Disaster Recovery Design Ehab Ashary University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

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1 Disaster Recovery Design Ehab Ashary University of Colorado at Colorado Springs As a head of the campus network department in the Deanship of Information Technology at King Abdulaziz University for more than six years, I was involved in different network projects. Two of them wad designing the campus network and the disaster recovery site for the main data center, which related to CS5540: Data Centers and Cloud Computing, CS 5220, Computer Communications, and CS 5910 Fundamentals of Computer/Network Security Objective and Role King Abdulaziz University campus is one of the biggest universities in Saudi Arabia with more than 7,000 faculties, 80,000 students on campus, 100,000 students on e- Learning and Distance Education and more than 10, 000 employees. Further more, seven remote sides, more than 10 research centers. In addition to king Abdulaziz hospital, which is the first educational hospital in Saudi Arabia with bed capacity more than 800 beds. [3] Designing a campus network may not appear as interesting or exciting as designing IP telephony network, IP video network, or even designing a wireless network. However, emerging applications like these are built upon the campus foundation. Therefore, an important aspect of enterprise design is flexibility in quickly deploying and supporting new services. Designing a flexible architecture that has the ability to grow and support new applications in a short time frame can result in a significant educational advantage especially in King Abdulaziz University that provides different critical e- services to its remembers, students, and patients. On the other hand, designing a disaster recovery site to such infrastructure was a big challenge. The objective of this project was to build a local disaster recovery site, which is 3 km away from the main data center, in order to reduce the risk of disasters caused by human error, deliberate destruction, and building or equipment failures. Furthermore, ensure the organization s ability to continue operating after a disaster. In addition, recover lost or damaged records or information after a disaster. I was involved during complete the life cycle of project as a head of other five network engineers. Part of my responsibilities was designing the campus and disaster recovery site IP network, which includes IP range and routing protocols used, designing the network architecture, which includes logical design, cabling and used technology and network devices. In addition, configuration and

2 implementation, member of the committee that responsible in writing the disaster policies and plans. And finally, network testing and solution evaluation. Design This section takes about the campus network and the disaster recovery design Campus Design King Abdulaziz University includes more than 300 buildings with average 500 point within each building, which is more than 150,000 points; the actual numbers is calculated during the design. These buildings were divided into 12 areas. In each area, one of the buildings was picked as a main aggregation node for that area depends on the distance from the other buildings. Each building is connecting to the main aggregation node with two 12 or 24 core fiber optics cables depends on the number of point and the usage within the building. In addition, two 48- core fiber optics cables are used to connect the 12 main aggregation nodes with main data center in area 0. Within each area a hierarchical model to design a modular topology using scalable building blocks is used. The building block components are the access layer, the distribution layer, and the core (main aggregation node backbone) layer see fig (1) Fig(1) Hierarchical Campus Network Design In a hierarchical design, the capacity, features, and functionality of a specific device are optimized for its position in the network and the role that it plays. This promotes scalability and stability. The number of flows and their associated bandwidth requirements increase as they traverse points of aggregation and move up the hierarchy from access to distribution to core. Functions are distributed at each layer. A hierarchical design avoids the need for a fully- meshed network in which all network nodes are interconnected.

3 The building blocks of modular networks are easy to replicate, redesign, and expand. There should be no need to redesign the whole network each time a module is added or removed. Distinct building blocks can be put in- service and taken out- of- service without impacting the rest of the network. This capability facilitates troubleshooting, problem isolation, and network management. The access layer is the first point of entry into the network for edge devices, stations, and IP phones. The distribution layer aggregates nodes from the access layer, protecting the core from high- density peering. In addition, the distribution layer creates a fault boundary providing a logical isolation point in the event of a failure originating in the access layer. Typically deployed as a pair of L3 switches, the distribution layer uses L3 switching for its connectivity to the core of the network and L2 services for its connectivity to the access layer. Vlan definition and layer two traffic is preventing from leaving the distribution layer. In a typical hierarchical model, the individual building blocks are interconnected using a core layer. The core serves as the backbone for the area in addition as a border point to connect the area with area 0 and the core switches in data center. For redundancy In- the- Box Redundancy is used. In other words, two supervisor and power supplies are used. In addition, in some heave areas and buildings more than one layer 3 switches are used in the core and distribution layer. In the hierarchical model, the core and distribution nodes are connected by point- to- point layer 3 routed fiber optic links. This means that the primary method of convergence for core or distribution node failure is loss of link. If a supervisor fails on a non- redundant node, the links fail and the network converges around the outage through the second core or distribution node. This allows the network to converge in milliseconds for EIGRP and OSPF. For IP design, Private A class IP is used. For example, area 1 has network /16 area 2 has network /16 and so on. In each area the network address is subnetted in order for each building to have 8 C class expandable to 16 if needed, which is used to define the vlans within the building. For the routing protocol, two routing protocols are used. EIGRP and OSPF. EIGRP is used with in the area for routing traffic between the buildings and to summarize the subnetted building vlans, which can t be done by using OSPF. By doing so shorter routing entry will be updated in addition a failure of a vlan with in the building will not propagate outside the building network in the area network. To route between different areas and the core area OSPF is used with only the area- summarized address is used. Again this will provide shorter routing entries, which provide faster and update and ease troubleshooting.

