Ghana: Overview of Food Safety Situation in Africa-Country Position. Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, PhD Dean, Faculty of Engineering Sciences University of Ghana

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1 Ghana: Overview of Food Safety Situation in Africa-Country Position Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, PhD Dean, Faculty of Engineering Sciences University of Ghana Presented at the Go-Global Conference. Accra. April 2009

2 The Ghanaian Food Supply Chain Informal Plays a major role in food delivery to the populations Food production, marketing, processing, distribution Intricate network for some commodities Dominated by small and medium-scale enterprises Food production (farms, vegetable gardens) Food retailing (open air markets, convenience stores) Food processing including street foods Food market management Transportation Generally not regulated, no traceability

3 The Ghanaian Food Supply Chain Formal Production, processing, marketing and distribution Food production (cereals, fruits and vegetables, oilseeds, cocoa and shea nuts) Food marketing retailing (supermarkets- an emerging and growing sector) Import and export Food processing- (fruits, cereals, oilseeds etc.) Some challenges in logistics, quality and safety Apply modern concepts of quality management and safety

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16 The Key Actors in Food Safety in Ghana Ghana government Regulatory/Standards/Certification/Policy/Enabling Environment/MDAs Ghana government in partnership with development partners. Private Sector Producers, market intervention (local and export), processors, distributors, consumers Public-private initiatives National Codex Committee, Horticultural Task Force

17 Ghana Government

18 Ministries and Food Law/Regulations Environment and Science Trade and Industry Finance and Economic Planning Food and Agriculture. Health Local Government Tourism

19 Ministry of Environment and Science Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Ghana Atomic Energy Commission

20 Ministry of Trade and Industry The Ghana Standards Board Export Promotion Council

21 Ministry of Food and Agriculture Plant Protection and Regulatory Services Directorate Veterinary Services Directorate Fisheries Directorate

22 Other Ministries FINANCE (Customs Excise and Preventive Service) HEALTH (Food and Drugs Board) TOURISM (Ghana Tourist Board) LOCAL GOVERNMENT (Medical Officer of Health Department)

23 Classification of Legislation on Standards Food Food and Drugs Environment

24 Legislations on Standards Standards Decree, 1967 (NLCD 199), superseded by the Standards Decree, 1973 (NRCD 173) Ghana Standards (Certification Marks) Rules, 1970 (LI 662) Ghana Standards (Certification Marks) (Amendment) Rules, 1970 (LI 664) Standards (Amendment) Decree, 1979 (AFRCD 44) Ghana Standards Board (Food, Drugs and other goods) general Labeling Rules, 1992 (LI 154)

25 Legislation on Food and Drugs Food and Drugs Law, 1992 (PNDCL 305B) Food and Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1996 (Act 523) Animals (Control and Importation) Ordinance (Cap 247) Diseases of Animals Act, 1961 (Act 83) Tourist Board Decree 1973 (NRCD 224) Ghana Tourist Board (Amendment) Decree, 1977 (SMCD 80) Local Government Act, 1961 (Act 54); 1993 (Act 462)

26 Legislation on the Environment Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1994 (Act 490) Pesticides Management and Export Control Act, 1996 (Act 528)

27 Harmonization Food safety involves several interrelated activities which cut across disciplines and government ministries, departments and agencies. Whilst the enactments made by Parliament and the regulations made pursuant to these enactments provide the main corpus of food law, the work of these MDAs are critical for the successful development and application of food law and improvement in food safety. Harmonization of the activities in these MDAs is important.

28 The status of food safety legislation Institutions have been set up with specific mandates derived from various legislative instruments. Most of these legislations need urgent revision to align them with current trends in modern food regulations. Two areas of concern Separation of standards setting and advice responsibilities from standard control and enforcement Separation of risk assessment and advice from risk management

29 Aims of GSB (Article 2, NRCD 173, 1973) Establish and promulgate standards with the object of ensuring high quality in goods produced in Ghana, whether for local or for export; Promote standardisation in industry and commerce; Promote industrial efficiency and development Promote standards in public and industrial welfare, health and safety

30 GSB Functions Article 3(2)(d) to maintain the necessary machinery to ensure that goods prepared and manufactured for export are distinctly marked for export only, and to provide for issue of a certificate to the effect that goods comply with known requirement of standards in the country to which they are or about to be consigned, before the export of such goods are permitted

31 GSB Functions Cont d Article 3(2)(k) To cooperate with representatives of any industry, or with any government department, local authority, or other public bodies or persons with a view to securing the adoption of standards. This is important for private sector-led standards development and application. (The role of FAGE, SPEH, HAG, VEPEAG, PAMPEAG etc.)

