# Analysis of a Search Algorithm

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1 CSE 326 Lecture 4: Lists and Stacks 1. Agfgd 2. Dgsdsfd 3. Hdffdsf 4. Sdfgsfdg 5. Tefsdgass We will review: Analysis: Searching a sorted array (from last time) List ADT: Insert, Delete, Find, First, Kth, etc. Array versus Linked List implementations Stacks Focus on running time (big-oh analysis) Covered in Chapter 3 of the text 1 Analysis of a Search Algorithm Problem: Search for an item X in a sorted array A. Return index of item if found, otherwise return 1. Brainstorming: What is an efficient way of doing this A X=101 2

2 Binary Search Problem: Search for an item X in a sorted array A. Return index of item if found, otherwise return 1. Idea: Compare X with middle item A[mid], go to left half if X < A[mid] and right half if X > A[mid]. Repeat. A X=101 Mid X > A[Mid] Mid A[Mid]=X Found! Return Mid = 8 3 Binary Search A public static int BinarySearch( int [ ] A, int X, int N ) { int Low = 0, Mid, High = N - 1; while( Low <= High ) { Mid = ( Low + High ) / 2; // Find middle of array if ( X > A[ Mid ] ) // Search second half of array Low = Mid + 1; else if ( X < A[ Mid ] ) // Search first half High = Mid - 1; else return Mid; // Found X! } return NOT_FOUND; } 4

3 Running Time of Binary Search Given an array A with N elements, what is the worst case running time of BinarySearch What is the worst case A X=100 Mid X > A[Mid] Mid Mid 5 Running Time of Binary Search Worst case is when item X is not found. How many iterations are executed before Low > High int Low = 0, Mid, High = N - 1; while( Low <= High ) { Mid = ( Low + High ) / 2; // Find middle of array if ( X > A[ Mid ] ) // Search second half of array Low = Mid + 1; else if ( X < A[ Mid ] ) // Search first half High = Mid - 1; else return Mid; // Found X! } 6

4 Running Time of Binary Search Worst case is when item X is not found. How many iterations are executed before Low > High After first iteration: N/2 items remaining 2 nd iteration: (N/2)/2 = N/4 remaining Kth iteration: 7 Running Time of Binary Search How many iterations are executed before Low > High After first iteration: N/2 items remaining 2 nd iteration: (N/2)/2 = N/4 remaining Kth iteration: N/2 K remaining Worst case: Last iteration occurs when N/2 K 1 and N/2 K+1 < 1 item remaining 2 K N and 2 K+1 > N [take log of both sides] Number of iterations is K log N and K > log N - 1 Worst case running time = Θ(log N) 8

5 Lists What is a list An ordered sequence of elements A1, A2,, AN Elements may be of arbitrary type, but all are the same type List ADT: Common operations are: Insert, Find, Delete, IsEmpty, IsLast, FindPrevious, First, Kth, Last Two types of implementation: Array-Based Linked List We will compare worst case running time of ADT operations 9 Lists: Array-Based Implementation Basic Idea: Pre-allocate a big array of size MAX_SIZE Keep track of first free slot using a variable N Empty list has N = 0 Shift elements when you have to insert or delete N-1 MAX_SIZE A_1 A_2 A _ 3 A _ 4 A _ N Example: Insert(List L, ElementType E, Position P) 10

6 Lists: Array-Based Implementation public void insert(list L, ElementType X, Position P) // Example: Insert X after position P = N-1 MAX_SIZE A_1 A_2 A_3 A_4 A_N Basic Idea: Shift existing elements to the right by one slot and insert new item N-1 N MAX_SIZE A_1 A_2 X A_3 A_N-1 A_N Running time for insert into N element array-based list = 11 Lists: Array-Based Insert Operation Basic Idea: Shift existing elements to the right by one slot and insert new item N-1 MAX_SIZE A_1 A_2 A_3 A_4 A_N Running time for N elements = Worst case is when you insert at the beginning of list must shift all N items 12

7 Lists: Linked List Implementation Insert the value X after P header A_1 A_2 NULL P 13 Lists: Linked List Implementation Insert the value X after P: 1. Create new containing X 2. Update pointers header A_1 A_2 NULL P X (Go through the Java/C++ code in Chap. 3 of your text) 14

