estonian classics, and china from various countries. 11

12 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti kaevamisi tehes omandas ta kaks suurt vaasikollektsiooni. Esimese, 730 Kreeka vaasi sisaldanud kogu müüs ta aastal Briti muuseumile. Üle 400 vaasist koosnev teine, hiljem soetatud kogu, hävis osaliselt laevahukus teekonnal Napolist Londonisse aastal. Suurem osa sellest jõudis õnneks siiski pärale. Mõlemast Sir Hamiltoni kogust avaldati rikkalikult illustreeritud uurimused. Neist teise teostas sellal Napolis töötanud Saksa maalikunstnik Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein ( ). Vaasimaalide mahajoonistamisel kasutas Tischbein kui kunstiakadeemia direktor oma üliõpilaste abi ning otsides eriti õigeid ja täpseid jäädvustusi, lasi ta iga pilti kuni kümme korda uuesti teha. Seejärel tegi ta ise vasegravüürid, mis ilmusid (tiitellehel ekslikult 1791) Napolis neljas köites pealkirja all Collection of engravings from Ancient Vases now in possession of Sir William Hamilton. Eesti erakogus asuvad joonistused võivad olla valik Tischbeini meeskonna eeltöödest nimetatud väljaandele. Kas Tischbein kasutas vaaside mahajoonistamisel ka kellegi siinse baltisakslase abi, mis seletaks kollektsiooni sattumise Eestisse? Või ostis keegi baltisakslane joonistused oma kunstikogusse näiteks Peterburist? Raske öelda, sest käsikirja eelmine omanik soetas selle Tallinnas umbes 60 aastat tagasi. Varasema käekäigu kohta andmed kahjuks puuduvad. Nagu tagasirännak ajalukku näitas, võinuks Eestiski olla paar päris korralikku riiklikku klassikaliste muististe kollektsiooni. Üks Tartus, teine Tallinnas. Eestit viimase saja aasta vältel korduvalt laastanud sõjad ja okupatsioonid aga lõhkusid meie kogud. Loodetavasti süveneb Eestis huvi mineviku kõrgkultuuride vastu veelgi ja ühes sellega sünnib siin ka uusi klassikaliste muististe kollektsioone. Maailm on praegu avatud rohkem kui kunagi varem ja oleks patt seda võimalust kasutamata jätta. 12

13 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Thanks to the exhibition Treasures of Lost Times, we unearthed an exciting find a private collection in Estonia containing a bulky manuscript titled Collection of engravings from Ancient Vases... Indeed, this treasure is nothing less than a preliminary work for a famous four-volume book compiled in the late-18 th century on the basis of Sir William Hamilton s ( ) collection of Greek vases. The manuscript, discovered in Estonia, includes approximately two hundred numbered drawings for all four volumes. The Scottish nobleman Sir William Hamilton served as the ambassador of Great Britain to the Kingdom of Naples from 1764 to Partly through purchases and partly through archaeological excavations in the former Greek colonies of Apulia and Sicily, he was able to acquire two large collections of vases. The first collection, containing 730 Greek vases, was sold to the British Museum in The second, more recent collection of more than 400 vases was partially destroyed in a shipwreck on the way from Naples to London in Fortunately, most of the vases survived the disaster unharmed. Thorough studies with numerous illustrations were published about both of Sir William s collections. The drawings for the second publication were made by the German painter Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein ( ), who was at that time working in Naples. Tischbein, as the head of an art academy, employed his students in copying the drawings from the vases and, looking for particularly accurate representations, he had each picture made and remade up to ten times. After that, he himself prepared copper engravings, which were published in (the title page incorrectly states 1791) in Naples in four volumes, with the title Collection of engravings from Ancient Vases now in possession of Sir William Hamilton. The drawings in the Estonian private collection could be a selection of preliminary sketches by Tischbein s team for the above-mentioned publication. Could it be that Tischbein used the help of a local Baltic German in copying the vase drawings, which would explain how the collection ended up in Estonia? Or did some Baltic German art patron buy the drawings for his art collection in St. Petersburg? It is difficult to say, because the previous owner of the manuscript acquired it from Tallinn about 60 years ago. The earlier history of the material is, sadly, unknown. As we can see from history, Estonia could have had a couple of decent collections of classical antiquities: one in Tartu, the other in Tallinn. Wars and occupations that have repeatedly ravaged Estonia in the past century have also broken up our art collections. We can only hope that the interest in the high cultures of the past will increase once again, and will simultaneously give rise to new collections of antiquities. These days, the entire world is more accessible than ever before and it would be a shame not to take advantage of this. 13