32 GSB-Summary mandate and functions Development of Standards A unique activity, no controversies Provision of Certification Services GFDB involved in product registration and this function is sometimes confused with product certification by GSB Provision of Inspection Services GFDB also involved with Inspection Metrology

33 Food and Drugs Legislation Food and Drugs Law, 1992 (PNDCL 305B) Food and Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1996 (Act 523) Draft Food and Drugs Regulation (yet to be passed by Parliament

34 Food and Drugs Law PNDCL 305B Enacted to control the manufacture, importation,distribution, use and advertisement of foods, drugs, cosmetics, chemical substances and medical devices. The Law contains provisions on prohibitions against the manufacture and sale of unwholesome, poisonous and adulterated foods. This Law was amended in 1996

35 Food and Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1996 Act 523 The amendments sought among others to provide legal basis for the iodine fortification of salt and bring the provisions of the law in conformity with the 1992 constitution.

36 Food and Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1996 Act 523 Article 5. Section 7 of PNDCL 305B amended by renumbering and insertion of the following new subsection--- (2) Food shall be stored and conveyed in such a manner as to preserve its composition, quality and purity and to minimize the dissipation of its nutritive properties from climatic and other deteriorating conditions

37 Summary on GFDB Mandate to define food safety policy Activity currently on-going. Coordination with other institutions involved with food safety a challenge but seem to be doing well. Food Premises Inspection Overlaps with GSB. Post Market surveillance GSB also involved Food safety and quality management Research on Food Standards and legislation

38 Laws on Animal Products Animals (Control of Importation) Ordinance (Cap 247) Local Government Act, 1961 (Act 54) Diseases of Animals Act, 1961 (Act 83) Veterinary surgeons law (1992) Local Government Act 1992 (Act 462) Meat Inspection law (yet to be passed by Parliament) Fisheries Act (2002) Fisheries Regulation (pending)

39 Laws on Animal Products Diseases of Animals Act, 1961 (Act 83) Update to bring at par with current international rules on animal trade Meat Inspection law (yet to be passed by Parliament) Lack legal structure on meat inspection procedures Fisheries Act (2002) Fisheries Regulation (pending) Would include mandates of relevance to food safety (e.g. permit for aquaculture operations, fish seed production certification)

40 Local Government Act, 1961 (Act 54) Functions of local Government bodies include: Build, manage and licence and control slaughterhouses Regulate the slaughter and provide for the inspection of animals intended for food for man; Establish, erect, equip and maintain cold storage works, depots for the inspection of meat and to make and sell ice

41 Local Government (A.M.A.) Establishment Instrument. L.I Among the 88 functions of AMA in Second Schedule Para 3 (2) is: (10)To provide for the inspection of all meat, fish, vegetables and all other foodstuffs and liquid of whatever kind or nature intended for human consumption whatever exposed for sale or not; and to seize, destroy and otherwise deal with all foodstuffs or liquid as are unfit for human consumption and to supervise and control the manufacture of foodstuffs and liquids of whatever kind or nature intended for human consumption

42 Meat Marketing and Inspection Meat inspection function has been a source of conflict between Veterinary Services and the Public Health Department Officers of the Metropolitan and District Assemblies. The draft Meat Inspection Law is expected to address this problem

43 Environment Protection Agency Act, 1994 (Act 490) Amongst the functions of EPA is the issuance of environmental permits and pollution abatement notice for controlling the volume, types, constituents and effects of waste discharges, emissions, deposits or other sources of pollutants and of substances which are hazardous or potentially dangerous to the quality of the environment or any segment of the environment. Food processing companies need to be aware of this function

44 The Hazardous Chemical Committee (HCC) The EPA is expected to form the HCC under section 10 of the EPA Act. The duties are: Monitor the use of hazardous chemicals by collecting information on the importation, exportation, manufacture, distribution, sale and disposal of such chemicals; Advise the Board and the Executive Director on the regulation and management of hazardous chemicals Pesticide residues in food is an important concern. Pesticides are further regulated under the Pesticides Management Control Act, 1996 (Act 528)

