1 READING MOTIFS ON KILIMS: A SEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO SYMBOLIC MEANING Assist. Prof. PhD. Nurdan Taflk ran Kocaeli University, Faculty of Communication, Radio, Cinema & TV Dept., Turkey. Introduction About Kilim Rugs Art of weaving is supposed to develop in Central Asia by the inhabitants of migrating nomads, or as they are called Yürüks. During their migration they had to face with severe climatic conditions, so they used goat hair in making the tents they lived. Goat hair is stiffer than sheep s, thus it makes tent almost waterproof. After then they often used goat hair in making of floor coverings to avoid dampness in the tent and called them kilims. Kilim weaving is originally a Turkish handcraft crowned by the labour of women. It is an outstanding handcraft with its traditional taste and motifs in different colors and lines which are now reflected in modern home decoration. Türkiye has inherited a vast culture from the past. The Central Anatolian plateau has still been considered one of the cradles of civilization. Here the Hattis, Hittites, Phrygians, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks and Ottomans established their rule. For 10 millennia of history, the people of Anatolia have reflected the culture in their art. Traditional Turkish textile based on handcrafts were inspired by a rich source molded and shaped by numerous cultures succeeding each other for thousands of years. Anatolian carpets and rugs, with their colours, motifs, patterns and superior quality, have a universal reputation and are cherished for hundreds of years. Each production area gives its name to the carpet which it produces, which is usually associated with a particular design and colour scheme (wwww.anatolian handcrafts). Among the best known production provinces are "Hereke," "Istanbul," "Kayseri," "Yahyali," "Karaman," "Sivas" and "Isparta." Turkish rugs, generally use wool or silk as a material (Anquetil, p. 26). Kilim definitions A pileless handwoven reversible rug or covering made in Türkiye, the Caucasus, Iran, and western Turkestan" is the meaning given in Merriam-Webster Dictionary for the kilim entry. TheMerriam-Webster entry reads: "MainEntry: kilim ki lim Etymology:Turkish,fromPersian kilim Date: 1881 Kilim entry in Encyclopedia Britannica (online) reads: "pileless floor covering handwoven by tapestry techniques in Anatolia, the Balkans, or parts of Iran. In the rest of Iran, the Caucasus, and Turkistan, the name for similar pieces is palaz... The Turks have produced the largest kilims, usually in two narrow pieces joined, as well as small ones and a multitude of prayer kilims. As a prayer rug, which is carried about with the worshipper, the light and extremely flexible kilim offers obvious advantages. In Turkish kilims, cotton is often used for the white areas, and small details may be brocaded... Finally, it has been arrived at the following definition: Kilim, a word of Turkish origin, denotes a pileless textile of many uses produced by one of several flatweaving techniques that have a common or closely related heritage and are practiced in the geographical area that includes parts of Türkiye (Anatolia and Thrace), North Africa, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Central Asia and China This definition is incomplete, because no words can convey the romance of the kilim. One should know the traditions, culture and heritage of kilim-making to make the romance live. Kilim today Most new carpets and kilims are produced in factories or in cottages where the motifs and colours are dictated by producers and distributors. The colours and motifs are changed to suit and affect the western market. To succeed in the market, the
2 product must suit the colours and furniture styles used by different cultures. However, today motifs on kilims are just copied versions of those ancient times. A contemporary kilim rug made on a high-yield production line will never exhibit the same sensitivity as the one hand- made by a nomad or villager does. Now weaving machines weave kilims instead, saving time and money, just coping the same patterns once meant much to some communities or individuals. The language of kilim As deciphering the symbols of a small prayer rug one can discover, for example, the unbearable agony of losing a child; the grief,or happiness is as real and as fresh as when the weaver knotted the patterns of her sorrow over four hundred years ago and one becomes intenesly aware of the human expression on the carpet or kilim. The carpet becomes a kind of supreme communication reaching out to God. Owning a carpet or kilim means two things; first having a beautifully crafted piece of art with harmonious colours and exciting patterns with which to decorate the house. Second, it is like taking a page out of an Anatolian native's life, a page out of a history of a rich, though sadly vanishing tradition (Anquetil,p.12). History of Kilim Carpet-weaving is an ancient handcraft and appears very early in all regions inhabited by nomadic Turkish groups. The oldest known knotted Turkish carpet known as the Pazyrik carpet, was discovered in a barrow-tomb in the Altai mountains, which dates back to the 4th century BC (Turan,htlm.). The Turkish arts of textile-making and carpet-weaving flourished particularly in Anatolia where some of the world's finest carpets were woven in centers such as Konya, Usak, and Bergama during the Seljuk, Feudal, and Ottoman periods. In the course of time kilims were woven with some patterns to avoid the wrath of nature like storm, flood, heat, cold, death or wild animals sent to them by gods. Before that, they used to inscribe the symbols on