# Abstract Data Type. EECS 281: Data Structures and Algorithms. The Foundation: Data Structures and Abstract Data Types

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1 EECS 281: Data Structures and Algorithms The Foundation: Data Structures and Abstract Data Types Computer science is the science of abstraction. Abstract Data Type Abstraction of a data structure on that data structure OO programming allows implementation details to be hidden from user/client

2 Examples Already Discussed ADT: sorted list op1 op2 op3 ADT: unsorted list op1 op2 op3 Other ADTs in 281 Stack Queue Priority Queue Tree Graph Hash table Definitions Abstract Data Type: mathematical model of a data type and operations defined on the model that is accessed only through an interface separate the conceptual transformations that our programs perform on data from any particular data structure representation and algorithm implementation

3 An abstract data type is realized by a concrete data structure, which is modeled in C++ by a class. Abstract class Concrete class Foundational Data Structure Most ADTs are built upon some base data structure Base data structure is not viewed as an ADT itself, but an alternative implementation Foundational, base data structures come in two flavors: arrays (vectors) (singly) linked lists Foundational Data Structure Logical sequential storage a collection of n objects of some type T each object in the list is called an element Must have: insert a new element remove a previously inserted element Typically have: construct an empty list count the number of elements May have: destroy or copy the list reverse one list, concatenate two lists, etc. etc.

4 Arrays in C++ Problems with C++ array implementation no bounds checking 0 to n- 1, rather than 1 to n size static and fixed at compile time Better than Arrays: Vectors rank: number of elements before e in S 1 st ele is rank 0, last ele is rank n-1 vector: linear sequence that supports access to elements by their ranks extendable: automatic doubling of storage space when overflow condition is reached Vector ADT size(): return number of elements in vector isempty(): return T if vector is empty, F otherwise elematrank(r): return the element at rank r replaceatrank(r,e): replace the element at rank r with element e insertatrank(r,e): insert a new element e at rank r removeatrank(r): remove the element at rank r

5 Vector ADT: Array-based size(): O( ) isempty(): O( ) elematrank(r): O( ) replaceatrank(r,e): O( ) insertatrank(r,e): O( ) removeatrank(r): O( ) Vector ADT: Extension When n = N (size = capacity) allocate new array B of size 2N copy A[i] to B[i] for i = 0 N-1 deallocate A, and let A = B See code fragments 5.2 and 5.3 (esp. insertatrank and overflow) for detail Vector ADT: Extension Amortization: although doubling size of vector seems expensive, cost is paid over time so insertion of n items is O(n)

6 Linked Lists in C++ Sequence of dynamically allocated storage elements Each node has: data member (called an element) pointer to its successor Many variations Book uses pointer to head only List ADT size(): return number of nodes in list isempty(): return T if list is empty, F otherwise elematpos(p): return the element at position p replaceatpos(p,e): replace the element at position p with element e insertafter(p,e): insert a new element e after position p insertbefore(p,e): insert a new element e before position p removeat(p): remove the element at position p List ADT size(): O( ) isempty(): O( ) elematpos(p): O( ) replaceatpos(p,e): O( ) insertafter(p,e): O( ) insertbefore(p,e): O( ) removeat(p): O( )

7 Summary: Foundational Data Structures Arrays (Vectors) Linked Lists size() size() isempty() isempty() elematrank(r) elematpos(p) replaceatrank(r,e) replaceatpos(p,e) insertatrank(r,e) insertafter(p,e) removeatrank(r) insertbefore(p,e) removeat(p) Wrap-up Questions Name advantages of using arrays Name advantages of using linked lists How do you implement a multi- dimensional array? How do you implement a sparse matrix? What s the advantage of using a tail pointer? What s an advantage of using a doubly- linked list over singly linked list? Common Bugs Arrays Index variable is not initialized Bounds not checked Memory leak (pointer to array elements not de-allocated) When removed, pointer to array elements not removed Linked List Head and tail not initialized to NULL Accessing de-allocated element Memory leak (de-allocation doesn t walk down list) Extraction or insertion loses pointer, e.g. delete last element, but prev next not set to null)

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