14 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Kanoop väepealik Padihoremhebi hauakambrist 26. dünastia, sajand ekr. Alabaster, k 52 cm. Eesti Ajaloomuuseum 14

15 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities CANOPIC JAR from the tomb of the military leader Padihoremheb Dynasty 26, 7 th 6 th century BC. Alabaster, height 52 cm. Estonian History Museum 15

16 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Steel Ptolemaioste periood, ekr. Puit, k 46 cm. Eesti Ajaloomuuseum 16

17 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Stele Ptolemaic Period, BC. Wood, height 46 cm. Estonian History Museum 17

18 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Osirise kujuke 26. dünastia, sajand ekr. Pronks, k 20,2 cm. Eesti Ajaloomuuseum 18

19 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Osiris statuette Dynasty 26, 7 th 6 th century BC. Bronze, height 20.2 cm. Estonian History Museum 19

20 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Ateena mustafiguuriline leküüt U 500 ekr. Keraamika, k 15,9 cm. Eesti Ajaloomuuseum 20

21 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Athenian black-figure lekythos Ca 500 BC. Pottery, height 15.9 cm. Estonian History Museum 21

22 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Apuulia punasefiguuriline leküüt 4. sajand ekr. Keraamika, k 8,7 cm. Eesti Ajaloomuuseum 22

23 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Apulian red-figure lekythos 4 th century BC. Pottery, height 8.7 cm. Estonian History Museum 23

24 Pekka Erelt Klassikaliste muististe kogumine ja Eesti Faijumi portree sajand pkr. Vahavärvid puidul, 30 15,5 cm. Mikkeli muuseum (Eesti Kunstimuuseum) 24

25 Pekka Erelt Estonia and collecting classical antiquities Faiyum portrait 1 st 4 th century. Encaustics on wood, cm. Mikkel Museum (Art Museum of Estonia) 25

26 Sir W. Hamiltoni vaasikollektsioonide kataloogid ja J. H. W. Tischbeini roll nende illustraatorina Anu Allikvee 26

27 Catalogues of Sir William Hamilton s vase collections and the role of J. H. W. Tischbein as the illustrator thereof Anu Allikvee 27

