Pathways for teaching SPELLING

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1 Pathways for teaching SPELLING

2 Early spelling Learning to spell is a cumulative activity and children generally demonstrate proficient word recognition skills before they secure comparable accuracy in spelling. Before learning spelling rules and conventions, it is imperative that children have a sound understanding of phonemes and graphemes and how to use these correspondences to blend and segment in order to read and spell words. In Phase 6, reading for the great majority of children should become automatic. However, proficiency with spelling usually lags behind proficiency with reading. This is because spelling requires recalling and composing the word from memory without seeing it. Reading and spelling become less easily reversible as children start working with words containing sounds (particularly vowel sounds), which can be spelled in more than one way. Phase 6 is a good time to focus more sharply on wordspecific spellings and broad guidelines for making choices between spelling alternatives. Letters and Sounds: Principles and Practice of High Quality Phonics, Notes of Guidance for Practitioners and Teachers, P12. It is not enough for children to learn and know how to spell words out of context. They need to transfer their knowledge successfully to their independent writing. Teachers can support this process through: introducing new words and conventions in a real context. modelling how to apply spelling strategies during shared writing expressing high expectations that children will apply the conventions in their own work Beyond phonics later spelling There are over 800,000 words in the English language and it is impossible for many children to learn each of these by sight. It is therefore important that children are taught the rules, strategies and conventions of spelling in order to be able to word build and be confident of their best guesses. Eg. to spell the word unhelpful children need to know that: a) the root or base word is help b) help is phonically regular and can be blended. c) Un- is a prefix and when added to the front of a root or base word, makes it negative d) Full, when added as a suffix to the end of a root or base word, loses an l. It changes the meaning of the word to full of unhelp. Or to spell the word hopping a) the root or base word is hop b) hop contains a short (rap) vowel. c) The short vowel requires the last consonant to be doubled before the ing suffix is added. It is therefore crucial that renewed literacy framework strand 6 (word structure and spelling) is taught regularly discretely thoroughly and is applied in a range of contexts through shared, guided and independent writing, improvement marking and target setting.

3 What to teach The grids contained within this document can be used as a guide for teachers to decide what aspects of Strand 6 should be taught to their class. Objectives are not given for each aspect of spelling for each year group it is important that teachers : a) use their APP writing assessments (AF8) to inform their next steps in teaching for groups of children in their class and choose the appropriate objectives; b) continue with the teaching of phonics phases, particularly in Years 3 and 4, to groups of children whose knowledge of the advanced code is not secure. Note: While Spelling Bank is a useful publication to use to support the teaching of spelling, it is important that teachers do not expect to teach objectives to the year groups shown. Expectations for spelling have changed considerably with the implementation of the renewed framework for Literacy and the introduction of synthetic phonics. To teach the objectives within Spelling Bank to the year groups shown will result in lower expectations than those nationally. When to teach and reinforce There are a number of ways that spelling objectives can be taught: a) discrete teaching of rules, strategies conventions and irregularities during the literacy lesson or at other times of the day for minutes. b) application by the teacher of spelling objectives during shared and guided writing. c) application by the children of spelling knowledge and skills during guided, independent and cross curricular writing. d) target setting where individual or group targets are short term (2 3 weeks) and relate to recent teaching. These targets need to be specific (eg. Use plural endings correctly) and not large and vague (Improve your spelling). e) Inclusion of recently taught aspects of spelling in success criteria. f) Modelling editing and proof reading of writing. This might include focussing on one or two recently taught aspects of spelling, rather than correcting every spelling. How to teach Once children are secure in phonics, the most effective teaching is through investigations, sorting activities, identifying rules and spelling games, teacher modelling and the expectation that children will apply these skills to all writing tasks. Please refer to Spelling Bank and the Year 2 and Year 3 Planning Exemplification and Spelling Programme for ideas. Materials Spelling Bank (DfEE ISBN ) Year 2 and Year 3 planning and spelling programme (DfES ) Letters and Sounds (DfES FLR-EN)

