Priority Queues. Client, Implementation, Interface. Priority Queues. Abstract Data Types

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1 Client, Implementation, Interface Priority Queues Priority Queue ADT Binary heaps Heapsort Reference: Chapter 6, Algorithms in Java, 3 rd Edition, Robert Sedgewick. Separate interface and implementation so as to: Build layers of abstraction. Reuse software. Ex: stack, queue, symbol table. Interface: description of data type, basic operations. Client: program using operations defined in interface. Implementation: actual code implementing operations. Benefits. Client can't know details of implementation, so has many implementation from which to choose. Implementation can't know details of client needs, so many clients can re-use the same implementation. Performance: use optimized implementation where it matters. Design: creates modular, re-usable libraries. Princeton University COS 226 Algorithms and Data Structures Spring 2004 Kevin Wayne 2 Abstract Data Types Priority Queues Idealized scenario. Design general-purpose ADT useful for many clients. Develop efficient implementation of all ADT functions. Each ADT provides a new level of abstraction. clients Records with keys (priorities) that can be compared. Basic operations. Insert. PQ ops Remove largest. ADT Create. Test if empty. generic ADT ops algorithms Copy. Destroy. Total cost depends on: ADT implementation. Client usage pattern. algorithms and data structures might need different implementations for different clients not needed for one-time use, but critical in large systems when writing in C or C++ 3 4

2 Priority Queue Applications Priority Queue Client Example Applications. Event-driven simulation. customers in a line, colliding particles umerical computation. reducing roundoff error Data compression. Huffman codes Graph searching. shortest path, MST Computational number theory. sum of powers Artificial intelligence. A* search Statistics. maintain largest M values in a sequence Operating systems. task scheduling, interrupt handling Discrete optimization. bin packing heuristics Spam filtering. Bayesian spam filter Problem: Find the largest M of a stream of elements. Ex : Fraud detection - isolate $$ transactions. Ex 2: File maintenance find biggest files or directories. Possible constraint: may not have enough memory to store elements. Solution: Use a priority queue. sort elementary PQ binary heap best in theory time lg M lg M space M M M PQ pq = new PQ(); while(!stdin.isempty()) { String s = StdIn.readString(); pq.insert(s); if (pq.size() > M) pq.delmax(); while (!pq.isempty()) System.out.println(pq.delMax()); Ex: top 0,000 in a stream of billion. ot possible without good algorithm. 5 6 Unordered Array Priority Queue Implementation Implementation Details public class PQ { private Comparable[] pq; // pq[i] = ith element private int ; // number of elements on PQ public PQ() { pq = new Comparable[8]; public boolean isempty() { return == 0; public void insert(comparable x) { pq[++] = x; public Comparable delmax() { int max = 0; for (int i = ; i < ; i++) if (less(pq[max], pq[i])) max = i; exch(pq, max, -); return pq[--]; constructor is the PQ empty? insert element x into PQ remove and return max element from PQ What if I don't know the max capacity of the PQ ahead of time? Double the size of the array as needed. Add following code to insert before updating array. Memory leak. if ( >= pq.length) { Comparable[] temp = new Comparable[2*]; for (int i = 0; i < ; i++) temp[i] = pq[i]; pq = temp; Garbage collector only reclaims memory if there is no outstanding reference to it. When deleting element - from the priority queue, set: pq[-] = null; 7 8

3 Priority Queues Implementation Cost Summary Heap Heap: Array representation of a heap-ordered complete binary tree. Worst-Case Asymptotic costs for PQ with items ordered array Insert Remove Max Find Max ordered list unordered array unordered list Binary tree. null or ode with links to left and right trees. Heap-ordered binary tree. Keys in nodes. o smaller than children s keys. Can we implement all operations efficiently? Array representation. Take nodes in level order. o explicit links needed since tree is complete. 9 2 Heap Properties Promotion (Bubbling Up) In a Heap Largest key is at root. Suppose that exactly one node is bigger than its parent. Use array indices to move through tree. ote: indices start at. Parent of node at k is at k/2. Children of node at k are at 2k and 2k+. Length of path in -node heap is at most ~ lg. n levels when 2 n < 2 n +. n lg < n+. ~ lg levels. To eliminate the violation: Exchange with its parent. Repeat until heap order restored. private void swim(int k) { while (k > && less(k/2, k)) { exch(k, k/2); k = k/2; parent of node at k is at k/2 Peter principle: node promoted to level of incompetence. 3 4