28 Anu Allikvee Sir W. Hamiltoni vaasikollektsioonide kataloogid ja J. H W. Tischbeini roll nende illustraatorina W. Hamilton kui diplomaat ja harrastusteadlane Šoti aadlisoost pärinev Sir William Hamilton ( ) oli Briti diplomaat. Nooruses ( ) tegi ta sõjaväelist karjääri ning aastatel töötas saadikuna Napoli kuningriigis. Huvitudes oma ajastule tüüpilise härrasmehest teadlasena ajaloost ja loodusteadustest, tegutses Sir Hamilton seal nii arheoloogi ja antiigiuurija kui ka vulkanoloogina. Nimelt uuris ta vahemikus vulkaanide Vesuuvi ja Etna tegevust ning sellega kaasnevaid maavärinaid. Oma kirjutisi avaldas ta Royal Society (Briti teaduste akadeemia, asutatud 1660) väljaannetes, mille korrespondentliige oli ta alates aastast Samuti tegutses ta aktiivselt Londonis aastal asutatud ühingus The Dilettante Society. Selle liikmed olid aadlikud, kes olid osa võtnud Grand Tour ist ning tegelesid muu hulgas antiigi (eriti Antiik-Kreeka) uurimisega. Rühma juhtis algselt poliitik Fr. Dashwood, kuid hiljem liitusid kunstnik J. Reynolds, näitleja D. Garrick ja teised tuntud inimesed. Tegevuse eesmärk oli kultuuri toetamine ning selle kaudu kunstimaitse parandamine riigis. Kui aastatel toetati Itaalia ooperit, siis aastatel Royal Academyt, hiljem rahastati arheoloogilisi ekspeditsioone. Samuti anti noortele välja stipendiume Grand Tour i sooritamiseks, mille eesmärgiks oli Itaalia kultuuripärandiga tutvumine. Erinevalt tänapäevast ei omandanud ühingu nimes peituv sõna diletant halvustavat suhtumist. Sellega rõhutati, et tegemist on inimestega, kes tegelevad teaduse ja kultuuriga vaid vabast tahtest, mitte palgatööna, ning see ei välistanud sugugi asjatundlikkust. Hamiltoni antiigihuvi innustas ning suunas kindlasti ka tema tutvus esimeseks kaasaegseks kunstiteadlaseks peetud J. J. Winckelmanniga, kes oli just Hamiltoni Napolisse saabumise aastal avaldanud oma antiiki käsitleva peateose ( Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, 1. kd, Dresden, 1764). Winckelmann külastas Hamiltoni viimase kutsel Napolis, peatudes ta juures kaks kuud. Koos vaadeldi ka vulkaanipurset. W. Hamilton kui kollektsionäär W. Hamiltoni suurimaks teeneks tollal alles sündiva kunstiajaloo kui teaduse ees oli Antiik-Kreeka vaaside kollektsioneerimine ning uurimine. Seejuures on eriti oluline, et Hamilton huvitus ka vanematest, mustafiguurilistest vaasidest, mida 18. sajandil veel täielikult hinnata ei osatud. Lisaks teadmistele Kreeka tarbekunstist aitas vaasidel olevate maalingute uurimine täiendada teadmisi antiiksetest müütidest, religioonist, kommetest ja nagu usuti ka kirjandusest. Samuti asendasid vaasimaalid teatud määral Antiik- Kreeka maalikunsti, mida sellal veel ei tuntud. Teiseks tuleb rõhutada Hamiltoni meetodite erinevust võrreldes paljude asjaarmastajatega, kellele oli see vaid põnev hobi. Nimelt kasutas ta täiesti kaasaegset uurimisprintsiipi. Kuna Hamiltoni ei huvitanud mitte ainult leiud, vaid kogu kontekst, lasi ta jäädvustada leidude esialgse paigutuse ja määras haua tüübi. Leidudest olulisimad olid vaasid, mis, jäädes kokku teiste hauast leitud esemetega (mõõgad, kannud jne), võimaldasid nendegi dateerimist. Apuulia (eriti Capua ja Nola ümbruses) ja Sitsiilia endistes Kreeka kolooniates arheoloogilisi kaevamisi tehes omandas Hamilton kaks suurt kollektsiooni. Näiteks on teada, et aastal avati tema osavõtul Trebbias Capua lähedal üks Kreeka haud (u ekr). Hamiltoni soov täpselt jäädvustada kogu uuringute käigus saadud info oli hiljem tema kogude katalogiseerimise ajendiks. Peale selle ostis ta vaase imeodavalt kohalikelt elanikelt, kes tegelesid hauaröövimisega või olid maad harides 28