rocks. Later they put the kilims in graves (Atefl,p.54-55). Late in the 19 th century researches about kilims reveal that for centuries kilims have been used by women as mediums to express their feelings relating to love, death, fear through the patterns, motifs they weave; because women were the weavers while her man was at hunt or war. So, it is obvious that a kilim rug has its own individual sub-text, its own wealth of inherent intellectual, artistic, emotional and sensory messages (Anquetil,p.27). That s, kilims are cultural and psychological chronicals of the society so, it is a must to disguise the motifs on kilims, because they may help inform us about Turkish culture and family structure of the past ages. Kilim rugs must be regarded as an expression of abstract art at the most creative and profound level, reflexions of collective thoughts, experiences and emotions (op.cit.p 27). The limitation of the research is bounded with the most common motifs on the kilim rugs of Anatolia in general. Semiology is a discipline which was introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure in Europe at the beginning of 20th century, then followed by an American logician, Charles Saunders Pierce. Semiology, or semiotics, is a science which studies signs. According to Saussure, language is a sign system containing signifiers and signifieds (Baflkan,p.62). They convey meaning but, refer to something else. Pierce claimed that there was a relationship between the signifier and signified which could be: 1. Iconic, which means the relationship between the sign and the signifier is almost the same, so similiar- it is like a photograph, or a picture; 2. Indexical, which means the relationship is not arbitrary, but casual (fire/smoke); 3. Symbolic, that s the relationship is arbitrary, depending on social learning (pigeon-peace/ balance-justice) (Erkman,46-47) The patterns and motifs on kilim rugs have a symbolic language. Thus, many symbolic, iconic or indexical motifs (signs) on kilim rugs can help transfer the cultural data of that time to the present day, therefore kilims are media of transferring cultural heredity as well.
3 Methodology Reading A Kilim Rug The language in kilim motifs has 3 levels of meaning; 1-visual impression at the basic level, 2-the pattern formed by motifs as a whole, 3-the arrangement of motifs that defines connections and inter-relations at a general level (Anquetil, 4.) To appreciate a kilim rug it is essential to look at its component motifs and the whole that they form. Appreciating a carpet presupposes a firm grasp of its many interconnected components. Although carpets are composed in different ways from one region to the next, a weaver will always be able to decipher their message by reading them. (Anquetil,p.5) Reading a carpet s specific language means to unravel its individual syntactical structure and meaning, the cultural, social, religious status, living standards of the time, as well. This symbolism may have esoteric connotations or religious significance. If the symbolic language in the kilim rugs has been assimilated, it is possible to decipher the whole spectrum of the symbols and overall design which mostly originated from the mythology, ancient beliefs and cultures (Atefl,44-45). It is a fact that each weaver, each group imposes its own variations on a style that is universal and on a language common to all (Anquetil,5). French author André Malraux called it boundless universality of form (cited in Anquetil,35). Kilim Motifs Kilim is a kind of floor covering woven by nomadic Turks (4 BC) which was discovered centuries ago by the scientists that patterns on it comprised of some messages relating to their culture, religion, beliefs and social life of the past times. Kilims are mostly woven by women while men are at war or hunt. They put their inner feelings, desire, daily life, grief, fear into the motifs to form the pattern on kilim (Balp nar,12). It can be said that each kilim has a supra language itself created by the weaver in the way inherited from her culture, changing according to her situation; single, married, happy or unhappy, expecting a baby, hopeless for future, etc. (Anquetil,4). She trys to announce her emotions to the outer world by way of bright colours and some shapes in a silent way. Ignoring the regional charateristics, the most common motifs in kilim rugs can be categorized into four titles: Motifs signifying Common names of the motifs related Life and its hands on hips, ram s horn, hairband, protection (birth, fertility, earring, chest comb, ying-yang, death, rebirth, star, waterline, comb, evil eye womanman,family, fertility) Beliefs Animals Plants amulets, cross, hand, hook bird, dragon, scorpion,wolf s print, snake burdock, tree of life, 1. Motifs Signifying Life and its Protection Hands on Hips At an early stage all superhuman powers were represented by goddesses. This motif is only shown when the weaver gives a birth to a boy. It is the symbol of motherhood and fertility. The hands on hips shows that she is very proud. Here are the first iconic and the last symbolic illustrations of various hands on hips motifs found on Anatolia weaves: As it can be seen easily, at first, the figure is iconic, that s the shape is so similiar what it refers to, but later it transforms and has variations like those below: so it is ico-symbolic today 1. Picture 1: variants of Hands on hips motif in Anatolia 1 here I need some coin words like ico-symbolic to show the historical development of the visual shape; in the following examples I coined up ind-symbolic or ico-indexical which mean the prototypes later changed into different shapes which are casual or arbitrary.