45 Plant Protection and Regulatory Services Provide the following services Crop pest and disease management Plant quarantine Pesticide management Seed inspection and certification

46 PPRSD Bills Supporting Activities Prevention and control of pests and diseases of plants Act 307 (1965) Pesticide control and management Act 528 (1996) Overlap with EPA Seed inspection and certification Decree, NRCD 100 (1972)

47 Pesticides Management Control Act, 1996 (Act 528) Section 17 of this Act states: No person shall import,export, manufacture, distribute, advertise or sell any pesticides except in accordance with a license issued under he Act. It is important to note that no regulations have been enacted pursuant to Act 528 to address pesticide residues in foods and the protection of the consumer or the certification of agricultural produce in respect of the level of chemical residues

48 Government in partnership with Development Partners

49 Partners in Food Safety 1 Department for International Development (DFID): Street foods- safety hazards; control and elimination UNIDO Conformity with market requirements. Strengthen standards bodies to harmonize standards Upgrade PPRSD seed inspection and certification laboratory World Bank-led Multi-donor Initiative Horticulture Export Initiative. Addressed food safety, quality management, pesticides, cold chain infrastructure

50 Partners in Food Safety 2 USAID- Trade and investment Program for Competitive Export Economy (TIPCEE) Two components (export development and enabling environment). Develop supply chain system for export fruits, including GlobalGap certification; policy and regulatory issues, legal framework for pesticide importation, sale, use and disposal GTZ-Market Oriented Agriculture Program (MOAP) Poverty alleviation through increased competitiveness of agricultural producers. Strengthened agricultural associations, assist in GlobalGap certification

51 Partners in Food Safety 3 AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK-Export Marketing and Quality Awareness Project Address constraints which limit export growth (production and productivity, export marketing promotion, capacity building, project coordination and management) MILLENNIUM DEVELMENT AUTHORITY Aims to raise farmer incomes through private sectorled agribusiness development. Assist PPRSD to enable compliance with international plant protection standards

52 Partners in Food Safety 4 Pesticide Initiative Program support to the National Horticultural Task Force General support. Cost-sharing agreements with export companies to support cost of training and certification DANIDA-Trade Sector Support Program Development of national standards strategy, streamlining institutional mandates, laboratory improvements, strengthening of SPS/TBT Enquiry Point, standards for local market.

53 National Food Safety Action Plan (NFSAP) Ministry of Food and Agriculture through its Food Safety Task Force with support from the World Bank and other partners. Drafted the revised National Food Safety Action Plan. It recommends restructuring of food safety and agricultural health institutions to improve governance and efficiency

54 NFSAP Recommendations GFDB will become the Central Food safety Agency for Ghana. Will coordinate all activities related to the regulation of food safety. Under this GFDB will implement policy decisions and enforce standards set y the GSB PPRSD would become the Competent Authority for plant health certification Recommendations are yet to be officially accepted

55 Upgrading Capacity to meet IPPC Standards Under the Millennium Development Authority Agricultural Project there is a component that is looking at upgrading Ghana s Institutional capacity to meet International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) Standards. On-going. Target PPRSD, GSB and WRI. Strengthen the Phyto-sanitary diagnostic capacity (training, laboratory improvements to achieve ISO accreditation)

56 Ghana at Codex Currently Ghana is the Regional Coordinator for Africa through the National Codex Committee (NCC). The primary objective of NCC Act as a consultative group to the government on matters related to Codex Ghana hosted the 18 th Session of CCAfrica in Accra in February, 2009.

57 Functions of NCC Formulate country response to the proposals of the Codex Alimentarius Commission Nominate delegates to represent the country at various Codex meetings Advise government on the best possible decisions as regards Codex standards and their implementation Appoint such technical sub-committees as may be necessary for the country s effective participation in Codex

58 The Key Issues Institutional: Harmonization of Functions and Responsibilities, capacity building. Inter-sectoral cooperation Outdated/lack of regulatory mechanismsmodernise Lack of enforceable policies Improve inspection and laboratory services Coordination of resources, support and projects Education: Involvement of key stakeholders (consumers, producers, processors etc.) International Cooperation

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