29 Anu Allikvee Catalogues of Sir William Hamilton s vase collections and the role of J. H W. Tischbein as the illustrator thereof W. Hamilton as a diplomat and hobby scientist The Scottish nobleman Sir William Hamilton ( ) was a British diplomat. Hamilton spent his youth ( ) in the military, and in the years worked as the ambassador to the Kingdom of Naples. As a typical gentleman scientist of the era, who was interested in history and natural sciences, Sir William studied archaeology, antiquities and vulcanology: in the period , he examined the activities of the volcanoes Vesuvius and Etna and the accompanying earthquakes. He published his treatises in the publications of the Royal Society (British Academy of Sciences, founded in 1660), of which he became a corresponding member in He was also an active participant in the Dilettante Society, founded in London in The members included noblemen who had been on the Grand Tour and, among other things, had studied antiquities (particularly from ancient Greece). Initially, the group was headed by the politician Francis Dashwood, and later the membership enlarged to include the artist J. Reynolds, the actor D. Garrick and other outstanding people. The objective of their activities was to support culture and to purify tastes in art in the country. In the 1740s, the society supported Italian opera, in the 1750s, the Royal Academy, and in later years they financed archaeological expeditions. The society also awarded grants to young noblemen to go on the Grand Tour and get acquainted with the Italian cultural heritage. Unlike nowadays, the term dilettante in the name of the society had no derogatory connotations. It was used to emphasise that the people were involved in science and culture of their own free will and not as paid employees, which by no means indicated a lack of expertise. Hamilton s interest in antiquities stemmed from, and was influenced by, his acquaintance with J. J. Winckelmann, who is considered to be the first modern art historian and had just published his main work, History of Ancient Art (Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, 1 st vol, Dresden, 1764) in the year Hamilton arrived in Naples. Winckelmann visited Hamilton in Naples upon the latter s invitation, and stayed with his host for two months. Together, the two men also observed a volcanic eruption. W. Hamilton as a collector The main service of Hamilton to art history, a newly emerging field of science, was the collection and study of ancient Greek vases. Fortunately, Hamilton was also interested in older, black-figure vases, which were not yet fully appreciated in the 18 th century. In addition to his knowledge of Greek applied art, the examination of paintings on the vases helped Hamilton to learn more about ancient myths, religion, customs and literature. To a certain extent, drawings on vases substituted for the ancient Greek painting, which was not known at that time. Secondly, we must stress the difference in Hamilton s methods from those of many amateurs who studied antiquities as an exciting pastime. In particular, he employed a truly modern principle of study. Since Hamilton was not only interested in the findings but also in the whole context, he had the original placement of findings recorded, and he determined the types of graves. His most significant findings were vases that were kept together with other buried objects (e.g., swords, jugs etc.), hence allowing for the dating of the latter. During the archaeological excavations in the former Greek colonies of Apulia (particularly in the vicinity of Capua and Nola) and Sicily, Hamilton acquired two large collections. We have, for instance, information that, in 1766, he participated in opening a Greek gravesite (ca BC) in Trebbia, close to Capua. Hamilton s wish to 29

30 Anu Allikvee Sir W. Hamiltoni vaasikollektsioonide kataloogid ja J. H W. Tischbeini roll nende illustraatorina midagi juhuslikult leidnud. Oma suurima ostuga omandas ta ühe kohaliku kollektsionääri terve kogu. Küll ei vasta tõele oletus, et ta leidis Kreeka vaase ka väljakaevamistel Herculaneumist ja Pompeist, mis olid hävinud 79. aastal ekr toimunud vulkaanipurskes. Mõlemas linnas olid uuringud alanud juba enne Hamiltoni saabumist esimeses aastal (regulaarselt 1738) ja teises aastal. Siiski olid sealsed leiud peamiselt linnade hukkumise perioodist ning igal juhul oli tegemist Rooma, mitte Kreeka tsivilisatsiooniga. Hamilton huvitus aga tõesti ka sealsetest väljakaevamistest ning külastas neid kohti korduvalt. Hamiltoni kollektsioonidesse kuulunud vaasid polnud mitte tavakasutuses olnud tarbeesemed, kuigi jäljendasid neid oma vormilt, vaid pärinesid hauakambritest. Sellised hauapanused olid mõõtudelt üsna suured ning ümbritsesid surnukeha. Kuna mitmel puhul näib, et vaasidel kujutatud teemad on omavahel seotud, on oletatud, et need on valitud teadlikult ning seotud surnu isikuga. Vaaside rohkus hauas olenes surnu tähtsusest, neid võis olla mõnest mõnekümneni, isegi kuni kuuskümmend. Peale selle võimaldas suletud hauakambrites paiknemine neil tervena säilimist. Mis puutub niisuguse maalitud keraamika väärtusesse nende loomisajal, siis olid vaasid hinnalised juba tol ajal. Eelkõige olid kallid suured eksemplarid. Näiteks maksis mõni neist umbes 500. aasta paiku ekr ühe drahmi, mis vastas tollase kiviraiduri päevapalgale. Siiski hinnati veelgi kõrgemalt metallnõusid, eriti muidugi väärismetallist. W. Hamiltoni esimene kollektsioon Antiikkeraamika kogujana ei olnud Hamilton siiski teerajaja, sest seoses arheoloogia arenguga oli nende kollektsioneerimine vähemalt Itaalias üsna levinud juba 18. sajandi esimesel poolel. Tema esimese kogu aluseks oligi senaator Porcinari poolt loodud kollektsioon, mille ta ostis tervikuna aastal. Kokku sisaldas Hamiltoni varasem kogu lisaks 730 vaasile ka antiikseid esemeid, loodusloolisi eksponaate ja kujutavat kunsti. Viimaste seas on eriti silmapaistvad Apollo kuju kolossaalne jalg ja Heraklese büst, mis on detail Kreeka skulptor Lysippose (4. sajandi teine pool ekr) pronkskuju järgi Roomas valmistatud marmorkoopiast (2. sajand pkr). Teose kolme meetri kõrgune terviklik koopia leiti aastal Roomast ning kannab nime Farnese Herakles aastal müüs Hamilton selle kollektsiooni tervikuna 8000 naelsterlingi eest Briti muuseumile (asutatud 1753), pannes aluse sealsele antiigikogule. Kollektsiooni soovis muide osta ka Preisi kuningas Friedrich II, kuid nõutud hind osutus tema jaoks üle jõu käivaks. Ostu tähtsust rõhutab asjaolu, et järgmine suur antiikkunsti kollektsioon osteti muuseumile alles aastal. Selle kogu kõige tuntumat eksemplari, nn Hamiltoni vaasi (inventarinumbriga 1772, ), peetakse siiani Briti muuseumi põhiekspositsiooni üheks suuremaks vaatamisväärsuseks. Tegemist on Apuulia voluutkrateeriga 4. sajandist ekr. W. Hamiltoni teine kollektsioon Rohkem kui 400 esemest koosnev teine kollektsioon (vaasid, gemmid, pronksesemed jms), mille ta pärast esimesest loobumist omandas, hävis osaliselt. See juhtus aastal kollektsiooni transportinud sõjalaeva H. M. S. Colossus hukus teekonnal Napolist Londonisse Inglismaa ranniku lähedal Scilly saarte juures. Tänapäeval on osa teoseid vrakilt üles toodud. Nende seas on ligikaudu vaasikildu, mis samuti jõudnud Briti muuseumi. 30

