Introduction to Ghana s s current pesticides registration framework and requirement for bio pesticides regulations in Ghana

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1 Introduction to Ghana s s current pesticides registration framework and requirement for bio pesticides regulations in Ghana Presented by Joseph C. Edmund, Chemicals Control and Management Centre, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Monday 27 th June 2005 Mensvic Hotel, Accra 1

2 Presentation Outline 1. Introduction 2. Pesticides Control and Management Act, 1996 (Act 528) 3. Pesticides registration 4. List of approved pesticides; banned pesticides 5. Licensing of pesticides dealers 6. Issues and challenges 7. Biopesticides regulations in Ghana 8. Conclusions 2

3 Introduction to the pesticide registration process (1) Before a pesticide can be sold and used in Ghana, it must first be registered in accordance with the Pesticides Control and Management Act (Act 528, 1996). This is to enable the registration authority confirm that the product is safe and efficacious in normal or its intended use. 3

4 Introduction to the pesticide registration process (2) The Pesticides Control and Management Act of 1996 (Act 528) makes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Ghana the lead Agency responsible for a comprehensive pesticide regulatory program. In that capacity, the EPA has the sole authority and responsibility to register all pesticides imported, exported, manufactured, distributed, advertised, sold or used within Ghana. 4

5 PESTICIDES CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT ACT 1996, ACT 528 (1) An Act to provide for the control, management and regulation of pesticides in Ghana and to provide for related matters. The objective of regulating pesticides is to protect society from the adverse effects of pesticides without denying access to the benefits of their use. 5

6 Act 528 (2) The four main parts of Act 528 are as follows: Part I: Part II: Registration of pesticides Licensing of pesticides dealers Part III: Enforcement and penalties Part IV: General provisions 6

7 Definition of pesticide under Act 528 Any substance, mixtures of substances or other agents used to control, destroy, or prevent damage by or protect something from a pest. The definition also includes chemical substances that are used to attract and repel pests as well as those used to regulate plant growth or remove coat/leaves. 7

8 Pesticides registration (1) Section 1 of Act 528 states that: No person shall import, export, manufacture, distribute, advertise, sell or use any pesticide in Ghana unless the pesticide has been registered by the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with this Act 8

9 Pesticides registration (2) Registration is the process whereby the responsible national government authority approves the sale and use of a pesticide following the evaluation of comprehensive scientific data demonstrating that the product is effective for the intended purposes and does not pose unacceptable risks to human or animal health or to the environment. 9

10 Pesticides registration (3) Registration enables authorities to exercise control over quality, use levels, claims, labelling, packaging, advertising, and disposal of pesticides, thus ensuring that the interests of end-users are properly protected. 10

11 Procedures for pesticides registration In addition to submitting the completed application form, the applicant is required to submit scientific evidence or data in a dossier to support all claims for efficacy and safety of the product to be registered. The dossier must contain sufficient information to effectively address all pertinent issues regarding safety and efficacy. 11

12 Structures for pesticides registration 1. Chemicals Control and Management Centre of the EPA receives all applications. 2. Three PTC sub-committees evaluate applications and submit reports to the Pesticides Technical Committee (PTC). 3. The thirteen member intersectoral PTC considers reports of sub-committees and makes recommendations to the EPA Board. 4. EPA Board takes final decision to register or deny registration of pesticides. 12

13 ORG. STRUCTURE FOR PESTICIDES REGISTRATION EPA BOARD PESTICIDES TECHNICAL COMMITTEE BIOEFFICACY SUB-COMMITTEE TOX/ECOTOX SUB-COMMITTEE LABELLING & ADVERTISING SUB-COMMITTEE CCMC THE SECRETARIAT 13

14 Approval categories A pesticides can be approved for use under the following categories: 1. Full registration (Valid for three years) For General use For Restricted use 2. Provisional clearance (Max. 1 year) 3. Suspended or Banned 14

15 Provisional clearance (1) Most information required for registration of pesticide has been provided to the Agency, and the Pesticide does not present a toxicological risk to people, animals, crops or the environment, 15

16 Provisional clearance (2) The agency may clear the pesticide for use without the registration, and this clearance shall be known as provisional clearance Shall be temporary pending the registration by the Agency of the pesticide (Section 9, Act 528). 16

17 Operationalisation of Act 528 Even though Act 528 was promulgated in 1996, a number of problems prevented the full and effective implementation of its provisions. Between 2003 and 2004, full operationalisation of the Act was initiated. The Agency received over 300 applications for registration. 17

18 List of approved pesticides A total of 114 pesticides comprising 62 fully Registered; 27 provisionally cleared and 25 banned as at January The breakdown of the fully registered and provisionally cleared pesticides is as follows: 38 insecticides 10 fungicides 33 herbicides 3 larvicides 1 nematicide 1 desiccant 1 growth regulator 1 rodenticide 1 biocide 18

