Efficient Parallel Distributed Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks

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1 Efficient Parallel Distributed Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks P.Jyothi*1, N.Rajesh*2, K.Ramesh Babu*3 M.Tech Scholar, Dept of CSE, MRECW, Maisammaguda, Secunderabad, Telangana State, India, Assistant Professor, Dept of CSE, MRECW, Maisammaguda, Secunderabad, Telangana State, India, Associate Professor & HOD, Dept of CSE, MRECW, Maisammaguda, Secunderabad, Telangana State, India, ABSTRACT: Technology and its Significance may be loop based hole to imagine world, but in the terms of Reality really it s a wonder, where we think ability the more and more to explore things may be technology to give a seam less service the mankind. If we consider the networking where we made this ethereal world to a global village making things better, but there is no end of better. If we consider the parallel distributed network, where these days we face the difficulty in transferring the data, in turn we callas load balancing along with some other factors may also come. Hence, in this paper we try to give the glimpse of the best mechanism which involves the load balancing in Content Delivery Networks in the discrete acknowledge based dynamic method. If we compare the approach with the existing methodology where we have taken consideration of the dynamic discrete map based approach to handle the efficient balancing. KEYWORDS: Content Delivery Network (CDN), control theory, request balancing. I.INTRODUCTION During the years, the Internet and in particular web services have seen an increasing commercial success and ever increasing user traffic. Frequently accessed services, such as very popular web sites, have to deal with a huge and still growing amount of requests, thus often suffering from network and server congestions and bottlenecks problems. This in turn has paved the way for the development of systems overcoming the traditional client-server paradigm. Hosting web content at a single server results in the impossibility to provide the services with an acceptable level of client perceived quality when the content is highly popular: This can be either because of high response times, or because some user requests are lost. Server administrators could try to improve web services performance by improving server hardware, or by increasing the bandwidth available to the server. However, trials in this direction IJCSIET-ISSUE4-VOLUME3-SERIES2 Page 1

2 proved to be not enough to react to the increasing user demands. The other frequently used technique is URL rewriting, also called content modification. With a web page being made by an HTML file, the web server can modify both the references to the embedded objects and the anchors, in order to let the client fetch these resources from a specific surrogate. This technique can be applied statically, or (more interestingly) ondemand. The main drawbacks for ondemand URL rewriting are that it imposes a performance overhead every time the page is generated, and that the first request must always be served by the origin server. Other interesting, although less used techniques include: application level header modification (e.g., using HTTP redirection), anycasting. Of particular interest is IP level anycast, in which a single IP address is advertised from different hosts providing the same service. This allows a CDN to direct requests for the same content through different possible routes. Any cast services in CDNs are usually implemented as BGP any casting, in which routes are advertised through the Border Gateway Protocol. (the gray boxes) access the network via the hosts represented with a cylindrical shape, that are the nodes of the RRS running the request redirection system, deciding where to route each request based both on location and type of the request. The request redirection is employed by means of the DNS system. A controlapplication receives periodical reports from each server, aggregates the data, and sends them to the DNS dispatcher system. II.RELATED WORK The request distribution system, also called request routing system (RRS), is in charge of intercepting user requests, and transparently redirecting user requests to the replica which is able to serve the request with the best possible user perceived quality. It must therefore be aware of the contents hosted at the different replicas and of network conditions, in order to redirect requests appropriately. In the picture, users Fig.2.1 Illustration of the CDN If the load of a server exceeds a certain threshold, the DNS system itself assigns some of the contents allocated in the server to another server, eventually lowering its load. When exceeding a second, higher, threshold, the server is considered not available to clients. To avoid this situation, the monitoring system can inform the request redirection system, and the server itself can decide to share a fraction of its IJCSIET-ISSUE4-VOLUME3-SERIES2 Page 2

3 load with another server. Akamai systems have the capability to serve many types of contents, such as static contents, dynamic contents, and streaming data. In some work, extensive probes have been done on the most popular CDN networks (Akamai seems to be the most studied), giving an experimental validation of these notions. These papers also sum up relevant information disclosed during the years and confirm these notions about CDNS. The first important thing to note is that most CDNs seem to make use of the DNS redirection, mixed with URL rewriting. Some companies also adopt BGP anycasting that opens new interesting possibilities, but is not as widely deployed: the most relevant CDN providers using such a service are Cache Flyand BitGravity. III.METHODOLOGY Designing a CDN requires addressing many problems. As the CDN must be efficient for a very large number of users, the edge servers must be deployed in a very large number in a significantly wide area. A replica placement mechanism is needed, in order to decide where to place replicas, and how to store proactively and adaptively the appropriate contents, before the request arrival (this is in sharp contrast with traditional caching). The mechanism should meet the goal of minimizing the costs for the CDN provider, while maximizing the user satisfaction. Fig.3.1 Architecture dynamic Flow of the CDN Network Another important component is the content update mechanism that is in charge of checking whether the content has changed at the origin server, and guarantees the freshness of the replicas. The existence of such a mechanism also motivates the need for minimizing the number of replicas, in order to limit the number and complexity of updates. As a second point, in caching each request is intercepted by the first surrogate in the path from the user location to the origin server, or by the host configured as a proxy in the client, whether or not this proxy already has a copy the requested object. In CDNs instead, requests are intercepted by the system that possibly knows some details about the requested object and the placement of replicas. If the content is available in a IJCSIET-ISSUE4-VOLUME3-SERIES2 Page 3