4 POSSIBLE PATHWAY FOR TEACHING SPELLING Aspect of spelling Phase 6 (Year 2) Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Verb tense Introducing and teaching the past tense p170 programme p58, 59) Spell irregular verbs (KS2 Spelling Bank p24) Prefixes and suffixes Spelling patterns Investigating and learning how to add suffixes (-ed, -ing, -er, -est, - ful, -ly, -y, -ment, - ness, -en s) p171, 189, KS2 Spelling Bank p63 programme p55, 56, 57, 60, 62, 67, 68) Differentiating spelling patterns (eg. the w special ) (Knowledge of the spelling system Letters and Sounds p187, KS2 Spelling Bank p32 programme p64) Recognise a range of prefixes (un-, de-, dis-, re- pre-, mis-, non-, ex-, co-, anti,) (KS2 Spelling Bank p6, p17 programme p62, 63, 67) Recognise a range of suffixes -less, -able (KS2 Spelling Bank p13) Revisit suffixes learnt in Phase 6 and Year 3. Recognise and spell the suffixes al, -ary, - ic, -ship, -hood) (KS2 Spelling Bank p25) Spell words with common endings (eg. ight, -tion, -ious, -ial, -ough) (KS2 Spelling Bank p29) Know and use less common prefixes and suffixes (auto-, im-, ir-, bi-, trans-, tele-, circum-, il-, pro-, sus-, -cian) (KS2 Spelling Bank p43, 51, 56, 57) Group and classify words according to their spelling patterns and their meanings. (KS2 Spelling Bank p48) Investigate spelling patterns of consonants and formulate rules (KS2 Spelling Bank p45, 46, 53) Use word roots, prefixes and suffixes to support spelling (KS2 Spelling Bank p58)

5 Aspect of spelling Phase 6 (Year 2) Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Morphology and etymology Rules, conventions and strategies Teaching spelling long words investigate how adding suffixes and prefixes changes words ( programme p62, 63, 67 Letters and Sounds p175) Providing a routine for spelling long words p175 programme p62, 63, 67) Spell unfamiliar words using known conventions (eg GPCs and morphological rules) (KS2 Spelling Bank p12, 16) Use knowledge of phonics, morphology and etymology to spell new and unfamiliar words (KS2 Spelling Bank p34) Know and apply common spelling rules eg. to explore the occurrence of certain letters within words (KS2 Spelling Bank p31) Identify word roots, derivations and spelling patterns (KS2 Spelling Bank p44, 67) Devise strategies to spell words with unstressed vowels (KS2 Spelling Bank p52) Use root words, prefixes and suffixes to spell accurately. (KS2 Spelling Bank p58, 68) Elisions/contractions Finding and learning the difficult bits in words (eg. the double t in getting) p178) Elisions and contractions eg. I m, can t, let s (KS2 Spelling Bank p15, 19 programme p65, 66) Learn the two forms of its (possessive) and it s (contraction) (KS2 Spelling Bank p37)

6 Aspect of spelling Phase 6 (Year 2) Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 High and medium frequency words Spell high and medium frequency words (Word lists in Letters and Sounds p193, 195) Teach further less common grammatical function words (there, were, where) Phase 4 P118) Homophones and compound words Personal spelling strategies p179, 180) Distinguish the spelling and meaning of common homophones (KS2 Spelling Bank p22, 49) Investigate compound words (KS2 Spelling Bank p38) Develop a range of personal strategies for learning new and irregular words p ) Use a range of strategies for learning new and irregular words, including effective use of a spelling log. p ) Spell familiar words correctly and employ a range of strategies to spell difficult and unfamiliar words, including topic words and use a spelling log effectively. Connectives Investigate the spelling and meaning of common connectives (KS2 Spelling Bank p59. Also see Grammar for Writing Year 6 Unit 46, p130) Use a range of appropriate strategies to edit, proofread and correct own spelling in their own work, on paper and on screen Investigate the spelling and meaning of less common connectives (KS2 Spelling Bank p59. Also see Grammar for Writing Year 6 Unit 46, p130)

7 Aspect of spelling Phase 6 (Year 2) Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Plurals Investigate and classify common spelling patterns in plurals (KS2 Spelling Bank p41) Investigate and classify spelling patterns in less common and irregular plurals (KS2 Spelling Bank p42 Glossary Etymology word origin eg. that the word choronological comes from the khrónos meaning time GPCs Grapheme Phoneme correspondance Morphology morphemes are units of meaning eg. unhelpful has 3 morphemes (un-help-ful); houses has two morphemes (house-s) For further definitions, please see the APP Glossary of Terms for Writing on the Primary Team website APP page.

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