Traffic, Caching & Traffic ACROSS Data Centers in Clouds, CDNs and ISP Networks

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1 Traffic, in Clouds, CDNs and ISP Networks, Deutsche Telekom, Darmstadt, Germany Caching options, main goals and benefits in Ip networks CDN, cloud traffic in ISP networks Cacheability and limitations Conclusion

2 Caching options in the IP network infrastructure Content and Service Providers Video Streaming, IP-TV Multimedia Content on Web Sites Caches, CDN Servers, Data Centers Global Internet Core Networks Aggregation, Broadband Access Enterprise Networks WLAN, Wimax 2/3/4G Mobile Networks DSL,FTTH Business Customers Mobile and Wireless Networks Residential Users

3 Main Goals & Benefits of Caching to shorten the transport paths and delays from an original server to the requesting users, to reduce the traffic load and costs for network providers to shift traffic load from the busy hour to low load phases by prefetching and overnight cache updates to increase the throughput due to shorter round trip times in TCP connections to replicate data in distributed caching infrastructures for enhanced availability and throughput from multiple caching servers in case of flash crowds

4 Main Traffic Categories in ISP Core Networks CDN-to-User Traffic (OTTs, Google, Akamai etc.) (>40%*) Cloud/Server-to-User Traffic (without global CDN) (>20%*) User-to-User Traffic (P2P, Voice, Video Conf.) (>10%*) * of traffic to end users Data-Center-to-Data-Center Traffic: >30% of traffic to end users according to Cisco s cloud networking index

5 Content Delivery Overlays (CDN, Akamai, Limelight...) Main Server, WebSite with CDN Support DNS Redirect Source: A. Su et al., Drafting behind Akamai, IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking 17 (2009) Globally Distributed Hierarchical Server Farm Path Performance Measurement & Update Process Backup Path Internet Access User Best Path

6 CDN & Caching in broadband access networks Content Global Content and & Service Platforms Delivery Platforms Peering IP/MPLS- Backbone Points of Presence Aggregation Network Users, Terminals Cache Caching is applied in global content delivery networks and partly in network provider platforms of large ISPs but usually without cooperation IETF working group on CDN interconnection since 2011 <http://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/cdni/charter/> (Up-/Downstream CDNs)

7 Relevance of caching in the IP infrastructure Caching is crucial to reduce load on expensive inter-domain & inter-continental links mostly achieved by global CDNs Caching can also reduce load in the core and aggregation but core network capacity for large ISPs is less expensive and many small caches are required in the aggregation Transparent caching by ISP: requires coop. with global CDNs is helpful for popular services without CDN support Caching in home gateways is an option (user or ISP control) Caching on user end systems e.g. in browsers still can save >20% of traffic load (most important in mobile networks)

8 Interoperability between CDNs/clouds and ISPs Large CDNs offer cache servers in ISP networks but then large ISPs would have to manage Google/Akamai/Netflix caches in their core/aggregation ISPs are buliding up data centers in the core as IaaS In principle - clouds / CDNs should have control on application layer - ISPs should control the network layer for traffic engineering but currently no viable cooperation schemes seem to be applied beyond bilateral peering aggreements Ongoing work in standardization, e.g. extended ALTO approaches by Nokia/ALU France and BENOCS

9 Limited applicability & efficiency of caching Regulations / laws (in Germany) allow caching or in general, storing data in the network for improving performance, when a web sites removes data, a cache also has to remove it R. Fielding et al.: HTTP 1.1 Caching RFC 7234 (2014) Caching rules & recommendations - flags indicate whether data is cachable in the network and/or user equipment - on expiry of data on dynamically changing web sites - still on appropriate CDN ISP data exchange standardized Statistics-based caching strategies outperform LRU Simulation studies confirm LFU performance of large caches

10 Cache Efficiency e.g. for YouTube Videos 60% Cache Hit Rate 50% 40% 30% 20% Optimal Cache Strategy: Most Popular Data in Cache Zipf Law Approximation: 0.004*R**(-5/8) LRU Cache Strategie: Least Recently Used 10% 0% % 0.031% 0.124% 0.5% 2% Cache Size: Fraction of videos in the cache Evaluation of statistics on YouTube accesses in Dec with 3.7 billion accesses to 1.65 million videos over several months Cache replacement strategies: LRU is simple but has non-opt. hit rate Statistics-based, LFU-like cache methods achieve 10% hit rate gain Source: M. Cha et al., I tube, you tube, everybody tubes, IMC, San Diego, USA (2007)

11 Conclusions on caching Content distribution on the Internet depends on CDN & caching - for improved delay, throughput, avilability & traffic saving Dominant HTTP traffic for video streaming & IP-TV is cacheable Zipf distributed request pattern, prefetching and appropriate caching strategies improve efficiency up to 50% traffic savings Lack of cooperation between global content / CDN providers and network providers / users reduces cacheability in core & access Caches in end systems, browsers are useful esp. in mobile networks

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