Counterterrorism and Cybersecurity

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1 Newton Lee Counterterrorism and Cybersecurity Total Information Awareness Spri

2 Part I Counterterrorism in Retrospect: Then and Now 1 September 11 Attacks September 3 Disney's Responses to the Attacks FBI Warning of Hollywood as a Terrorist Target 7 Hollywood Realism on Terrorism of Infamy and America at War September 12 2 U.S. Intelligence Community 15 FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitive: Osama Bin Laden An American Hero Bom in Lebanon 2.3 The FBI-CIA Bureaucratic Rivalries Operational Failures of the U.S. Intelligence Community Unity of Counterterrorism Effort Across U.S. Government Transition from to and Chinese Wall between the CIA and FBI U.S. Fusion Centers Hard Lessons from Pearl Harbor and Part II Counterterrorism Technologies: Total Information Awareness and Data Mining 3 The Rise and Fall of Total Information Awareness. 3.1 President Ronald Reagan and Admiral John Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Awareness Office Perception of Privacy 40

3 3.5 Privacy Protection in Total Information Awareness (TIA) Opposing Views on TIA Demystifying IAO and TIA Demise TIA The Afterlife of Total Information Awareness NSA's Terrorist Surveillance Program President George W. Bush and NSA Warrantless Wiretapping Poindexter's Policy Analysis Market Project Argus: Bio-Surveillance Priming System President Barack Obama's Big Data R&D Initiative CIA's Funded Technologies Microsoft and NYPD's Domain Awareness System $2-Billion-Dollar Data-Mining and Spy Center Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining Artificial Intelligence: From Hollywood to the Real World Intelligent CCTV Cameras Data Mining in the Age of Big Data Knowledge Representation, Acquisition, and Inference Dynamic Mental Models Modeling Human Problem Solving Structural Topology and Behavioral Causality Component Clustering and Decoupling Analytical Models and Experiential Knowledge DM 2 Algorithm 72 Applications in Counterterrorism Massively Multi-Participant Intelligence Amplification Part III Counterterrorism Technologies: Social Media and Cybersecurity 6 Social Media and Street of Total Information It's a Small World, with CCTVs Facebook Nation: Total Information Awareness Surveillance Satellites, Tracking Devices, Spy Malware, and Drones Street of Total Information Awareness No Doomsday for the Internet 6.6 Web 2.0 for Intelligence Community: Intellipedia, A-Space, Deepnet 92 93

4 Cyber Warfare: Weapon of Mass Disruption Weapon of Mass Disruption Financial Disruption Infrastructure Disruption Government and Military Disruption Counterfeit Parts and Backdoors Proliferation of Cyber Weapons and Reverse Engineering Escalation of Cyber Warfare 7.8 Cyber Cold War 7.9 Cyber Terrorism and Digital Pearl Harbor Cyber Attacks, Prevention, and Cybersecurity Acts 8.2 Cybersecurity Initiatives: NICE, Presidential Executive Order National Cyber Security Awareness Month (NCSAM) Mitigation from Denial of Service (DoS, DDoS, DRDoS) Attacks Data Breach Prevention Fighting Back Against Phishing and Spoofing 8.7 Password Protection and Security Questions 8.8 Software Upgrades and Security Patches 8.9 Fake Software and Free Downloads 8.10 Smartphone Security Protection Cybersecurity Awareness: Everyone's Responsibility 135 Plan X and Generation Z Plan X: Foundational Cyberwarfare Cyber Battlespace Research and Development 9.3 National Centers of Academic Excellence in Cyber Operations Generation Z, Teen Hackers, and Girl Coders Control the Code, Control the World 150 Part Counterterrorism Strategies: Causes and Cures, War and Peace 10 Understanding Terrorism Bravery and Cowardice 10.2 Drones Kill Terrorists, Not Terrorism 10.3 on Terror A Stubborn Terror Battle is Economic. Not Military 163

5 xii Contents 10.6 Inside the Terrorist Mind Questioning Terrorism and Destroying Stereotypes Cures for Terrorism 173 Terrorism as a Disease "Revenge is Sour": George Orwell 175 "Govern Your Passions or They will be Your Undoing": Mr. Spock 176 "Impossible to Carry a Grudge and a Big Dream at the Same Time" 177 "Every Truth has Two Sides": Aesop 178 "Give Everyone a Voice": Mark Zuckerberg 179 "The Only Security of All is in a Free Press": Thomas Jefferson 181 "Free Speech Would Not Protect a Man Falsely Shouting Fire": Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr of Nonviolent Sharp 185 "We Do Not Have the Right to Resort to Violence When We Don't Get Our Way": President Bill Clinton "Peace is the only path to true security": President Barack and Peace 197 War as State-Sponsored Terrorism Complacency in War Civilians Wanting Peace Peace Entailing Sacrifice Peace and Friendships on Facebook and Social Media Attainable Peace A Just and Lasting Peace About the Author 213 Index 215

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