# DEMAND AND SUPPLY. Chapter. Markets and Prices. Demand. C) the price of a hot dog minus the price of a hamburger.

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1 Chapter 3 DEMAND AND SUPPLY Markets and Prices Topic: Price and Opportunity Cost 1) A relative price is A) the slope of the demand curve B) the difference between one price and another C) the slope of the supply curve D) the ratio of one price to another Topic: Price and Opportunity Cost 2) If the price of a candy bar is \$1 and the price of a fast food meal is \$5, A) the relative price of a candy bar is 5 fast food meals B) the money price of a candy bar is 1/5 of a fast food meal C) the relative price of a fast food meal is 5 candy bars D) the money price of a fast food meal is 1/5 of a candy bar Topic: Price and Opportunity Cost 3) If the price of a hot dog is \$2 and the price of a hamburger is \$4, A) the relative price of a hot dog is 1/2 of a hamburger B) the money price of a hot dog is 2 hamburgers C) the relative price of a hamburger is 1/2 of a hot dog D) the money price of a hamburger is 2 hot dogs Topic: Price and Opportunity Cost 4) The opportunity cost of good A in terms of good B is equal to the A) price of good A minus the price of good B B) price of good B minus the price of good A C) ratio of the price of good A to the price of good B D) ratio of the price of good B to the price of good A Topic: Price and Opportunity Cost 5) The opportunity cost of a hot dog in terms of hamburgers is A) the ratio of the slope of the demand curve for hot dogs to the slope of the demand curve for hamburgers B) the ratio of the slope of the supply curve for hot dogs to the slope of the supply curve for hamburgers C) the price of a hot dog minus the price of a hamburger D) the ratio of the price of a hot dog to the price of a hamburger Demand Topic: Demand 6) Wants, as opposed to demands, A) are the unlimited desires of the consumer B) are the goods the consumer plans to acquire C) are the goods the consumer has acquired D) depend on the price 93

2 94 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Demand 7) Demands differ from wants in that A) demands are unlimited, whereas wants are limited by income B) wants require a plan to acquire a good but demands require no such plan C) wants imply a decision about which demands to satisfy, while demands involve no specific plan to acquire the good D) demands reflect a decision about which wants to satisfy and a plan to buy the good, while wants are unlimited and involve no specific plan to acquire the good Topic: Demand 8) Scarcity guarantees that A) demands will exceed wants B) wants will exceed demands C) demands will be equal to wants D) most demands will be satisfied Topic: Demand 9) The quantity demanded is A) always equal to the equilibrium quantity B) independent of the price of the good C) the amount of a good that consumers plan to purchase at a particular price D) independent of consumers buying plans Topic: Law of Demand 10) The law of demand states that, other things remaining the same, the higher the price of a good, the A) smaller is the demand for the good B) larger is the demand for the good C) smaller is the quantity of the good demanded D) larger is the quantity of the good demanded Topic: Law of Demand 11) The law of demand implies that, other things remaining the same, A) as the price of a cheeseburger rises, the quantity of cheeseburgers demanded will increase B) as the price of a cheeseburger rises, the quantity of cheeseburgers demanded will decrease C) as income increases, the quantity of cheeseburgers demanded will increase D) as the demand for cheeseburgers increases, the price of a cheeseburger will fall Topic: Law of Demand 12) The law of demand states that the quantity of a good demanded varies A) inversely with its price B) inversely with the price of substitute goods C) directly with income D) directly with population Topic: Law of Demand 13) Which of the following is consistent with the law of demand? A) An increase in the price of a tape causes an increase in the quantity of tapes demanded B) An increase in the price of a soda causes a decrease in the quantity of soda demanded C) A decrease in the price of a gallon of milk causes a decrease in the quantity of milk demanded D) A decrease in the price of juice causes no change in the quantity of juice demanded Topic: Law of Demand 14) The law of demand implies that if nothing else changes, there is A) a positive relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded B) a negative relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded C) a linear relationship between price of a good and the quantity demanded D) an exponential relationship between price of a good and the quantity demanded