4 Picture 4: variations of Hairband motif Picture 2: variants of Ram s Horn motif Picture 3: variations of fertility motif of Anatolian origins Ram s Horn; The ram's horn denotes fertility, heroism, masculinity and power. As it is clear, ram s horn motif develops from iconic shape into the symbolic one, so it is ico- symbolic. (see Picture 2) Fertility; Hands on hips and ram's horn motifs used together denote a man and a woman. The fertility pattern is composed of two hands on hips motifs indicating the female and two ram s horn motifs indicating the male. It is symbolic because there is no relationship between the sign and the signifier. It only makes you associate the idea. (see Picture 3) Hairband; Anatolian women express many of their feelings by their hair style. This sign denotes the yearning of a young woman to get married. Traditionally in Anatolian villages the girls keep their hair long and will not cut it until they get married. The newly married young women plait their hair and tie threads of different colours at the end. If the woman uses some of her hair in weaving, it means her desire for immortality. Hair band, in general, is an ornament used by the bride in the wedding ceremony. Hair bands are made of black cord, wool, twisted silk thread, horse tail as well as beads, sea shells, golden thread and corals. The type and form of the hair band and the motifs change according to region expressing the weaver's mood as illustrated: They Picture 5: Earring motifs used in various parts of Anatolia seem iconic at first but later the relation between the sign and the signifier gets lost. It becomes icosymbolic in form and content. (see Picture 4) E a r r i n g s ; Earrings are indispensable wedding present in Anatolia. A girl using this motif is trying to inform her family that she wants to get married. It is indexical at first, not exactly the same of what it refers to, but later it gains a symbolic structure, which means social convention. So, it is ind-symbolic. (see Picture 5) Chest Comb The chest and comb motifs are symbols of the bride, marriage and happiness in Anatolian folklore. The chest among wandering tribes, symbolizes the trousseau chest of a young girl. Since the material in this chest is to be used in the husband's house, the expectations and hopes of the young girl are reflected in the pieces she has woven, it can be stated that the motif stands for the desire to getting married and having a child. The relationship between the sign and the signifier here is indexical. (see Picture 6) Ying Yang; This motif singnifies marriage as well as love and unity.the symbol denotes love and unity between man and woman. It is a symbol of dualism, inherited from the Far-East and imported to Anatolia, suggesting the harmony between a man and a
5 Picture 6: Chest comb motif variations Picture 8: Star motif variations Picture 7: Examples of the Ying-Yang motif woman and pureness of nature. Even numbers, especially two, implies reproduction and fertility according to the Anatolian cultures. This is symbolic from the beginning because the sign is arbitrary, and the concept is abstract, too; so there is no relationship between the sign and the signifier. It has a symbolic relationship. (see Picture 7) S t a r ; The star motif on an Anatolian weaving generally means happiness. The six pointed star generally known as the Solomon's Seal has been used in Anatolia since the time of the Phrygians who lived long before the time of Solomon. Therefore it wouldn't be wrong to deduce that it carries a meaning other than what is implied by 'Solomon's Seal'. Taking into consideration the mother goddess statues where the star symbolizes the womb, it could be said that the motif is related to fertility. It is symbolic because there is no logical connection between the sign and the signifier. It requires social convention. (see Picture 8) W a t e r l i n e ; Since it has a great importance for mankind, the theme of running water is widely used on works of art. It denotes life itself. It has a curving shape like a river. The shape makes you associate a river course, so it is indexical. It stays almost the same in the course of time. It is indexical. (see Picture 9) Picture 9: variations of Waterline 2. Motifs Symbolizing Beliefs Most of the religious motifs are against evil things that they fail to protect themselves, their family and lives. H a n d / C o m b ; Comb motif is largely related with marriage and birth. It is used to express the desire for getting married and to protect birth and marriage against evil eye. The number of fingers on the hand, which is five, is used as a protection against evil eye. In Anatolia the concepts of fertility and motherhood which imply birth are closely related. Hand motif is used against spell and evil eye but for good luck. Sometimes the shapes accomodate both iconic and indexical images and associations. Especially comb and hand are iconic, but from meaning point of view there is no relation between the sign and the meaning. So we can call it synthematic 2 ( Picture 10: variations of comb and hand 2 According to André Martinet the syntheme is a segment of utterance formed by many lexical monemes which function as syntactic minimal unit. Synthemes are derived words,such as desirable, recreation,etc which are results of unique choices among the language resources,as an opposition to syntagm.