4 service node that is not the closest to the user, but that is good enough to satisfy the desired constraints, the request routing system will succeed in directing the request to it. Our simulations compared the behavior of the distributed, dynamic load balancing heuristic against the optimal dynamic heuristic, the centralized heuristic and a greedy heuristic that has been widely used as a reference in literature. We will show that our distributed heuristic jointly addresses dynamic replica placement and request redirection being able to serve requests with good quality, to minimize the number of allocated replicas, keeping the replicas within a desired utilization level and resulting in a limited number of replicas add/removals. IV.EVOLUTION AND ANALYSIS Our model considers the possibility for a CDN to separately manage multiple hosted contents. If replica allocation is managed separately each content, the system can exploit the behavior of different user s populations and place replicas in the locations where the demand is higher for that specific content. We base our results on this model and on the centralized optimal solution based on a Semi Markov Decision Process, proposed in. Fig Comparison of the Error to Redirection After the observation of the behavior of this optimal scheme we proposed a centralized, dynamic heuristic. Using a centralized heuristic is not practical, because it has to continuously gather data and communicate the decisions. We then decided to address the problem in a distributed way: we assume that each replica is able to monitor its own load, and based on this to decide when to clone or remove itself. V.CONCLUSION AND FUTUREWORK In this paper we have first analyzed the main problems that must be addressed in order to deploy a Content Delivery Network. We have then reviewed the classic formulations for the problem of minimizing the number of replicas in the system (the replica placement problem ) and for the problem of transparently redirecting requests to the replicas (request redirection scheme). We have observed that the majority of solutions so far proposed for replica placement assume static traffic. Also, the two problems (replica placement and request redirection) are usually treated in isolation. IJCSIET-ISSUE4-VOLUME3-SERIES2 Page 4

5 VI.REFERENCES [1] S. Manfredi, F. Oliviero, and S. P. Romano, Distributed management for load balancing in content delivery networks, in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop, Miami, FL, Dec. 2010, pp [2] H. Yin, X. Liu, G. Min, and C. Lin, Content delivery networks: A Bridge between emerging applications and future IP networks, IEEE Netw., vol. 24, no. 4, pp , Jul. Aug [3] J. D. Pineda and C. P. Salvador, On using content delivery networks to improve MOG performance, Int. J. Adv. Media Commun., vol. 4, no. 2, pp , Mar [4] D. D. Sorte,M. Femminella, A. Parisi, andg. Reali, Network delivery of live events in a digital cinema scenario, in Proc. ONDM,Mar. 2008, pp [5] Akamai, Akamai, 2011 [Online]. Available: com/index.html [6] Limelight Networks, Limelight Networks, 2011 [Online]. Available: [7] CDNetworks, CDNetworks, 2011 [Online].Available: [8] Coral, The Coral Content Distribution Network, 2004 [Online]. Available: [9] Network Systems Group, Projects, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 2008 [Online]. Available: [10] A. Barbir, B. Cain, and R. Nair, Known content network (CN) requestrouting mechanisms, IETF, RFC 3568 Internet Draft, Jul [Online]. Available: [11] T. Brisco, DNS support for load balancing, IETF, RFC 1794 Internet Draft, Apr [Online]. Available: rfc1794.html [12] M. Colajanni, P. S. Yu, and D. M. Dias, Analysis of task assignment policies in scalable distributedweb-server systems, IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 9, no. 6, pp , Jun [13] D. M. Dias, W. Kish, R. Mukherjee, and R. Tewari, A scalable and highly availableweb server, in Proc. IEEE Comput. Conf., Feb. 1996, pp [14] C. V. Hollot, V. Misra,D. Towsley, andw.gong, Analysis and design of controllers for AQM routers supporting TCP flows, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 47, no. 6, pp , Jun [15] C. V. Hollot, V. Misra, D. Towsley, and W. bo Gong, A control theoretic analysis of red, in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001, pp [16] J. Aweya, M. Ouellette, and D. Y. Montuno, A control theoretic approach to active queue management, Comput.Netw., vol. 36, no. 2 3, pp , Jul IJCSIET-ISSUE4-VOLUME3-SERIES2 Page 5

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