3 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 95 Topic: Demand Curve and Demand Schedule 15) Which of the following influences people s buying plans and varies moving along a demand curve? A) The price of the good B) The prices of related goods C) Income D) Preferences Topic: Demand Curve and Demand Schedule 16) The law of demand states that A) an increase in the price of a good shifts the demand curve leftward B) a decrease in the price of a good shifts the demand curve leftward C) other thing remaining the same, the higher the price of a good, the larger is the quantity demanded D) other things remaining the same, the higher the price of a good, the smaller is the quantity demanded Topic: Demand Curve and Demand Schedule 17) The law of demand implies that demand curves A) slope down B) slope up C) shift rightward whenever the price rises D) shift leftward whenever the price rises Topic: Willingness and Ability To Pay 18) Each point on the demand curve reflects A) all the wants of a given household B) the highest price consumers are willing and able to pay for that particular unit of a good C) the highest price sellers will accept for all units they are producing D) the lowest-cost technology available to produce a good Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 19) A drop in the price of a compact disc shifts the demand curve for prerecorded tapes leftward From that you know compact discs and prerecorded tapes are A) complements B) substitutes C) inferior goods D) normal goods Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 20) A substitute is a good A) that can be used in place of another good B) that is not used in place of another good C) of lower quality than another good D) of higher quality than another good Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 21) People buy more of good 1 when the price of good 2 rises These goods are A) complements B) substitutes C) normal goods D) inferior goods Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 22) Which of the following pairs of goods are most likely substitutes? A) Compact discs and compact disc players B) Cola and lemon lime soda C) Lettuce and salad dressing D) Peanut butter and gasoline Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 23) The demand for a good increases when the price of a substitute and also increases when the price of a complement A) rises; rises B) rises; falls C) falls; rises D) falls; falls

4 96 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 24) A complement is a good A) of lower quality than another good B) used in conjunction with another good C) used instead of another good D) of higher quality than another good Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 25) Suppose people buy more of good 1 when the price of good 2 falls These goods are A) complements B) substitutes C) normal D) inferior Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 26) As the opportunity cost of a good decreases, people buy A) less of that good and also less of its complements B) less of that good but more of its complements C) more of that good but less of its complements D) more of that good and also more of its complements Topic: Change in Demand, Expected Future Prices 27) People come to expect that the price of a gallon of gasoline will rise next week As a result, A) today s supply of gasoline increases B) today s demand for gasoline increases C) the price of a gallon of gasoline falls today D) next week s supply of gasoline decreases Topic: Change in Demand 28) The demand curve for a normal good shifts leftward if income or the expected future price A) decreases; falls B) decreases; rises C) increases; falls D) increases; rises Topic: Change in Demand 29) If income increases or the price of a complement falls, A) the demand curve for a normal good shifts leftward B) the demand curve for a normal good shifts rightward C) the supply curve of a normal good shifts leftward D) the supply curve of a normal good shifts rightward Topic: Change in Demand 30) If income decreases or the price of a complement rises, A) the demand curve for a normal good shifts leftward B) the demand curve for a normal good shifts rightward C) there is an upward movement along the demand curve for the good D) there is a downward movement along the demand curve for the good Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 31) A consumer might consider in-line skates and elbow-pads to be A) products with upward sloping demand curves B) unrelated goods C) complements D) substitutes Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 32) A decrease in the price of a game of bowling shifts the A) demand curve for bowling balls leftward B) demand curve for bowling balls rightward C) supply curve of bowling balls leftward D) supply curve of bowling balls rightward