6 Picture 11: variations of Eye in Anatolian weave Picture 13: variations of Cross Picture12: Evil Eye variations The hand often has an "evil eye" symbol on it as a protection from evil. It is an abstract concept so it is symbolic and arbitrary. Eye/Evil Eye and Amulets; It is believed that some people possess some power in their glance which causes harm, injury, misfortune and even death. Therefore it signifies a bad look from the eye and its most simplified form, a triangle, is used. Evil eyes are various objects believed to have a magical and religious power to protect the possessor from dangerous external factors and reduce the effect of evil glance. It is iconic and stayed the same through the centuries. The source of an evil glance is the human eye. It is believed that the harms it may cause can best be prevented again by a human eye. A diamond divided into four is quite a common representation of the eye as used on weaves. A triangle is a stylized form of the eye. Some eye motifs are formed of squares and rectangles. So this motif is symbolic. Cross; Another motif used against evil eye is the cross formed of a vertical and horizontal line. According to the Anatolian belief the cross reduces the power of the evil glance by dividing it into four Picture 14: variations of Hook pieces. The motif dates back far before Christianity. It is iconic in shape but symbolic in content. It has both senses in one content. The one associates with the Naziist symbol and the Christian icon at the same time. This motif could also be called synthematic. In addition, it signifies protection from evil eye, which is symbolic. Hook; Another Anatolian motif used against evil eye is the hook. There is an iconic relation between the sign and the signifier. Wheel of Fortune; It is a star with 8 points. There is a cross inside it; in the center an ornament can be seen signifying the sun. In earlier communities dealing with agriculture used it mostly. It is completely indexical. ( 3. Animal Motifs From the earliest times people have believed that by imitating, or weaving part of a dangerous animal, they will have power over it. That s why animal motifs are so common. Snake; The history of mankind is closely related with snakes. All the stories of existence include the theme of a serpent offering Eve the forbidden fruit. Black
7 Picture15: variations of Snake motif in Anatolia Picture 18: variations of Bird motifs Picture 16: Fatter variations Picture 19: Scorpion variations Picture 17: Dragon variations on Anatolian kilims snake is the symbol of happiness and fertility. It has an iconic relationship because the form and the concept it refers to is similar with a crawling snake. (see Picture 15) Fatter; Fatter is a sort of cuff placed on the front legs of horses to keep them from running away. It symbolizes harmony and unity of lovers, the continuity of the family union, the devotion of the lovers and the hope that they should always stay together. Various fetter motifs used in different regions of Anatolia: Although it is not an abstract concept, meaning is indexical but formally it is symbolic, it is also synthematic. Dragon; Dragon, believed to be a great serpent, is the guard of treasures and secret objects as well as the tree of life. Dragon motifs are also symbolic, because the relationship is arbitrary, depending on social convention. Birds; Bird motifs have various meanings; eagle, falcon and hawk represent strength and power, the phoenix and the dragon fighting symbolize the comming of spring rain; Birds can symbolize the celestial messenger and longevity. Owls and ravens imply bad luck, while doves, pigeons and nightingales symbolize good luck. Bird is the symbol of happiness, joy and love. It is the soul of the dead. It is longing, and expectation of news. It stands for power and strength. In Anatolia there is no other motif carrying so many different meanings than that. All bird signs are iconic. The form and the content (sign and the signifier) are in harmony. Scorpion; Due to its fatal venom at the end of its tail, people protect themselves against this animal and use its sign to protect themselves against other evil things. All scorpion signs seem indexical, not iconic. Wolf s Print/Wolf s Track/Monster s Feet; People use this motif as a means of protection against wolves. Because nomadic people lived on cattle breeding and the primary threat is the attack of wolves. It expresses solidarity. It is indexical, but variations are symbolic, because they have no relationship between. (see Picture 20) 4. Plant Motifs BURDOCK It is a plant sticking to the clothing of
