1 TREATING ADOLESCENTS A focus on adolescent substance abuse and addiction Center for Youth, Family, and Community Partnerships Presentation developed by: Christopher Townsend MA, LPC, LCAS,CCS, NCC
2 Learning Objectives Learn a working definition. Increase awareness of the prevalence of adolescent SA Learn critical assessment elements Increase knowledge of treatment components Explore the relationship between SA and MH issues in adolescents
3 Definition Chemical Dependency is defined as a disease of attitudes leading to the use and abuse of mind-altering substances culminating in physical deterioration of the body, emotional instability, and spiritual bankruptcy
4 Typical Adolescent Development Transition from childhood to adulthood Period of skill acquisition and practice Time of experimentation and novelty seeking Intense flux-emtionally emtionally,, behaviorally, and physically Changes in diet, sleep, mood, weight, attitude, decrease pleasure from daily activities Increase in peer relationships and a decrease in time spent with family Increase risk-taking and exploration Increase in conflicts with authority
5 Concerning Behaviors to Look for in an Adolescent Who Might be Using Drugs Changes in school performance (falling grades, skipping school, tardiness) Changes in peer group (hanging out with drug-using, using, antisocial, older friends) Breaking rules at home, school, in the community Extreme mood swings, depression, irritability, anger, negative attitude Sudden increases or decreases in activity level Withdrawal from the family; keeping secrets
6 Changes in physical appearance (weight loss, lack of cleanliness, strange smells) Red, watery, glassy eyes or runny nose not due to allergies or cold Changes in eating or sleeping habits Lack of motivation or interest in things other teenagers enjoy (hobbies, sports) Lying, stealing, hiding things Using street or drug language or possession of drug paraphernalia/items Cigarette smoking
7 Screening Determining eligibility and appropriateness for services.
8 Evaluation Assessing presenting symptoms and the context that they manifest. Determining strengths, developing interventions and goals with the family. Diagnoses are also determined during this phase of service.
9 Screening and Assessment Instruments Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale (AADIS) Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument adolescent screening instrument for concurrent disorders Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) Problem Oriented Screening Inventory for Teenagers (POSIT)
10 Assessment The adolescent using alcohol or other drugs requires a comprehensive and multi-dimensional assessment. Certain factors should be recognized and addressed: More entrenched early stages of readiness to change Accelerated progression of addiction Marked prevalence of dual diagnosis and poly-drug involvement Challenges of habilitation as opposed to rehabilitation
11 Assessment The assessment should include collateral informants to augment, clarify (and often correct) the history given by the adolescent. Key informants are: Adult friends or surrogate parent figures, family School and court officials, Court-appointed special advocates, Social service workers Previous treatment providers
12 Assessment Remember, the greater the severity of the adolescent s condition and impairment, the more comprehensive the assessment should be and the more family should be involved.
13 Assessment A comprehensive biopsychosocial assessment includes all of the following elements: History of present episode Family history Developmental history ATOD use history Personal and social history (continued)
14 Assessment Biopsychosocial Assessment Elements: (slide # 2) Legal History Psychiatric History Medical History Review of systems Mental Status Examination
15 Assessment Biopsychosocial Assessment Elements (Slide # 3) Focused Physical Examination Formulation and diagnoses Survey of Assets, Vulnerabilities and Supports Treatment Recommendations
16 Assessment All of these assessment elements then contribute to a profile of the adolescent organized by the 6 specific ASAM PPC assessment dimensions. Dim.1: Acute Intoxication/Withdrawal Potential Dim.2: Biomedical Conditions and Complications Dim.3: Emotional, Behavioral, or Cognitive Complications or Conditions Dim.4: Readiness to Change Dim.5: Relapse Continued Use or Continued Use Problems Potential Dim.6: Recovery Environment
17 Treatment Considerations At every level of care, program services for adolescents should be designed to meet their developmental and other special needs. Adaptations of adult treatment models often fall short.
18 Treatment Considerations Important elements of adolescent treatment: Ideally, the treatment environment should be physically separate from that for adult clients. Strategies to engage adolescents, channel energies and maintain attention. Must address nuances of adolescent experience.