5 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 97 Topic: Change in Demand, Income 33) Normal goods are those for which demand decreases as A) the price of a complement falls B) the price of a substitute falls C) income decreases D) the good s own price rises Topic: Change in Demand, Income 34) A normal good is a good for which A) there are very few complements B) demand increases when income increases C) there are few substitutes D) demand decreases when income increases Topic: Change in Demand, Income 35) Most goods A) are complements to each other B) are normal goods C) have vertical demand curves D) have vertical supply curves Topic: Change in Demand, Income 36) A normal good is a good for which demand A) decreases when income increases B) increases when income increases C) decreases when population increases D) increases when population increases Topic: Change in Demand, Income 37) Inferior goods are those for which demand increases as A) the price of a substitute falls B) the price of a substitute rises C) income decreases D) income increases Topic: Change in Demand, Income 38) By definition, an inferior good is a A) want that is not expressed by demand B) normal substitute good C) good for which demand decreases when its price rises D) good for which demand decreases when income increases Topic: Change in Demand, Income 39) If a good is an inferior good, then purchases of that good will decrease when A) income increases B) the price of a substitute rises C) population increases D) the demand for it increases Topic: Change in Demand, Income 40) An inferior good is a good for which demand A) decreases when income increases B) increases when income increases C) decreases when population increases D) increases when population increases Topic: Change in Demand, Income 41) Gruel is an inferior good Hence, a decrease in people s incomes A) shifts the supply curve of gruel leftward B) decreases the quantity of gruel supplied C) shifts the demand curve for gruel rightward D) shifts the demand curve for gruel leftward Topic: Change in Demand, Preferences 42) When economists speak of preferences as influencing demand, they are referring to A) directly observable changes in prices and income B) an individual s attitudes toward goods and services C) the excess of wants over the available supplies D) the availability of a good to all income classes

6 98 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Change in Demand, Preferences 43) An unusually warm winter A) shifts the supply curve of gloves rightward B) shifts the supply curve of gloves leftward C) shifts the demand curve for gloves rightward D) shifts the demand curve for gloves leftward Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 44) In 2000 there were 200,000 gas grills demanded at a price of \$500 In 2001 there were more than 200,000 gas grills demanded at the same price This increase could be the result any of the following EXCEPT A) an increase in the supply of gas grills B) an increase in income if gas grills are a normal good C) a fall in the price of natural gas, a complement for a gas grill D) an increase in population Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 45) A change in the price of a good A) shifts the good s demand curve and also causes a movement along it B) shifts the good s demand curve but does not cause a movement along it C) does not shift the good s demand curve but does cause a movement along it D) neither shifts the good s demand curve nor causes a movement along it Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 46) A reduction in the price of a good A) shifts the good s demand curve leftward and also decreases the quantity demanded B) shifts the good s demand curve leftward but does not decrease the quantity demanded C) does not shift the good s demand curve leftward but does decrease the quantity demanded D) neither shifts the good s demand curve leftward nor decreases the quantity demanded Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 47) A decrease in quantity demanded caused by an increase in price is represented by a A) rightward shift of the demand curve B) leftward shift of the demand curve C) movement up and to the left along the demand curve D) movement down and to the right along the demand curve Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 48) A change in which of the following alters buying plans for cars but does NOT shift the demand curve for cars? A) A 5 percent increase in people s income B) A 10 percent decrease in the price of car insurance C) A 20 percent increase in the price of a car D) An increased preference for walking rather than driving Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 49) Which of the following would NOT shift the demand curve for turkey? A) An increase in income B) A decrease in the price of ham C) A change in tastes for turkey D) A change in the price of a turkey

7 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 99 Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 50) When we say demand increases, we mean that there is a A) movement to the right along a demand curve B) movement to the left along a demand curve C) rightward shift of the demand curve D) leftward shift of the demand curve Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 53) In the figure above, which movement reflects a decrease in quantity demanded but NOT a decrease in demand? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 54) In the figure above, which movement reflects how consumers would react to an increase in the price of a non-fruit snack? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 51) In the figure above, which movement reflects an increase in demand? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: A Change in the Quantity Demanded Versus a Change in Demand 52) In the figure above, which movement reflects a decrease in demand? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 55) In the figure above, which movement reflects an increase in the price of a substitute for fruit snacks? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: Change in Demand, Prices of Related Goods 56) In the figure above, which movement reflects an increase in the price of a complement for fruit snacks? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d