31 Anu Allikvee Catalogues of Sir William Hamilton s vase collections and the role of J. H W. Tischbein as the illustrator thereof accurately record the information gathered during the studies later prompted the cataloguing of his collections. In addition, he paid obscenely cheap prices to buy vases from the locals who engaged in grave robbing or had come across something while tilling the land. With one of his major purchases, he acquired the whole collection of a local collector. The assumption that Hamilton also found Greek vases in excavations in Herculaneum and Pompeii, which were destroyed during the volcanic eruption in 79 BC, turned out to be unfounded. The excavations in both sites had already begun before Hamilton arrived in Herculaneum in 1710 (regularly in 1738) and in Pompeii in Besides, the findings there were mostly from the period when the towns perished and also concerned the Roman, and not Greek, civilisation. However, Hamilton was indeed interested in the progress of excavations in these locations, and visited the two sites several times. The vases in Hamilton s collections were not everyday objects, even though they imitated their form, but came from burial chambers. These grave goods had rather large dimensions and usually surrounded the body. On several occasions, it seemed that the subject matter depicted on the vases was in some way related; it was assumed that the topics had been consciously chosen and were connected with the buried person. The number of vases in a grave depended on the importance of the deceased, ranging from a couple to as many as sixty. Placement in closed burial chambers allowed the vases to survive intact. As concerns the value of painted ceramics during their time of creation, they were already quite costly back then. The most expensive were the large specimens. For instance, around 500 BC, some of them cost one drachma, which was the daily wages of a stonecutter. Metal vessels were naturally valued even more highly, especially those made of valuable metals. W. Hamilton s first collection Hamilton was not a pioneer in collecting ancient pottery: in connection with the development of archaeology, collecting vases was already rather widespread in Italy in the first half of the 18 th century. Hamilton s first collection was based on items acquired by Senator Porcinari, which he purchased in In addition to 730 vases, Hamilton s earlier collection contained other ancient items, natural objects and visual art. The most outstanding works of art are a giant leg from the statue of Apollo, and a bust of Hercules, a detail of a marble copy (2 nd century AD) made in Rome after a bronze statue by the Greek sculptor Lysippos (II half of the 4 th century BC). The whole copy, three meters in height, was discovered in Rome in 1546, and is called Farnese Hercules. In 1772, Hamilton sold his whole collection for 8,000 pounds sterling to the British Museum (founded in 1753), effectively starting the museum s antiquities collection. Prussian King Frederick II also expressed his interest in purchasing the collection, but the asked price was above his means. The importance of the purchase is emphasised by the fact that the next large antique collection was bought for the museum only in The best known item of the collection, the Hamilton Vase (inventory 1772, ), is still considered one of the biggest attractions in the main exposition of the British Museum. It is an Apulian volute-krater from the 4 th century BC. W. Hamilton s second collection The second collection of more than 400 items (vases, engraved gems, bronze objects 31