4 Demoting (Sifting Down) In a Heap Insert and Delete Max Suppose that exactly one node is smaller than a child. To eliminate the violation: Exchange with larger child. Repeat until heap order restored. private void sink(int k, int ) { while (2*k <= ) { int j = 2*k; if (j < && less(j, j+)) j++; if (!less(k, j)) break; exch(k, j); k = j; children of node at k are 2k and 2k+ Insert. Add node at end, then promote. public void insert(comparable x) { pq[++] = x; swim(); Remove largest. Exchange root with node at end, then sift down. public Comparable delmax() { exch(, ); sink(, -); return pq[--]; Power struggle: better subordinate promoted. 5 6 Heap Based Priority Queue in Java Priority Queues Implementation Cost Summary public class PQ { private Comparable[] pq; private int ; public PQ() { public boolean isempty() { public int size() { public void insert(comparable x) { public Comparable delmax() { private void swim(int k) { private void sink(int k, int ) { exactly as in array-based PQ same as array-based PQ, but allocate one extra element in array PQ ops heap helper functions Worst-Case Asymptotic costs for PQ with items ordered array Insert Remove Max Find Max ordered list unordered array unordered list heap lg lg private boolean less(int i, int j) { private void exch(int i, int j) { helper functions Hopeless challenge: get all ops O(). Expansion: double size of array as needed. Memory leak: when deleting element, set pq[] = null. 7 8

5 Digression: Heapsort Significance of Heapsort First pass: build heap. Add item to heap at each iteration, then sift up. Or can use faster bottom-up method; see book. for (int k = / 2; k >= ; k--) { sink(k, ); Q: Sort in log worst-case without using extra memory? A: Yes. Heapsort. ot mergesort? Linear extra space. ot quicksort? Quadratic in worst case. challenge for bored: design in-place merge challenge for bored: design O( log ) worst-case quicksort Second pass: sort. Remove maximum at each iteration. Exchange root with node at end, then sift down. Heapsort is OPTIMAL for both time and space, BUT Inner loop longer than quicksort s. Makes poor use of cache memory. while ( > ) { exch(, ); sink(, --); In the wild: g++ STL uses introsort. combo of quicksort, heapsort, and insertion 9 20 Sorting Summary Sam Loyd's 5-Slider Puzzle 5 puzzle. Bubble Sort Selection Sort In-Place Stable # Key Comparisons Worst 2 / 2 2 / 2 Average 2 / 2 2 / 2 Best 2 / 2 Remarks never use it exchanges Legal move: slide neighboring tile into blank square. Challenge: sequence of legal moves to put tiles in increasing order. Win $000 prize for solution. Insertion Sort 2 / 2 2 / 4 use as cutoff for small Shellsort 3/2 3/2 3/2 with Knuth sequence Quicksort 2 / 2 2 ln lg fastest in practice Mergesort lg lg lg log guarantee, stable Heapsort 2 lg 2 lg lg log guarantee, in-place Sam Loyd

6 Breadth First Search of 8-Puzzle Game Tree A* Search of 8-Puzzle Game Tree Priority first search. Basic idea: explore positions in more intelligent order. Ex : number of tiles out of order. Ex 2: sum of Manhattan distances + depth. Implement A* algorithm with PQ Pictures from Sequential and Parallel Algorithms by Berman and Paul Event-Based Simulation Event-Based Simulation Challenge: animate moving particles. Each has given velocity vector. Bounce off edges and one another upon collision. Example applications: molecular dynamics, traffic,... aive approach: t times per second Update particle positions. Check for collisions, update velocities. Redraw all particles. Problems: 2 t collision checks per second. May miss collisions! Approach: use PQ of events with time as key. Put collision event on PQ for each particle (calculate time of next collision as priority) Put redraw events on PQ (t per second). Main loop: remove next event from PQ. Redraw: update positions and redraw. Collision: update velocity of affected particles and put new collision events on PQ. More PQ operations needed: may need to remove items from PQ. may want to join PQs for different sets of events (Ex: join locals to national for air traffic control). More sophisticated PQ interface needed 26 27

7 More Priority Queue s Priority Queues Implementation Cost Summary Indirect priority queue. Supports deletion of arbitrary elements. Use symbol table to access binary heap node, given element to delete. Binomial queue. Supports fast join. Slightly relaxes heap property to gain flexibility. ordered array ordered list unordered array unordered list heap binomial queue best in theory Worst-Case Asymptotic costs for PQ with items Insert Remove Max Find Max Change Key Join lg lg lg lg lg lg lg lg lg 28 29

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