8 100 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Change in Demand, Expected Future Prices 57) In the figure above, which movement reflects how consumers would react to an increase in the price of a fruit snack that is expected to occur in the future? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: Change in Demand, Income 58) In the figure above, which movement reflects an increase in income if fruit snacks are an inferior good? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: Change in Demand, Income 59) In the figure above, which movement reflects an increase in income if fruit snacks are a normal good? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Topic: Change in Demand, Population 60) In the figure above, which movement reflects a decrease in population? A) From point a to point e B) From point a to point b C) From point a to point c D) From point a to point d Supply Topic: What Determines Selling Plans? 61) Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that influences the supply of a product? A) technology B) income C) number of suppliers D) expected future prices Topic: The Law of Supply 62) The law of supply is illustrated when A) the demand curve shifts along a stationary supply curve B) the supply curve and demand curve both shift in the same direction C) the supply curve shifts along a stationary demand curve D) the demand curve and supply curve are both stationary Topic: The Law of Supply 63) Which of the following explains why supply curves slope upward? A) Prices and income B) Increasing marginal cost C) Resources and technology D) Substitutes in production and complements in production Topic: The Law of Supply 64) The supply curve slopes upward when graphed against, because of A) the price of the good; increasing marginal cost B) the price of the good; decreasing marginal cost C) income; increasing marginal cost D) income; decreasing marginal cost

9 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 101 Topic: Supply 65) The quantity supplied of a good is A) the same thing as the quantity demanded at each price B) the amount that the producers are planning to sell at a particular price during a given time period C) equal to the difference between the quantity available and the quantity desired by all consumers and producers D) the amount the firm would sell if it faced no resource constraints Topic: Supply 66) The quantity supplied of a good or service is the quantity that a producer A) is willing to sell at a particular price during a given time period B) actually sells at a particular price during a given time period C) needs to sell at a particular price during a given time period D) should sell at a particular price during a given time period Topic: The Law of Supply 67) A fall in the price of a good causes producers to reduce the quantity of the good they are willing to produce This fact illustrates A) the law of supply B) the law of demand C) a change in supply D) the nature of an inferior good Topic: Minimum Supply Price 68) Each point on a supply curve represents A) the highest price buyers will pay for the good B) the lowest price for which a supplier can profitably sell another unit C) the lowest price buyers will accept per unit of the good D) the highest price sellers can get for each unit over time Topic: Supply Curve and Supply Schedule 69) Because of increasing marginal cost, most supply curves A) are horizontal B) are vertical C) have a negative slope D) have a positive slope Topic: Supply Curve and Supply Schedule 70) A supply curve shows the relation between the quantity of a good supplied and A) income Usually a supply curve has negative slope B) income Usually a supply curve has positive slope C) the price of the good Usually a supply curve has negative slope D) the price of the good Usually a supply curve has positive slope Topic: Supply Curve and Supply Schedule 71) A supply curve differs from a supply schedule because a supply curve A) holds the number of suppliers constant, whereas the supply schedule allows the number to vary B) holds resource prices constant, whereas the supply schedule allows them to vary C) is a graph and the supply schedule is a table D) represents one firm, whereas the supply schedule represents all firms in the market Topic: Supply Curve and Supply Schedule 72) Which of the following is NOT held constant while moving along a supply curve? A) Expected future prices B) The number of sellers C) The price of the good itself D) Prices of resources used in production

10 102 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Supply Curve and Supply Schedule 73) The supply curve is graphed with A) the quantity of one good on the vertical axis and the quantity of another good on the horizontal axis B) the quantity of one good on the vertical axis and the price of another good on the horizontal axis C) the quantity of a good on the vertical axis and its price on the horizontal axis D) the quantity of a good on the horizontal axis and its price on the vertical axis Topic: Minimum Supply Price 74) In the above figure, what is the minimum supply price for the fourth gallon of ice cream? A) \$200 B) \$300 C) \$400 D) \$500 Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Resources 75) Which of the following shifts the supply curve for gasoline rightward? A) A situation where the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied B) An increase in the price of gasoline C) A decrease in the price of a resource used to produce gasoline, such as crude oil D) An increase in the demand for gas-guzzling, sport utility vehicles Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Resources 76) Which of the following shifts the supply curve rightward? A) An increase in the population B) A positive change in preferences for the good C) A decrease in the price of the good D) A decrease in the price of the resources used to produce the good Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Resources 77) Autoworkers negotiate a wage increase; how does this change affect the supply of cars? A) It decreases the supply B) It increase the supply C) It causes no change D) There is not enough information to tell if the change increases, decreases, or has no effect on the supply of cars Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Related Goods Produced 78) If a producer can use resources to produce either good A or good B, then A and B are A) complements in production B) substitutes in production C) substitutes in consumption D) complements in consumption

