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1 YEAR 10 WORK BOOKLET Name:... Teacher:... 1

2 Animal Farm Key Words List Word Definition Allegory Anthromorphism Capitalist Communism Connotations Dictatorship Dramatic Irony Dystopia Euphemism Fable Proletariat Propaganda Purge Revolution Rhetorical Satire Situational Irony Totalitarian Utopia Verbal Irony 2

3 Political Background to Animal Farm 1. What is Animal Farm based on? What happened in 1917? What was the idea behind the revolution? Why were the sickle and hammer chosen to be on the Russian Flag? What was Russia renamed as? Why was there support for the new Russian state in Britain? How many people were killed during Stalin s leadership? Which animal did Orwell base on Stalin? Who was Stalin s rival? Which animal was based on Stalin s rival? What did Stalin do to his rival? What was Stalin s 5-year plan? What was the cult of the worker hero? What were the labour camps? What was collectivisation?

4 16. What were the problems with collectivisation? How did Stalin ensure that no-one knew about the problems in Russia? Why did Stalin introduce purges? What are purges? What was the job of the Prosecutions Department? What were the public show trials? What verdict was always delivered at these trials? Why did Orwell hate Stalin? What did people in the West think of Stalin? How did Orwell get the idea of writing Animal Farm? Was Orwell against revolutions? What did Orwell think revolutions needed to be effective? Why did Orwell struggle to get his book Animal Farm published?

5 The Context of Animal Farm Although various episodes are taken from the actual history of the Russian Revolution, they are dealt with schematically and their chronological order has changed. George Orwell. Fill in the grid below, using your knowledge of the Russian Revolution. The first example has been done for you. Events in Animal Farm Historical parallels Old Major gives a Communist speech and urges the animals to rebel è Karl Marx writes the Communist Manifesto and urges the workers of the world to unite. The animals rebel against Mr Jones and take over the farm. è The animals rename Manor Farm, calling it Animal Farm. è Boxer, a cart-horse on the farm, is so loyal to Napoleon that his slogan becomes I will work harder. è A pig called Napoleon seizes control of the farm, and chases off his rival, another pig called Snowball. è Napoleon announces an ambitious plan to build a windmill. è Napoleon accuses a number of animals of treachery and betrayal. These animals are found guilty and executed. Squealer, another pig, helps to support Napoleon s rule by using propaganda to distort the truth about the farm and the animals leader. è è Frederick, a neighbouring farmer, attacks Animal Farm and destroys the windmill. è The other human neighbours become friendly with Napoleon and the other pigs and they begin trading with each other. è 5

6 CHAPTER SUMMARIES Main Events Key Characters

7 Connotations of Names in Animal Farm old Major Boxer Squealer Manor Farm Napoleon Snowball 7

8 Chapter One: Old Major s Communist speech Read Major s Communist speech again and identify 5-10 key points that Major makes in his speech. Record your points on the grid below: Now use your notes to write a summary of old Major s Communist speech: 8

9 Old Major s Powers of Persuasion Find examples of the following rhetorical devices in old Major s speech: Device Example Direct address to audience Imperatives (orders) Short sentences Rhetorical Questions Repetition Contrasts (opposites) Emotive Language Use of facts Now choose two devices and explain their effect: Old Major uses a number of rhetorical devices to deliver his message. For example,... 9

10 Chapters 1 and 2: Initial Impressions Mr. Jones Boxer Mollie Moses Benjamin Squealer Napoleon Snowball 10

11 Timeline: the Pigs Rise to Power Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 11

12 Chapter 2: A Utopian Paradise? But they woke at dawn as usual, and suddenly remembering the glorious thing that had happened, they all raced out into the pasture together. A little way down the pasture there was a knoll that commanded a view of most of the farm. The animals rushed to the top of it and gazed round them in the clear morning light. Yes, it was theirs--everything that they could see was theirs! In the ecstasy of that thought they gambolled round and round, they hurled themselves into the air in great leaps of excitement. They rolled in the dew, they cropped mouthfuls of the sweet summer grass, they kicked up clods of the black earth and snuffed its rich scent. Then they made a tour of inspection of the whole farm and surveyed with speechless admiration the ploughland, the hayfield, the orchard, the pool, the spinney. It was as though they had never seen these things before, and even now they could hardly believe that it was all their own. How does Orwell suggest that the animals are in a Utopian paradise after the revolution? 12

