# INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS Instructor: Filip Vesely 12

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1 INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS Instructor: Filip Vesely 12 MIDTERM EXAM will be on March 29

2 Everything you earn and many things you buy are taxed. Who really pays these taxes? Tax Incidence is the division of the burden of a tax between the buyer and the seller. When an item is taxed, its price might rise by the full amount of the tax, by a lesser amount, or not at all. - If the price rises by the full amount of the tax, the buyer pays the tax. - If the price rise by a lesser amount than the tax, the buyer and seller share the burden of the tax. - If the price doesn t rise at all, the seller pays the tax. Tax Incidence doesn t depend on tax law! The law might impose a tax on the buyer or the seller, but the outcome will be the same. To see why, we look at the tax on cigarettes in New York City. [On July 1, 2002, Mayor Bloomberg upped the cigarette tax in New York City from almost nothing to \$1.50 a pack.]

3 - A Tax on Sellers Figure shows the effects of this tax. With no tax, the equilibrium price is \$3 a pack.

4 - A Tax on Sellers Figure shows the effects of this tax. With no tax, the equilibrium price is \$3 a pack. A tax on sellers of \$1.50 a pack is introduced. The curve S + tax on seller shows the new supply curve.

5 - A Tax on Sellers The tax changes the equilibrium price and quantity. The quantity decreases. The price paid by the buyer rises to \$4 and the price received by the seller falls to \$2.50. So buyers pay \$1 of the tax. Sellers pay the remaining 50.

6 - A Tax on Buyers Now suppose that buyers, not sellers, are taxed \$1.50 a pack. Again, with no tax, the equilibrium price is \$3 a pack. A tax on buyers of \$1.50 a pack is introduced. The curve D - tax on buyer shows the new demand curve. The vertical distance between the original demand curve and the demand curve minus the tax is equal to the amount of the tax--\$1.50. Sellers would have to accept \$1.50 a pack to induce people to buy the original quantity.

7 - A Tax on Buyers Tax incidence is the same regardless of whether the law says the seller pays or the buyer pays. The tax changes the equilibrium price and quantity. The quantity decreases. The price paid by the buyer rises to \$4 and the price received by the seller falls to \$2.50. So, exactly as before when the seller was taxed: The buyer pays \$1 of the tax. The seller pays the other 50 of the tax.

8 The division of the tax between the buyer and the seller depends on the elasticities of demand and supply. Tax Division and Elasticity of Demand To see the effect of the elasticity of demand on the division of the tax payment, we look at two extreme cases. Perfectly inelastic demand. Perfectly elastic demand

9 Demand is perfectly inelastic the demand curve is vertical. When a tax is imposed on this good, the buyer pays the entire tax.

10 Demand is perfectly inelastic the demand curve is vertical. Demand is perfectly elastic the demand curve is horizontal. When a tax is imposed on this good, the buyer pays the entire tax. When a tax is imposed on this good, the seller pays the entire tax.

11 Tax Division and Elasticity of Demand To see the effect of the elasticity of demand on the division of the tax payment, we look at two extreme cases. Perfectly inelastic demand: demand. the buyer pays the entire tax. Perfectly elastic demand: the seller pays the entire tax. The more inelastic the demand, the larger is the buyers share of the tax. Tax Division and Elasticity of Supply To see the effect of the elasticity of supply on the division of the tax payment, we again look at two extreme cases. Perfectly inelastic supply Perfectly elastic supply

12 Supply is perfectly inelastic the supply curve is vertical. When a tax is imposed on this good, the seller pays the entire tax.

13 Supply is perfectly inelastic the supply curve is vertical. When a tax is imposed on this good, the seller pays the entire tax. Supply is perfectly elastic the supply curve is horizontal. When a tax is imposed on this good, the buyer pays the entire tax.

14 Tax Division and Elasticity of Demand To see the effect of the elasticity of demand on the division of the tax payment, we look at two extreme cases. Perfectly inelastic demand: the buyer pays the entire tax. Perfectly elastic demand: the seller pays the entire tax. The more inelastic the demand, the larger is the buyers share of the tax. Tax Division and Elasticity of Supply To see the effect of the elasticity of supply on the division of the tax payment, we again look at two extreme cases. Perfectly inelastic supply: the seller pays the entire tax. Perfectly elastic supply: the buyer pays the entire tax. The more elastic the supply, the larger is the buyers share of the tax.

15 Tax Division and Elasticity of Demand To see the effect of the elasticity of demand on the division of the tax payment, we look at two extreme cases. Perfectly inelastic demand: the buyer pays the entire tax. Perfectly elastic demand: the seller pays the entire tax. The more inelastic the demand, the larger is the buyers share of the tax. Tax Division and Elasticity of Supply To see the effect of the elasticity of supply on the division of the tax payment, we again look at two extreme cases. Perfectly inelastic supply: the seller pays the entire tax. Perfectly elastic supply: the buyer pays the entire tax. The more elastic the supply, the larger is the buyers share of the tax.

16 - Taxes and Efficiency When the quantity remains the same, imposing a tax creates inefficiency (except in the extreme cases of perfectly inelastic demand or supply). Figure shows the inefficiency created by a \$10 tax on CD players.

17 - Taxes and Efficiency When the quantity remains the same, imposing a tax creates inefficiency (except in the extreme cases of perfectly inelastic demand or supply). Figure shows the inefficiency created by a \$10 tax on CD players. With no tax, the market is efficient and the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus is maximized. A tax shifts the supply curve, decreases the equilibrium quantity, raises the price to the buyer, and lowers the price to the seller.

18 - Taxes and Efficiency When the quantity remains the same, imposing a tax creates inefficiency (except in the extreme cases of perfectly inelastic demand or supply). Figure shows the inefficiency created by a \$10 tax on CD players. With no tax, the market is efficient and the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus is maximized. A tax shifts the supply curve, decreases the equilibrium quantity, raises the price to the buyer, and lowers the price to the seller. The tax revenue takes part of the consumer surplus and producer surplus. The decreased quantity creates a deadweight loss.

19 - Taxes in Practice Taxes usually are levied on goods and services with an inelastic demand or an inelastic supply. WHY? DWL DWL Alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline have inelastic demand, so the buyers of these items pay most the tax on them. Labor has a low elasticity of supply, so the seller the employees pays most of the income tax.

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