11 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 103 Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Related Goods Produced 79) Good A and good B are substitutes in production The demand for good A increases so that the price of good A rises The increase in the price of good A shifts the A) demand curve for good B leftward B) demand curve for good B rightward C) supply curve of good B leftward D) supply curve of good B rightward Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Related Goods Produced 80) Blank tapes and prerecorded tapes are substitutes in production An increase in the price of a blank tape will cause A) an increase in the supply of prerecorded tapes B) a decrease in the supply of prerecorded tapes C) an increase in the quantity supplied of prerecorded tapes but not in the supply D) a decrease in the quantity supplied of prerecorded tapes but not in the supply Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Related Goods Produced 81) Good A and good B are substitutes in production The demand for good A decreases, which lowers the price of good A The decrease in the price of good A A) decreases the supply of good B B) increases the supply of good B C) decreases the demand for good B D) increases the demand for good B Topic: Change in Supply, Expected Future Price 82) It is expected that the price of a bushel of wheat will increase in one month This belief will result in A) an increase in current supply of wheat B) a decrease in current supply of wheat C) a decrease in future supply of wheat D) no change in current or future supply of wheat Topic: Change in Supply, Number of Suppliers 83) An increase in the number of fast-food restaurants A) raises the price of fast-food meals B) increases the demand for fast-food meals C) increases the supply of fast-food meals D) increases the demand for substitutes for fastfood meals Topic: Change in Supply, Number of Suppliers 84) Which of the following increases the supply of a product? A) A drop in the price of the product B) A smaller number of sellers producing the product C) An increase in foreign imports of the product D) Higher taxes imposed upon producers of the product Topic: Change in Supply, Number of Suppliers 85) Which of the following decreases the supply of popcorn? A) A decrease in the price of popcorn B) An increase in the price of popcorn C) A technological development in the production of popcorn D) A decrease in the number of popcorn suppliers Topic: Change in Supply, Technology 86) Over the past decade technological improvements that have lowered the cost of producing an automobile have increased A) both the supply and the demand for automobiles B) the supply but not the demand for automobiles C) the demand but not the supply of automobiles D) neither the supply nor the demand for automobiles

12 104 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Change in Supply, Technology 87) An increase in technology for producing personal computers leads to A) an increase in the demand for personal computers B) a decrease in the demand for personal computers C) an increase in the supply of personal computers D) a decrease in the supply of personal computers Topic: Change in Supply 88) Which of the following will shift the supply curve for good X leftward? A) A situation in which quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied B) An increase in the cost of the machinery used to produce X C) A technological improvement in the production of X D) A decrease in the wages of workers employed to produce X Topic: A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply 89) Which of the following does NOT shift the supply curve? A) A technological advance B) A decrease in the wages of labor used in production of the good C) A fall in the price of a substitute in production D) An increase in the price of the good Topic: A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply 90) If the price of a good changes but everything else influencing suppliers planned sales remains constant, there is a A) new supply curve that is to the right of the initial supply curve B) new supply curve that is to the left of the initial supply curve C) movement along the supply curve D) rotation of the initial supply curve around the initial price Topic: A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply 91) A decrease in the quantity supplied is represented by a A) movement down the supply curve B) movement up the supply curve C) rightward shift in the supply curve D) leftward shift in the supply curve Topic: A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply 92) Which of the following causes an increase in the quantity supplied of good X but NOT in the supply of good X? A) A reduction in the price of resources used to produce X B) An improvement in the technology for producing X C) An increase in the price of good Y, a complement in the production of X D) An increase in the price of X