13 Chapter 3: Animal Farm a Utopian Paradise? Animal Farm as a Utopia The Imperfections (Flaws, Cracks) at Animal Farm 13

14 Chapter 5: Napoleon s Rise to Power What methods does Napoleon use to control the other animals in the extract below? Silent and terrified, the animals crept back into the barn. In a moment the dogs came bounding back. At first no one had been able to imagine where these creatures came from, but the problem was soon solved: they were the puppies whom Napoleon had taken away from their mothers and reared privately. Though not yet full-grown, they were huge dogs, and as fierce-looking as wolves. They kept close to Napoleon. It was noticed that they wagged their tails to him in the same way as the other dogs had been used to do to Mr. Jones. When analysing texts in detail I need to: 14

15 Chapter 6: The Seven Commandments THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS Prediction of changes made Actual changes made Chapter commandment broken 1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. 2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes. 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed No animal shall drink alcohol. 6. No animal shall kill any other animal. 7. All animals are equal 15

16 Chapter 7: Comprehension Questions Easier 1. According to the humans, why did the windmill fall down? Harder 1. What mistakes did the animals make in the running of the farm? 2. How did Napoleon deceive Mr Whymper so he believed there was no food shortage on the farm? 3. Napoleon behaves as an important leader how does he do this? 4. What happened to the hens when they refused to surrender their eggs? 5. What crimes was Snowball accused of? 6. According to Squealer how did Napoleon and Snowball behave at the Battle of the Cowshed? 7. What did Boxer do when three dogs attacked him? What is your opinion of Boxer s character here? 8. Make a list of the animals executed at the show trials and their crimes. 3. How has Napoleon changed to present himself as an important leader? What is the effect of these changes? 4. In what ways is the treatment of the hens savage and brutal? 5. How did Napoleon use Snowball to create an atmosphere of fear? 6. How did Squealer change the events of the Battle of the Cowshed? 7. Why do you think three dogs attacked Boxer? What is your opinion of Boxer s character here? 8. Why do you think the animals were slaughtered at the show trials? What hints are there that the crimes of which they were accused are absurd or fabricated (made up)? 9. In what ways is Napoleon similar to Mr. Jones? 10. Draw a chart showing what Clover had hoped life would be like after the revolution and what it is actually like. Add at least 3 points to each column. What Clover hoped life would be like after the revolution What life was actually like after the revolution 11. In what ways are we made to feel sympathy for Clover? 12. According to Squealer, why was the song Beasts of England banned? 12. Why was the Beasts of England banned? In your answer, include Squealer s reasons and your own thoughts about the ban. 16

17 Chapter 8: Napoleon s Use of Propaganda Technique Example Appeal to Fear Lies and Disinformation Selective Truth Cult of the Personality Demonising the Enemy Scapegoating Slogans 17

18 Chapter 9: Dramatic Irony What happens Why this is an example of dramatic irony (ie. what does the reader know that the characters do not)? Napoleon states that it was not possible to bring back Boxer's remains. The animals find Squealer lying stunned by the barn with a broken ladder and an overturned bucket of paint nearby. The pigs held a memorial banquet for Boxer's death. What do you think the effect of dramatic irony is? What other examples of dramatic irony can you think of in the novel? 18

19 CHAPTER 9: AQA Exam question: How does Orwell make the final disappearance of Boxer moving? How does Orwell use this event to comment on society? What happens Details about the event Why this is moving? Comment on Society? Boxer s character Think about: his appearance his behaviour his attitude towards the farm and the pigs his hopes for the future the working animals reaction to him Boxer s removal in the horsebox Think about: Benjamin s reaction Boxer s behaviour the methods Orwell uses to create atmosphere (e.g. use of language and sentences) The pigs reaction to Boxer s death: Think about: Squealer s speech Napoleon s reaction the hints about Boxer s real fate, eg. the use of dramatic irony Remember: you need to think about the whole text as well as chapter 9 19

20 Chapter 10 How Animal Farm has changed from the early days 1. Key changes at the farm Why these changes are significant what do they reveal about the pigs or the working animals?