4 Server Farm Security Design One of the biggest challenging in securing server farms is that your business needs security without compromising. In other words, you don t want your security to be your bottleneck. Proper planning of the security infrastructure design is critical, and performance, resiliency, and scalability need to be carefully considered. The main goal is to easily produce the right mix of routing, switching, security, and application delivery services as required. As King Abdulaziz University business rules the following police should have been met: All inbound traffic to the servers within the server farm network should be filtered so only the running service on the servers can be reached. All of server- to- server traffic within the server farm network should be filtered. High availability Isolation between the real servers and end users. In other words, the users cannot connect directly to the servers. However, the system admins can. Traffic monitoring and data analysis. To meet the required needs two cisco 6500 multilayer switches with Firewall Services Module (FWSM), Application Control Engine (ACE), and VPN routing and forwarding (VRF) instance in each. The two switches are connected to the core switches with redundant links and OSPF is configured to connect the server farm area with area 0. VRF is used to define different VLANS based on the servers services. FWSM is used to filter the inbound, outbound and server- to- server traffic, and network address translation. Finally, ACE is used for load balancing and masking the servers and applications. For high availability, the two FWSM and ACE was configured as active- failover scenario. Thus each module is active for specific VLANS and failover for other VLANS, which utilize both switches and modules. In addition, HSRP is configured to provide default gateway for the servers since no dynamic routing protocol should be used on the servers for better performance. For traffic analysis and forensics, IPS/IDS appliance is used in addition to Antiviruses clients on the servers connected to the centralized Antiviruses system. For administration, another management VLAN was created and isolated behind the FWSM and can reach the other servers VLANs. In order for the system admins to manage the system they have to VPN to the management VLANs first.

5 Disaster Recovery Design For King Abdulaziz University needs, the active- passive DR for Internet services and active- active for network connectivity is adopted since the servers in DR site still needs to be managed and controlled even though the service is not active. Fig (2) Disaster Recovery Design Two more core switches are added in the DR site and connected to data center core switches as part of the core switches in area 0. In addition other areas are connected to the new DR core switches and OSPF routing is configured. Therefore, the new core DR switches are part of the network and can reach other areas. Another two server farms are connected to DR core switches, main data center core switches, and main data center servers farm switches. HSRP protocol was configured in the server farms switches to be as one router for the servers however, given priority so severs in the main data center route their traffic through their server farm switch and servers in DR site route their traffic through the DR server farm switch. In addition, high availably is configured in the content modules in DR and data center server farm switches and monitoring the services configured on the severs. Since the services is turned off, the content switches will not direct and request to the DR servers. However, server admins can reach these servers by using their real IP not the cluster IP. For Internet connectivity, another Internet is subscripted to from different Internet provider and another Internet router is added and configured. In order to achieve a redundant Internet link BGP multihoming and AS was order for King Abdulaziz University.

6 Load balancing is not possible in a multihomed environment with two ISPs. BGP selects only the single best path to a destination among the BGP paths that are learned from different ASs, which makes load balancing impossible, which was required in our Internet policy: All outbound traffic sourced from hosts on the inside network and destined to the Internet must be routed through the router in main data center to ISP- A. However, if that link fails or the main Internet router fails, all outbound traffic must be rerouted through the router in DR site to ISP- B (and then to the Internet) without manual intervention. All inbound traffic destined to king Abdulazinz University autonomous system from the Internet must be routed by way of the router in main data center. If the link from ISP- A to the main router fails, the inbound traffic must automatically be rerouted through ISP- B to the router in the DR. These requirements can be met with two technologies: BGP and HSRP. The first objective of a fully redundant outbound path can be realized with HSRP. Two- default IP route is configured on the firewalls that connected to the Internet routers, where the HSRP address is used. Once the link is down or router is stop working, the active router will route the traffic.[2] The second objective can be achieved with the BGP set as- path [1] prepend command, which allows BGP to propagate a longer AS path (by way of prepending its own AS number more than once) through the DR Internet router to ISP- B link for the inside network. Thus, all traffic destined for king abdulaziz network that comes from the outside takes the shorter AS path through the ISP- A to main Internet router in data center link. If the primary path (ISP- A to the router in data center) fails, all traffic takes the longer AS path (ISP- B to DR router) in order to King abdulaziz network. References 1. BGP 800c95bb.shtml 2. Hot Standby Router Protocol Features and Functionality 186a a91.shtml 3. King AbdulAziz University

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