32 Anu Allikvee Sir W. Hamiltoni vaasikollektsioonide kataloogid ja J. H W. Tischbeini roll nende illustraatorina Teine osa sellest kogust, mis oli paigutatud teisele laevale, jõudis aga Londonisse. See müüdi samal, aastal Christie s oksjonil Šoti publitsistile, harrastusarhitektile ja kunstikollektsionäärile Thomas Hope ile ( ). Pärast Hamiltoni vaaside omandamist muutus Hope i kogu regendiajastul ( ) üheks tähtsamaks omasuguste seas. Et kollektsiooni säilitada ja eksponeerida, ehitas ta oma linnamaja Dutches Streetil ümber nii, et seda peetakse lausa kaasaegse muuseumihoone eelkäijaks. Hiljem ei säilitatud kogu kui tervikut ning seetõttu on ka Hamiltoni kollektsiooni uuem osa eri kogude vahel hajunud. Esimese kollektsiooni kataloogid Mõlemasse Sir W. Hamiltoni kogusse kuulunud vaasidest avaldati rikkalikult illustreeritud uurimused. Esimest kogu käsitles neist kõige varasem ja kõige luksuslikum väljaanne Antiquités Etrusques, Grecques et Romaines. Tirées du Cabinet de M. William Hamilton, Envoyé extraordinaire de S. M. Britannique en Cour de Naples, 4. kd, (tegelikult ). Inglis- ja prantsuskeelse foolioformaadis ( ) kataloogi koostas prantslane Pierre-François Hugues d Hancarville ( ). Tegemist oli prantsuse pseudo-aristokraadiga, kes lisas ise oma sünninimele Pierre-Francois Hugues parunitiitli ja aadliku perekonnanime d Hancarville. Endine sõjaväelane ja kahe erootilise romaani autor d Hancarville tegutses Napolis kunstikaupmehena ning tutvus W. Hamiltoniga, kui vahendas talle Porcinari kollektsiooni müüki. Raamatus, mida on peetud üheks ilusaimaks väljaandeks läbi aegade, kujutati nii vaase tervikuna kui ka eraldi vaasijoonistusi. Kreeka vaaside kõrval käsitleti neidki, mida tollal peeti etruski ja Rooma meistrite loominguks. Kõik 220 illustratsiooni, mille autorid olid Napolis tegutsenud gravöörid Filippo Grado and Carmine Pignataro, on teostatud vaselõike- ja akvatintatehnikas. 74 lehte oli käsitsi koloreeritud. Põhigravüüridele lisandusid neli koloreeritud gravüüri tiitellehtedena ning arvukalt vinjette ja initsiaale. Mis puutub nimetatud kunstnikesse, siis nende eluaastad pole teada. C. Pignataro tegutses teadaolevalt umbes aastatel ja graveeris ka Herculaneumi leide käsitleva kogumiku Museo Ercolanense jaoks. F. Grado oli samalaadse väljaande Antichita di Ercolano (Napoli, 1755) kaastööline ja ta on loonud ka vaateid Paestumi jt linnade antiigipärandist. Raamatu tekstiosa koostajaks valis Hamilton loomulikult oma sõbra ja suurima antiigitundja J. J. Winckelmanni, kuid kahjuks mõrvati teadlane juba aastal. Seetõttu koostas sõnalise osa (üle 1000 lk) d Hancarville, kes toetus seejuures arvatavasti Winckelmanni konspektidele. Siiski jäi see sisult asjatundmatuks, pealegi raskesti loetavaks, ning sattus vastuollu põhjalike ja kvaliteetsete illustratsioonidega. Suurteose väljaandmine kestis keerukuse tõttu Napolis kokku üheksa aastat. Seikleja d Hancarville ise viibis linnas vaid aastani, mil ta oli sunnitud võlausaldajate eest Firenzesse põgenema. Seejuures võttis ta kaasa kahe viimase köite trükiplaadid. Projekti lõpetamine oli võimalik vaid tänu Hamiltoni aktiivsusele ja erakordsele finantspanusele. Seoses ostjaskonna suure huviga teose vastu ilmus kataloogist veel kaks muudetud varianti. Esimene neist ( Antiquités Étrusques, Grecques et Romaines, ou les beaux Vases Étrusques, Grecs et Romains ) trükiti aastatel Pariisis prantsuse keeles ja viieköitelisena. Teine ( Antiquités étrusques, grecques et romaines tirées du cabinet de M. Hamilton envoyé extraordinaire de S. M. Britannique à la Cour de Naples ) ilmus aastatel Firenzes prantsuse ja inglise keeles kaheköi- 32