21 Euphemism The effect of the euphemism In the general rejoicings the unfortunate affair of the banknotes was forgotten (Ch 8) For the time being, certainly, it had been found necessary to make a readjustment of rations (Squealer, Ch 9) "I was at his [Boxer s] bedside at the very last. (Squealer, Ch 9) "That [the milk] will be attended to. (Napoleon, Ch 2) Our sole object in taking these things [the apples and milk] is to preserve our health. (Squealer, Ch. 3) Afterwards Squealer made a round of the farm and set the animals' minds at rest. (Ch 6) Situational Irony Why this situation is ironic The truest happiness, he [Napoleon] said, lay in working hard and living frugally. (ch.10) They were still the only farm in the whole county--in all England!--owned and operated by animals....all animals were equal. (ch.10) The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which. (ch. 10) 21

22 PREVIOUS AQA EXAM QUESTIONS 1. How does Orwell present Snowball in the novel? How do you think Orwell uses the character of Snowball to reflect ideas about society? 2. How does Orwell present the importance of the windmill in the novel? How do you think Orwell uses the windmill to reflect ideas about society? 3. How does Orwell use the character of Napoleon to explore ideas about power and control in Animal Farm? Write about: how Orwell presents the character of Napoleon how Orwell uses Napoleon to present ideas about power and control in the novel. 4. All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others. How far is this idea important in Animal Farm? Write about: what you think Orwell is saying about equality and inequality how Orwell presents these ideas through the events of the novel. 5. How does Orwell present the pigs becoming more powerful than the other animals in Animal Farm? How does the pigs increasing power reflect Orwell s ideas about society? 6. How does Orwell present the importance of old Major s speech in Chapter 1 of Animal Farm? How does Orwell use this speech to reflect ideas about society? 7. How does Orwell make the final disappearance of Boxer moving? How does Orwell use this event to comment on society? 8. How does Orwell present the characters of Muriel and Benjamin in the novel? How do you think these characters reflect ideas about society? 9. How does Orwell present the importance of The Seven Commandments in the novel? What do you think Orwell shows us about society through The Seven Commandments and how they change? 10. How does Orwell show the importance of Boxer in the novel? How does Orwell use the character of Boxer to comment on society? 11. How does Orwell present the human characters in the novel? How does Orwell use the human characters to comment on society? Other questions Compare Orwell s presentation of the pigs and the humans. How does Orwell use the similarities and differences between these groups to reflect ideas about society? 2. How does Orwell present the sheep and the dogs? In what ways are these animals important? How do you think these animals reflect ideas about society? 3. Compare the characters of Napoleon and Snowball and the techniques they use in their struggle for power. How does Orwell use these characters to reflect ideas about society? 4. Paying particular attention to the character of Squealer, how is language used as an instrument of power and control? How does Orwell use Squealer to reflect ideas about society? 5. Compare the lives of the animals when they live under Jones and under Napoleon. How does Orwell use the characters of Jones and Napoleon to reflect ideas about society? 6. Compare the animals lives at the beginning and end of the novella. How does Orwell use the change in the animals lives to reflect ideas about society? 22

23 MARKSCHEME FOR SECTION A: ANIMAL FARM Approx Grade 8-9 Approx Grade

24 Approx Grade 4-5 Approx Grade

25 Approx Grade 2-3 Approx Grade

26 SPAG MARKS 12% of your marks are allocated for your accuracy, so when you have finished your essay, check your accuracy 26

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