How the Indus Valley sites were discovered.

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1 How the Indus Valley sites were discovered. Devised by Judith Evans at Rosebery School in Loughborough. The Commonwealth Institute in London has produced some excellent source material for the Indus Valley sites. These materials can now be bought from Margaret Burr at the Humanities Education Centre,Tower Hamlets PDC, English Street, LONDON E3 4TA. This information gap activity is designed to be used before using these materials, to explore what children know and promote group talk before looking at source material. The class is divided into thirds so that one third in pairs look at Text A, one third at Text B etc. A card pairing activity is attached. You will need to enlarge the answer grid. The webaddress for this activity is: <>. Last updated 10th November COLLABORATIVE LEARNING PROJECT Project Director: Stuart Scott Supporting a cooperative network of teaching professionals throughout the European Union to develop and disseminate accessible teaching materials in all subject areas and for all ages. 17, Barford Street, Islington, London N1 0QB UK Phone: 0044 (0) Website: BRIEF SUMMARY OF BASIC PRINCIPLES BEHIND OUR TEACHING ACTIVITIES: The project is a teacher network, and a non-profit making educational trust. Our main aim is to develop and disseminate classroom tested examples of effective group strategies across all phases and subjects. We hope they will inspire you to use similar strategies in other topics and curriculum areas. We run teacher workshops, swapshops and conferences throughout the European Union. The project publishes a catalogue of activities plus lists in selected subject areas, and a newsletter available by post or internet: PAPERCLIP. These activities were influenced by current thinking about the role of language in learning. They are designed to help children learn through talk and active learning in small groups. They work best in mixed classes where children in need of language or learning support are integrated. They are well suited for the development of speaking and listening. They provide teachers opportunities for assessment of speaking and listening and other formative assessment. They support differentiation by placing a high value on what children can offer to each other on a particular topic, and also give children the chance to respect each other s views and formulate shared opinions which they can disseminate to peers. By helping them to take ideas and abstract concepts, discuss, paraphrase and move them about physically, they help to develop thinking skills. They give children the opportunity to participate in their own words and language in their own time without pressure. Many activities can be tried out in mother tongue and afterwards in English. A growing number of activities are available in more than one language, not translated, but mixed, so that you may need more than one language to complete the activity. They encourage study skills in context, and should therefore be used with a range of appropriate information books which are preferably within reach in the classroom. They are generally adaptable over a wide age range because children can bring their own knowledge to an activity and refer to books at an appropriate level. The activities work like catalysts. All project activities were planned and developed by teachers working together, and the main reason they are disseminated is to encourage teachers to work effectively with each other inside and outside the classroom. They have made it possible for mainstream and language and learning support teachers to share an equal role in curriculum delivery. They should be adapted to local conditions. In order to help us keep pace with curriculum changes, please send any new or revised activities back to the project, so that we can add them to our lists of materials.

2 How the Indus Valley sites were discovered. Text A In the Indian village of Harrappa there was a very old ruined castle built on a hill. Nobody knew who had lived there but local legend said that it had been the home of an evil Rajah (a kind of king), who had been punished by the gods for the bad he did by a huge fire that burned down his castle. The ruins had stood for hundreds of years and children used to play on them. Whenever visitors came they were shown the ruins. In 1826 an English visitor called Charles Masson saw the ruins. Some years later another visitor, an archaeologist named Sir Alexander Cunningham, visited Harrappa, but the ruins had been knocked down and all that was left was a huge mound of stones and rubble. Four hundred miles away from Harrappa was a large area of ruined brick mounds. The people who lived nearby thought that it was a very old burial site, and called it Mohenjo-daro which means Mound of the Dead. Historians used to think that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan were built in 500BCE

3 How the Indus Valley sites were discovered. TextB Charles Masson was an English traveller who visited North West India in He wrote about the things he saw: In Harrappa a ruined brick castle with very high walls and towers, built on a hill. In 1853 Sir Alexander Cunningham went to study the ruins in Harrappa. The buildings had been completely knocked down, but he looked very carefully through everything he could see. He found some small square stones that were very polished. They had engravings of animals and designs that no-one in India had found before. In the 1920s R D Banerji found polished stone seals just like the ones at Harrappa. He was excavating at Mohenjo-daro which was miles away near the Indus river. He found these seals in the remains of a large city and it was at least 3500 years old. Since these early excavations more and more archaeological work has been done in the Indus valley area. Thousands of settlements and some cities have been found. They all have the stone seals and artefacts just like the ones at Harrappa and Mohenjo-daro.

4 How the Indus Valley sites were discovered. Text C When the British ruled India they built railways to make their lives easier. An engineer called Robert Brunton ordered workers to knock down some old walls and empty buildings. They laid the railway tracks on the stones. In 1921 the Indian government paid an archaeologist, Daya Ram Sahni, to find out more about Harrappa. A trench was dug along the top of a mound. In the bottom were lots more of the stone seals like the ones Sir Alexander had found. Mr Sahni dug further down and found seven or eight layers of houses, one on top of the other. It was an enormous city. It was also a very old city, from about 2500 BCE. This meant that it was as old as the pyramids in Egypt. The cities at Harrappa and Mohenjo-daro had streets, baths and storage for grain. In the houses archaeologists found gold and silver objects, toys made from stone and jewellery made from precious stones. Nobody knows much about the people who lived in the Indus valley 4500 years ago, but we do know they were some of the first people on earth to live in cities.

5 How the Indus Valley sites were discovered. Answer grid. What were the first clues to the ancient city sites? What did Charles Masson find out? When? What did Sir Alexander Cunningham find? When? What had happened to the things Charles Masson saw by the time Sir Alexander visited? What did Robert Brunton do? Was this right? Why did he do it? What did Mr Sahni find? What was Mr Banerji s discovery? How did they know the sites were linked? What else has been found in the area? Find three examples of materials people used in the ancient cities. List three things people used which we use today. How do we know they used them? How old did people think the first cities were? What did they have to do change this idea to? Why? When was the first city built? Why was the discovery of this ancient civilisation so important? Is this before the Egyptians built the pyramids?

6 Jigsaw Cards under over Mickey Minnie A Masson A Masson B Masson B Masson right shoe left shoe train track A Cunningham Cunningham Cunningham A B Cunningham B pick mix tea cakes A Banerji A Banerji B Banerji B Banerji mad hatter March hare thunder lightning A Harappa A Harappa B Harappa B Harappa milk cereal sun moon A Mohenjo-daro A Mohenjo-daro B Mohenjo-daro B Mohenjo-daro

7 Jigsaw Cards ice cream jelly C Masson C Masson sugar spice C Cunningham C Cunning- fingers thumbs C Banerji C Banerji sweet sour C Harappa C Harappa tweedledum tweedledee C Mohenjo-daro C Mohenjo-daro Jigsawing with a class of thirty??! These cards will make your life a lot easier when organising pairs into sixes. Each child has a card and everyone finds their partner. If you think any pair is difficult, why not substitute yourown. You can always develop thematic Indus Valley pairs for this activity. Pairs collect the information sheet with the letter that corresponds to the one on their card. Although they work together they will each need a copy, since when they go into colour groups of six, their partners are in a different group.

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