19 Banned pesticides (1)-POPs & PIC 2,4,5-T and its salts and esters Aldrin Binapacryl Captafol Chlordane Chlordimeform Chlorobenzilate Mirex Endrin DDT Dieldrin Dinoseb and its salts and esters Dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC) and its salts (such as ammonium salt, potassium salt and sodium salt) HCH (mixed isomers) Heptachlor Hexachlorobenzene 19

20 Banned pesticides (2) Parathion Pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters Toxaphene Methamidophos (Soluble liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 600 g active ingredient/l) Methyl-parathion (emulsifiable concentrates (EC) with at or above 19.5% active ingredient and dusts at or above 1.5% active ingredient) Monocrotophos (Soluble liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 600 g active ingredient/l) Parathion (all formulations - aerosols, dustable powder (DP), emulsifiable concentrate (EC), granules (GR) and wettable powders (WP) - of this substance are included, except capsule suspensions (CS)) Phosphamidon (Soluble liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 1000 g active ingredient/l) Dustable powder formulations containing a combination of Benomyl at or above 7%, Carbofuran at or above 10% and Thiram at or above 15% 20

21 Pesticides licensing Section 17 of Act 528 states that: No person shall import, export, manufacture, distribute, advertise or sell any pesticide except in accordance with a license issued under this Act 21

22 Categories of licenses Pesticides activities which require to be licensed are Retailers; Importers; Distributors; Commercial Pest Controllers; Transporters; Manufacturers; Repackaging, Formulation, Warehouses and any other related pesticides activity. 22

23 Licensing Procedure Applicant completes an application form obtainable from the CCMC or any of the EPA Regional offices. The completed form is submitted together with two passport sized pictures and copies of all relevant documents. An inspection is conducted upon submission of completed form. A decision to issue a license or otherwise is based on the evaluation of inspection report and the assurance that applicant satisfies all conditions as required by the Act. 23

24 Enforcement: Part III of Act 528 A member of the relevant sub-committee of a District Assembly so authorised or an inspector appointed under section 15 of the Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1994 (Act 490) may- inspect any equipment used or to be used in applying pesticides; inspect any storage or disposal facilities or areas used for the storage or disposal of pesticides; inspect any land actually, or reported to be, 24

25 Enforcement (2) investigate complaints or injury to human beings and animals, or damage to land and pollution of water bodies resulting from the use of pesticides; take samples of pesticides applied or to be applied; monitor the sale and use of pesticides; examine and take copies of a license or other documents required by this Act or any regulations made under this Act. 25

26 Issues and challenges (1) Since the operationalisation of the registration scheme in August 2004, the EPA has received support from its collaborators both locally and internationally to strengthen the scheme. However there is a lot to be done. 26

27 Issues and challenges (2) The issues include: Quality control aspect of the registration. Post registration monitoring and surveillance by pesticides inspectors Capacity building, staff and logistics Enforcement (Prosecution of offenders) Education and awareness 27

28 Requirements for biopesticides regulations in Ghana (1) Biopesticides have emerged as important pest management option with rapid development in research and commercialisation especially in the developed world. To guarantee their safety, measures are being developed to regulate the production and use of these products as with conventional pesticides. 28

29 Requirements for biopesticides regulations in Ghana (2) In most developing countries, regulatory framework governing production, registration and use of biopesticides are not well developed. For instance there is no specific legal framework in Ghana to govern the registration of biopesticides even though some bio control agents have been introduced especially in our pest management system for sometime. The current regulatory framework for pesticides is not specifically relevant to biopesticides. 29

30 Requirements for biopesticides regulations in Ghana (3) The existing requirements and procedures for conventional pesticides are extended to regulate the few biopesticides received. there is no doubt that there are specific needs this area. As they become increasingly important as pest management options, and in view of the potential risk and increased commercialisation in Ghana, it raises the need for stringent controls. 30

31 Requirements for biopesticides regulations in Ghana(4) Regulations are required to control their registration, importation, distribution, use and manufacture, and to protect the environment from all potential risk associated with biopesticides. Need to develop specific data requirements Need to develop expertise for evaluation A separate review procedures from that for conventional pesticides is required. 31

32 Conclusion (1) The use of biopesticides in Ghana as compared to conventional pesticides is at the moment very low. With recent events regarding concerns raised about food safety especially in the horticulture industry, there is a huge potential for development of biopesticides as an important pest management option. 32

33 Conclusion This calls for the establishment of structures and development of the requisite expertise and regulations to effectively handle biopesticides in all its forms to ensure their efficacy and safety to users and the entire environment. 33

34 Thank you 34

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