8 Picture 20: variations of Wolf s Print or Monster s Feet motif Picture 22: A Tree of Life woven kilim rug (taken from Anquetil) Picture 21: Burdock variations people and the hair of animal which is is believed to be capable of warding off the evil eye. Other variation of burdock means full of flowers, especially on flour bags as a symbol of abundance. It is iconical in thebeginning but later changes into a symbolic shape. It is ico-symbolic. (see Picture 21) Eternity/Life Tree; The tree is the common theme for all religions believing in a single god. Its fruit which is believed to bring immortality, is forbidden to Adam and Eve. But the serpent waiting the tree convinced Eve to eat it. Mankind, failed to keep his swear, put all his hopes on the life after death symbolized by a tree of life. Different cultures have used different plants such as cypress, date, palm, pomegranate, fig, olive, wine, beech and oak to symbolize the tree of life. In Anatolia the prominent figure is a cypress tree. The birds on the tree of life is a widely used theme. It is completely indexical. (see Picture 22) Spike (of Grain); Spike motif is one of the most woven figure on kilims. It expressess prosperity and represent gardens of paradise. (see Picture 23) Picture 23: variations of Spike The sign is indexical because it is not similar with the plant itself but only makes you associate. Its content is obviously symbolic. A Sample Kilim Decoding-A Zara Prayer Rug (19th Century) (Figure 1) It is a prayer rug laid on floor while doing the prayers, woven in central Anatolia in 19th century. A prayer rug is supposed to have two parts: mihrab where the face touches during the prayers, representing heavens, below is the place to stand up during the prayers facing to Mekka, representing the earthly place for humankind. There are different motifs symbolizing different concepts in both parts. The outer frame is a waterline which defines actual life; in accompany with it there is hands on hips motif line surrounding, which means earthly deeds like birth, death, fertility. Next is a frame of dragon motifs on white background attracting attention at first sight. Dragons are signifiers of the guards of evil against evil. Among dragons there are snake figures signifing happiness and fertility. While doing the prayers they will keep the evil off because doing prayers is sacred and no evil could be allowed. In the center there are spikes of grain symbolizing prosperity and
9 abundance. In heaven there is a prosperity humans yearn for. The weaver wishes all prosperity and happiness for herself after death. Upper part in the middle, there are wheel of fortune motifs representing the sun,the God, being the source of everything is in the heavens, unattainable for humans. The decoding shows that the weaver prays to God to have happiness and abundance and a protected life on earth. She wishes to have the same fertility and the power of God in her life before she died. (see Fig. 1) A Sample Kilim Decoding-Avanos Kilim Rug (19th Century) (Figure 2) This is a central Anatolian weave, from Avanos,19th century kilim. It has different motifs implying different meanings. In the middle there are two big life trees symbolizing after death. May be the weaver puts all her hopes on the life after death. The symmetry of the trees shows spiritual feelings. So many bird motifs around the trees denote the souls on earth, when the time comes they will all go up to the skies with the souls. Birds are soul carriers and messengers in earlier beliefs ( Wheel of fortune symbolizes the sun, the source of life. Comb refers to evil to be protected against, where hands on hips imply motherhood, fertility desire for marrige or having a baby. All the frame surrounding the kilim is woven with amulets and evil eye motifs which are believed to protect the family from all kind of evils. Star motif displays the life itself. The presence of hand motifs certifies that the weaver worries about her happy family and wishes evil thing to be away from her life. She wishes for happiness, prosperity and prays to get married and have a baby at once, before the time comes and all the birds carry her soul to God. May be the weaver is a bit older to get married that s why she worries about herself. The kilim pattern shows that the weaver is single and Figure 1: Zara Prayer Rug 19th Century
10 wants to marry with her lover and be happy. It also shows that she has some worries about the future that s why she wishes to keep evil off her family. (see fig. 2) Evaluation and Conclusion It has been concluded that, in general, every kilim has its own sub-text; intellectual, artistic and emotional messages in the framework of compromising icons, symbols and indices as Pierce claimed in his theory once. The relationship between the sign (the motif-form) and signifier (the meaning it conveys-content) differs. Some motifs are indexical (there is a logical relationship or, an association between the signifier and its signified and some are symbolic that s the relationship between them is arbitrary. In the course of time, some motifs have transformations called variations and iconic ones developed so much that they became symbolic which means unless you learn, you can t get the meaning of it. This was especially just after the transition period from the