33 Anu Allikvee Catalogues of Sir William Hamilton s vase collections and the role of J. H W. Tischbein as the illustrator thereof etc.), which Hamilton acquired after selling the first one, was partially destroyed. This happened in 1798 near the Isles of Scilly off the English coast, in the wreck of the warship H. M. S. Colossus while it was transporting the collection from Naples to London. Some of the items have been retrieved from the wreck, including approximately 30,000 vase fragments, which have ended up in the British Museum. The second part of the collection, which was placed on another ship, safely reached London. The same year, 1798, at an auction at Christie s, the collection was sold to the Scottish author, hobby architect and art collector Thomas Hope ( ). After the acquisition of Hamilton s vases, Hope became one of the most important collectors of the Regency era ( ). To preserve and display the collection, Hope rebuilt his town house on Dutches Street in such a way that it can be considered a predecessor of the modern museum building. Later, the collection was not preserved as a whole, so the more recent part of Hamilton s collection has been distributed between different collections. Catalogues of the first collection Studies with numerous illustrations have been published on both of Sir William Hamilton s collections of vases. The first collection was treated in the earliest and most luxurious publication, titled Antiquités Etrusques, Grecques et Romaines. Tirées du Cabinet de M. William Hamilton, Envoyé extraordinaire de S. M. Britannique en Cour de Naples, 4 th vol, (in reality, ). The folio format (475 x 355) catalogue in English and French was compiled by the Frenchman Pierre-François Hugues d Hancarville ( ). He was a pseudoaristocrat, who added the title of baron and the nobility surname d Hancarville to his birth name. The former soldier and author of two erotic novels operated in Naples as an art dealer, and met W. Hamilton while acting as a mediator during the purchase of the Porcinari collection. The book, which is considered one of the most beautiful publications of all times, depicts both complete vases and drawings of parts of them. In addition to Greek vases, the work dealt with what were thought to be Etruscan and Roman masterpieces. All 220 illustrations by Napolitan engravers Filippo Grado and Carmine Pignataro were carried out in copperplate and aquatint techniques. Seventy-four prints were hand-coloured. In addition to the main prints, there were four coloured engravings on title pages, and numerous vignettes and initials. The birth and death dates of artists are unknown. To our knowledge, Pignataro worked in the 1760s 1770s and also engraved Museo Ercolanens, the compilation dealing with the findings of Herculaneum. Grado was the co-author of a similar publication, Antichita di Ercolano (Naples, 1755), and created images of the ancient heritage of Paestum and other cities. Hamilton naturally chose his friend and an expert on antiquities, J. J. Winckelmann, as the author of the text of the book but, sadly, the scholar was murdered in Therefore, the written text (more than 1,000 pages) was compiled by d Hancarville, who probably used Winckelmann s notes. However, the text was of low quality and not very readable, and hence incongruous with the thorough, high-quality illustrations. Due to several difficulties, the publication of the epic in Naples took nine years to complete. The adventurer d Hancarville stayed in town until 1769, when he was 33

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