19 Treatment Considerations Current view of addiction as a chronic disorder: 1. Supports a stance of therapeutic optimism and an attitude of persistence toward the treatment-refractory refractory client. 2. Reinforces need for chronic attention and vigilance in response to chronic vulnerability, even in the improved client.
20 Treatment Considerations Another critical feature of successful treatment is ease of transfer back and forth across levels of care. Consider Substance Abuse confidentiality (42CFR-Federal Federal Law)
21 Treatment considerations The Clinical Presentation of adolescent ATOD disorders differ significantly from adults in spite of common biopsychosocial etiological influences. What is different is discovered in the many aspects of expression and treatment of ATOD problems. An important opportunity exists to modify risk factors that are active but not completely cemented in their developmental influence.
22 Treatment considerations Most adolescents don t develop classic physical dependence or well-defined withdrawal symptoms, They do not exhibit the physiological deterioration seen in many adults suffering from substance related disorders because of the shorter duration of their exposure to alcohol or drugs. Yet adolescents remain vulnerable to the full range of emotional, behavioral, familial and cognitive manifestations of addiction.
23 Treatment considerations The progression from casual use to dependence can be more rapid in adolescents than in adults. A higher degree of co-occurring occurring psychopathology is typically evidenced by adolescents. Such limitations severely inhibit the ability of adolescents to arrest their addiction and address essential developmental tasks without external assistance and supports.
24 Contrast Between Adults and Adolescents In the Progression of Chemical Dependency 6-18 month progression (Mostly psychological dependence Glorification of use Garbage can syndrome Social activities often are chemical use Developmental issues can obscure identification of C/D Early arrest of emotional development Morning use not indicative of chemical dependency 5-10 year progression Tolerance/withdrawal Minimization of use May have a single chemical of choice Social activities often include chemical use Social/professional standing obscures identification of C/D Minimal arrest of emotional development Morning use often indicates chemical dependency Effective Outpatient Treatment for Adolescents by David Gust and Ted Smith
25 Treatment considerations It is often noted that the use of ATOD by adolescents frequently hampers their emotional and intellectual growth. Substance use can prevent a young person from completing the maturational tasks of adolescence: Personal relationships, Identity formation, Individuation Education Employment, and, Family Role responsibilities
26 Treatment considerations Abstract Thinking: Adolescents living in stressed family systems, or one with limited intellectual development, may be delayed or impaired in acquiring abstract thinking. Therefore professionals attempting to reason with an adolescent about long-term health effects of ATOD abuse often does so futilely because the adolescent is unable to appreciate such long-term consequences.
27 Fundamental Elements of An Effective Program A sound rationale for diagnosis and treatment Appropriate screening, assessment, and diagnostic procedures A continuum of care A healthy treatment environment Effective treatment strategies Active family involvement Competent staff Efficacy and efficiency of treatment Agency that embraces System of Care principles and values Utilization of the Person Centered Plan and ITS PROCESS
28 Evidence Based Practices & Promising Practices Researched and rigorously tested models of treatment across various race/ethnic groups and geographic regions are a must in providing services to children and families Motivational Interviewing MST Multi-dimensional Family Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
29 Overview of the effectiveness of adolescent SA treatment models In 1998 most adolescents received treatment in out patient settings Out of 147,899 adolescents: 69% were out patient 11% intensive out patient 6% short term residential 9% long term residential 6% other treatment settings (detox( settings etc)
30 Advances in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Research to Practice efforts Models are specifically designed not modified Models are researched for whom they work best for in the clinical setting Developmentally appropriate Research on developing therapeutic alliances Consideration of dual disorders
31 Reference Sources Treatment of Adolescents With Substance Use Disorders (TIP 32) Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse by George Ross American Society of Addition Medicine PPC- 2R National Survey on Drug Use and Health
Chapter 7 Screening and Assessment Screening And Assessment Starting the dialogue and begin relationship Each are sizing each other up Information gathering Listening to their story Asking the questions
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