nomadic culture to the settled one. The most striking point is that some motifs have similar shapes in common though woven in different regions. It explains the common culture that nomadic tribes once shared and preserved during compulsory migrations-depending on the climatic, social, economic or other reasons-in central Asia before settling down to Anatolia. Therefore, it is possible to mention about decoding the supra language of kilims which means a system of signs comprised of icons, indices or symbols forming the kilim pattern. It is like reading a book full of colourful poems (Küçükerman, 82-83). In terms of Saussurean approach it can be considered that the individual part (parol) of the kilim language is motifs, and the social part (lang) is the kilim itself. (Berger,18). From Pierce s point of view the relationship between the sign and the signifier is either exactly the same like a picture s, or depends on some reason or the relationship could be arbitrary and requires social convention. Figure 2: Avanos Kilim 19th Century
11 The decoding shows that kilim motifs have cultural significance because of the content they include.the content of motifs mostly signify life and fear; in other words, they point out women s wishes and fears relating to life through some shapes.their wish to get married is expressed in the shape of hairband, her love is wished to be endless in the ying yang motif or her fear is depicted in the shape of an amulet or evil eye ;her desire to live long and in peace is expressed in the form of a tree, her wish for protection of her family, land and posessions is put into the shape of a waterway. A remarkable point is that Fertilty motifs are used more than the others. Women weave kilims as if they wrote in their dairies. May be this is why she is under family pressure and has many taboos like love and marriage put by her father or brothers. She has to be respectful to her elders. May be that s why they prefer to call out to world their fellings disguised in the form of an artwork which will repeat their cry eternally These limitations are formed by her ancestors and have been survived up to the present time. Through the centuries this cultural data is inherited through art, from generation to generation. Each culture has a different cry. That s why people have difficulty in calling the images unfamilair to them. Finally, the research has indicated that investigating kilim motifs would provide us some information from the past culture and decoding the motifs could reveal that a weaving woman put her feelings, desire, grief, fears into the motifs, because it is a shame for a young girl, to talk about love, marriage or desire for getting married or having a baby which can be explained as Turkish respecfulness. Therefore, it can be claimed that women try to announce their emotions to the outer world by way of bright colours and some shapes in a silent way. The research is highly remarkable on the point that most used motifs are directly related with marriage and protection from evil. It means a claim for paternal dominancy over the family members at those times, as well. The research also reveals that neither of the kilim patterns are alike-except the machine products, therefore it can be claimed that each kilim has a supra language itself created by the weaver in the way inherited from her culture changing according to the weaver s situation; single, married, happy or unhappy, expecting a baby, hopeless for future, etc. It is also confirmed that there is a triadic relationship between the motif (visual design/form) and content as Pierce claimed for the sign and the signifier in his theory. Although motifs are iconical, indexical, symbolical or synthematical, there is a relationship between the motifs and the meaning they refer to. Avicenna, an early 11th century Arabian philosopher, says The symbol is the mediator because it is silent, saying and not saying and thus enunciating precisely what it and it alone can express (cited in Anquetil,p.36). Bibliography Anquetil, Jacques. Carpets,1994, Hachette, Singapore (English version). Atefl,Mehmet. Mitolojiler,Semboller ve Hal Motifleri, 2004, Sembol yay nc l k, stanbul. Balp nar,b.-acar. Türk Düz Dokuma Yayg lar,1982, Eren Yay nlar, stanbul. Baflkan, Özcan-Lengüsitik Metodu,1967, Ça layan Kitabevi, stanbul. Berger,A.A. Kitle letifliminde Çözümleme Yöntemleri, 1996, Anadolu.Ü.Yay,.Eskiflehir Encyclopedia Britannica (online). Fiske,John. letiflim Çal flmalar na Girifl, Çeviri, Süleyman rvan, 1990, Ark, Ankara. Fromm,Eric. Rüyalar,Masallar, Mitoslar çeviri Ökten- Ar kan stanbul Gombrich,E.H. Sanat n Öyküsü, 1997, Remzi Kitabevi, stanbul. Küçükerman,Ö.-Güner.fi. Anadolu Miras nda Türk Evleri, 1995, TC.Kültür Bak.Yay, stanbul. Merriam- Webster Dictionary, Webster s,1975, the USA.
12 Rifat,Mehmet. Dilbilim ve Göstergebilimin Ça dafl Kuramlar,1990, Düzlem, stanbul. Turan, lhami Traditional Turkish Handcrafts html., Mimar Sinan University k asp