8 Lists: Linked List Implementation of Insert Insert the value X after P: 1. Create new containing X 2. Update pointers header A_1 A_2 NULL P Running Time = X 15 Lists: Linked List Implementation of Insert A_1 A_2 NULL header P X Running Time = Θ(1) Insert takes constant time does not depend on input size N Comparison: Array implementation takes time 16

9 Caveats with Linked List Implementation Whenever you break a list, your code should fix the list up as soon as possible Draw pictures of the list to visualize what needs to be done Pay special attention to boundary conditions: Empty list Single item same item is both first and last Two items first, last, but no middle items Three or more items first, last, and middle items 17 Header Node in Linked List Implementation Why use a header If List points to first item, any change in first item changes List itself Need special checks if List pointer is NULL (e.g. is invalid) Solution: Use header at beginning of all lists (see text) List always points to header, which points to first item 18

10 Other List Operations: Run time analysis Operation isempty Insert FindPrev Delete Array-Based List Linked List 19 Other List Operations: Run time analysis Operation isempty Insert FindPrev Delete Find Find Array-Based List Linked List 20

11 Other List Operations: Run time analysis Operation isempty Insert FindPrev Delete Find Find First Kth Last Length Array-Based List Linked List 21 Other List Operations: Run time analysis Operation isempty Insert FindPrev Delete Find Find First Kth Last Length Array-Based List Linked List 22

12 Delete Operation using a Linked List A_11 A_12 A_13 NULL P Problem: To delete the pointed to by P, need a pointer to the previous (= ) 23 Doubly Linked Lists FindPrev (and hence Delete) is because we cannot go to previous Solution: Keep a back-pointer at each Doubly Linked List header prev prev prev Advantages: Delete and FindPrev become operations Disadvantages: More space (double the number of pointers at each ) More book-keeping for updating two pointers at each 24

13 Circularly Linked Lists header Set the pointer of the last to first instead of NULL Useful when you want to iterate through whole list starting from any No need to write special code to wrap around at the end A circular and doubly linked list speeds up both the Delete and Last operations (first and last s point to each other) time for both instead of 25 Applications of Lists Polynomial ADT: store and manipulate single variable polynomials with non-negative exponents E.g. 10X 3 + 4X = 10X X X X 0 Data structure: stores coefficients C i and exponents i Array Implementation: C[i] = C i E.g. C[3] = 10, C[2] = 4, C[1] = 0, C[0] = 7 ADT operations: Input polynomials in arrays A and B Addition: C[i] = Multiplication: 26

14 Applications of Lists: Polynomials Polynomial ADT: store and manipulate single variable polynomials with non-negative exponents E.g. 10X 3 + 4X = 10X X X X 0 Array Implementation: C[i] = C i E.g. C[3] = 10, C[2] = 4, C[1] = 0, C[0] = 7 ADT operations: Input polynomials in arrays A and B Addition: C[i] = A[i] + B[i]; Multiplication: initialize C[i] = 0 for all i for each i, j pair: C[i+j] = C[i+j] + A[i]*B[j]; 27 Applications of Lists: Polynomials Polynomial ADT: store and manipulate single variable polynomials with non-negative exponents E.g. 10X 3 + 4X = 10X X X X 0 Array Implementation: C[i] = C i E.g. C[3] = 10, C[2] = 4, C[1] = 0, C[0] = 7 Problem with Array implementation: Sparse polynomials E.g. 10X X Waste of space and time (C i are mostly 0s) Use singly linked list, sorted in decreasing order of exponents 28

15 Applications of Lists: Radix Sort Bucket sort: Sort N integers A 1,, A N which are in the range 0 through B-1 Initialize array Count with B slots ( buckets ) to 0 s Given an input integer A i, Count[A i ]++ Time: O(B+N) (= if B is Θ(N)) Radix sort = Bucket sort on digits of integers Each digit in the range 0 through 9 Bucket-sort from least significant to most significant digit Use linked list to store numbers that are in same bucket Takes O(P(B+N)) time where P = number of digits 29 Stacks In Array implementation of Lists Insert and Delete took time (need to shift elements) What if we avoid shifting by inserting and deleting only at the beginning of the list Both operations take time! Stack: Same as list except that Insert/Delete allowed only at the beginning of the list (the top). LIFO Last in, First out Push: Insert element at top Pop: Delete and Return top element 30

16 class: Queues and Trees To do this week: Homework no. 2 on the Web (due next Monday) Read Chapters 3 and 4 31

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