13 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 105 Topic: Change in Supply, Prices of Resources 96) In the figure above, which movement could be caused by an increase in the wages of oil workers? A) point a to point e B) point a to point b C) point a to point c D) point a to point d Topic: A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply 93) In the figure above, an increase in the supply of oil would result in a movement from A) point a to point e B) point a to point b C) point a to point c D) point a to point d Topic: Change in Supply, Technology 97) In the figure above, which movement could be caused by the development of a new, more efficient refining technology? A) point a to point e B) point a to point b C) point a to point c D) point a to point d Topic: A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply 94) In the figure above, an increase in the quantity of oil supplied but NOT in the supply of oil is shown by a movement from A) point a to point e B) point a to point b C) point a to point c D) point a to point d Topic: A Change in the Quantity Supplied Versus a Change in Supply 95) In the figure above, a decrease in the quantity of oil supplied but NOT in the supply of oil is shown by a movement from A) point a to point e B) point a to point b C) point a to point c D) point a to point d

14 106 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Changes in Supply, Technology 99) The above figure represents the market for oil Because of the development of a new deep sea drilling technology the A) demand curve shifts from D 1 to D 2 and the supply curve will not shift B) demand curve shifts from D 1 to D 2 and the supply curve shifts from S 1 to S 2 C) demand curve will not shift, and the supply curve shifts from S 2 to S 1 D) demand curve will not shift, and the supply curve shifts from S 1 to S 2 Topic: Changes in Demand, Preferences 98) The figure above represents the market for candy People become more concerned that eating candy causes them to gain weight, which they do not like As a result, the A) demand curve shifts from D 2 to D 1 and the supply curve will not shift B) demand curve shifts from D 1 to D 2 and the supply curve shifts from S 1 to S 2 C) demand curve shifts from D 2 to D 1 and the supply curve shifts from S 2 to S 1 D) demand curve will not shift, and the supply curve shifts from S 1 to S 2 Topic: Changes in Supply 100) The above figure represents the market for oil When terrorists blow up a major refinery the A) demand curve for oil shifts from D 1 to D 2 and the supply curve for oil will not shift B) demand curve for oil shifts from D 1 to D 2 and the supply curve for oil shifts from S 2 to S 1 C) demand curve for oil will not shift, and the supply curve for oil shifts from S 2 to S 1 D) demand curve for oil will not shift, and the supply curve for oil shifts from S 1 to S 2 Topic: Changes in Demand, Preferences 101) The above figure represents the market for bicycles When there is a physical fitness craze the A) demand curve for bicycles shifts from D 1 to D 2 B) demand curve for bicycles shifts from D 2 to D 1 C) demand curve and the supply curve of bicycles do not shift D) supply curve of bicycles shifts from S 1 to S 2

15 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 107 Topic: Change in Demand, Preferences; Change in Supply, Prices of Resources 102) The above figure represents the market for french fries at fast food joints If the price of potatoes rises and simultaneously people become concerned that french fries can cause heart attacks A) the demand curve for french fries will shift from D 2 to D 1 and the supply curve of french fries will not shift B) the demand curve for french fries will shift from D 2 to D 1 and the supply curve of french fries will shift from S 2 to S 1 C) the demand curve for french fries will shift from D 2 to D 1 and the supply curve of french fries will shift from S 1 to S 2 D) the demand curve for french fries will not shift, and the supply curve of french fries will shift from S 1 to S 2 Market Equilibrium Topic: Market Equilibrium 103) The equilibrium price and quantity are found at the A) point where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded B) horizontal intercept of the demand curve C) vertical intercept of the supply curve D) horizontal intercept of the supply and the demand curves Topic: Market Equilibrium 104) The interaction of supply and demand explains A) the prices of goods and services but not their quantities B) the quantities of goods and services but not their prices C) both the prices and the quantities of goods and services D) neither the prices nor the quantities of goods and services Topic: Market Equilibrium 105) When the quantity demanded equals quantity supplied A) the government must be intervening in the market B) there is a surplus C) there is a shortage D) None of the above Topic: Market Equilibrium 106) In the above figure, if the demand curve is D 2, then A) the equilibrium price will be P 1 and the equilibrium quantity will be Q 2 B) the equilibrium price will be P 1 and the equilibrium quantity will be Q 1 C) there will be a shortage equal to Q 2 Q 1 D) an increase in price will cause the demand curve to shift to D 3

