# SAMPLING METHODS. Chapter 5

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1 SAMPLING METHODS Chapter 5 1

2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Reasons for sampling Different sampling methods Probability & non probability sampling Advantages & disadvantages of each sampling method 2

3 SAMPLING A sample is a smaller collection of units from a population Used to learn about that population 3

4 SAMPLING Why sample? Saves Resources Time Money Workload

5 SAMPLING FRAME The list from which the potential respondents are drawn Registrar s office Class rosters Elements=Individual members of population whose characteristics are measured.

6 Population What is your population of interest? To whom do you want to generalize your results? All doctors School children Indians Women aged years Other Can you sample the entire population? 6

7 SAMPLING 3 factors that influence sample representativeness 1. Sampling procedure 2. Sample size 3. Participation (response) 7

8 SAMPLING When might you sample the entire population? Population is very small You have extensive resources Don t expect a very high response

9 9 SAMPLING BREAKDOWN

10 SAMPLING STUDY POPULATION SAMPLE TARGET POPULATION 10

11 SAMPLING

12 Simple random sample Systematic random sample Stratified random sample Multistage sample Multiphase sample Cluster sample 12

13 PROBABILITY SAMPLING 13 Every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being selected in the sample Probability can be accurately determined Every element in the population has same probability of selection= Equal Probability of Selection' (EPS) design Also referred to as 'self-weighting' All sampled units are given same weight

14 PROBABILITY SAMPLING INCLULDES Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Sampling Multistage Sampling Multiphase Sampling 14

15 15 SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING When population is: Small Homogeneous Readily available Each element of the frame has equal probability of selection Provides for greatest number of possible samples. Assigning number to each unit in sampling frame A table of random numbers or lottery system is used to determine which units are selected

16 SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING Disadvantages If sampling frame is large, method impractical Minority subgroups of interest in population may not be present in sample in sufficient numbers for study 16

17 SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING The elements of the population are put in a list Then every kth element in the list is chosen (systematically) for inclusion in the sample. For example, if the population of study contained 2,000 students at a high school and the researcher wanted a sample of 100 students,

18 SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING Students are put in a list Then every 20th student is selected for inclusion in the sample. To ensure against human bias: The researcher should select the first individual at random. Systematic sample with a Random start'

19 SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING EPS method, because all elements have the same probability of selection (In the example, 1 in 20) 19

20 Another Example A researcher wants to select a systematic random sample of 10 people from a population of 100. If he or she has a list of all 100 people, he would assign each person a number from 1 to 100. The researcher then picks a random number, 6, as the starting number. He or she would then select every tenth person for the sample (because the sampling interval = 100/10 = 10). The final sample would contain those individuals who were assigned the following numbers: 6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56, 66, 76, 86, 96.

21 SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING ADVANTAGES: Simple Guaranteed that the population will be evenly sampled DISADVANTAGE: Sample may be biased if hidden periodicity in population coincides with that of selection. 21

22 STRATIFIED SAMPLING Population contains a number of categories Sampling frame can be organized into separate "strata Each stratum is sampled as an independent sub-population Every unit in a stratum has same chance of being selected. 22

23 STRATIFIED SAMPLING Draw a sample from each stratum 23

24 STRATIFIED SAMPLING

25 STRATIFIED SAMPLING Benefits: Using same sampling fraction for all strata ensures proportionate representation in the sample. Adequate representation of minority subgroups of interest can be ensured by stratification Drawbacks: Sampling frame of entire population has to be prepared separately for each stratum 25 In some cases (designs with a large number of strata, or with a specified minimum sample size per group), stratified sampling can potentially require a larger sample than other methods

26 Non-Probability Samples Convenience sample Quota Purposive sample

27 NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING Any sampling method where some elements of population have no chance of selection or Where the probability of selection can't be accurately determined It involves the selection of elements based on assumptions regarding the population of interest 27

28 NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING Example: Visit every household in a given street, and Interview the first person to answer the door. In any household with more than one occupant, this is a nonprobability sample, Some people are more likely to answer the door (e.g. an unemployed person vs employed housemate)

29 NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING Nonprobability Sampling includes: Convenience Sampling, Quota Sampling and Purposive Sampling. In addition, non-response effects may turn any probability design into a nonprobability design if the characteristics of nonresponse are not well understood, 29 Non-response effectively modifies each element's probability of being sampled.

30 CONVENIENCE SAMPLING Use results that are easy to get 30 30

31 CONVENIENCE SAMPLING Sometimes known as grab or opportunity sampling or accidental or haphazard sampling. A type of nonprobability sampling which involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand. That is, readily available and convenient. The researcher using such a sample cannot scientifically make generalizations about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative enough. 31

32 CONVENIENCE SAMPLING Example, interviewer conducts a survey at a shopping center early in the morning on a given day, People that he/she could interview would be limited to those given there at that given time,

33 CONVENIENCE SAMPLING Which would not represent the views of other members of society in that area If the survey was to be conducted at different times of day and several times per week. This type of sampling is most useful for pilot testing.

34 QUOTA SAMPLING The population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups, just as in stratified sampling. Then judgment used to select subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. This step makes the technique non-probability sampling. 34

35 QUOTA SAMPLING In quota sampling the selection of the sample is non-random. For example interviewers might be tempted to interview those who look most helpful. The problem is that these samples may be biased because not everyone gets a chance of selection. This random element is its greatest weakness

36 Snowball Sampling In social science research, snowball sampling is a similar technique Existing study subjects are used to recruit more subjects into the sample.

37 AKA: Judgmental sample Purposive Sample Sample is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. Subjects selected because of some characteristic. Field researchers often interested in studying extreme or deviant cases Cases that don t fit into regular patterns of attitudes and behaviors

38 Purposive Sample Studying the deviant cases, researchers can often gain a better understanding of the more regular patterns of behavior. This is where purposive sampling often takes place. For instance, if a researcher is interested in learning more about students at the top of their class, Sample those students who fall into the "top of the class" category. They will be purposively selected because they meet a certain characteristic.

39 Purposive Sample Can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and Where sampling for proportionality is not the main concern.

40 Purposive Sample Example: Researchers (typically market researchers) who you might often see at a mall carrying a clipboard and stopping various people to interview Often conducting research using purposive sampling. May be looking for and stopping only those people who meet certain characteristics.

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