16 108 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Market Equilibrium 107) When the price is below the equilibrium price, the quantity demanded A) is less than the equilibrium quantity So is the quantity supplied B) is less than the equilibrium quantity The quantity supplied exceeds the equilibrium quantity C) exceeds the equilibrium quantity So does the quantity supplied D) exceeds the equilibrium quantity The quantity supplied is less than the equilibrium quantity Topic: Price Adjustments 108) If a market is NOT in equilibrium, then which of the following is likely to occur? A) The demand curve will shift to bring the market to equilibrium B) The supply curve will shift to bring the market to equilibrium C) The price will adjust to bring the market to equilibrium D) Both A and B are correct Topic: Price Adjustment; Shortage 109) A price below the equilibrium price results in A) a surplus B) a shortage C) excess supply D) a further price fall Topic: Price Adjustment; Shortage 110) Which of the following correctly describes how price adjustments eliminate a shortage? A) As the price rises, the quantity demanded decreases while the quantity supplied increases B) As the price rises, the quantity demanded increases while the quantity supplied decreases C) As the price falls, the quantity demanded decreases while the quantity supplied increases D) As the price falls, the quantity demanded increases while the quantity supplied decreases Topic: Price Adjustment; Shortage 111) A shortage causes the A) demand curve to shift leftward B) supply curve to shift rightward C) price to fall D) price to rise Topic: Price Adjustment; Shortage 112) If the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, then there is A) a shortage and the price is below the equilibrium price B) a shortage and the price is above the equilibrium price C) a surplus and the price is below the equilibrium price D) a surplus and the price is above the equilibrium price Topic: Price Adjustments; Surplus 113) If the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, then there is A) a shortage and the price is below the equilibrium price B) a shortage and the price is above the equilibrium price C) a surplus and the price is below the equilibrium price D) a surplus and the price is above the equilibrium price Topic: Price Adjustments; Surplus 114) The price of a good will fall if A) there is a surplus at the current price B) the current price is less than the equilibrium price C) the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied D) the price of a complement falls

17 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 109 Topic: Price Adjustment; Shortage 115) When the price is less than the equilibrium price, A) there will be a shortage B) some consumers will be willing to pay a price higher than the prevailing price C) the price will be forced higher D) All of the above answers are correct Topic: Price Adjustments, Shortage 116) If there exists a shortage in the market for snowmobiles, then the price of a snowmobile will A) rise B) fall C) neither rise nor fall D) at first fall then rise Topic: Price Adjustment; Shortage 117) The existence of a shortage A) means resources are being allocated efficiently B) is impossible in a market economy C) pushes prices up D) pushes prices down Topic: Price Adjustment; Surplus 120) When the price of a good is A) below the equilibrium price, quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded and price rises B) below the equilibrium price, quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied and price falls C) above the equilibrium price, quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded and price falls D) above the equilibrium price, quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied and price rises Topic: Price Adjustment; Surplus 121) Suppose a market begins in equilibrium If supply increases, then at the original equilibrium price the quantity demanded is A) is less than the quantity supplied and a surplus results B) is less than the quantity supplied and a shortage results C) exceeds the quantity supplied and a surplus results D) exceeds the quantity supplied and a shortage results Topic: Price Adjustments; Surplus 118) A surplus occurs when the price is A) less than the equilibrium price B) equal to the equilibrium price C) greater than the equilibrium price D) None of the above because the existence of a surplus is independent of the price of the good Topic: Price Adjustments, Surplus 119) If the price is above the equilibrium price, then there is a A) surplus, and market forces will operate to lower price B) surplus, and market forces will operate to raise price C) shortage, and market forces will operate to lower price D) shortage, and market forces will operate to raise price

18 110 CHAPTER 3 Price (dollars per disc) Quantity demanded Price (dollars per disc) Quantity supplied 4 36, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,000 Topic: Price Adjustment; Shortage 122) The above table gives the demand and supply schedules for compact discs If the price of a compact disc is \$8, there is a and the price of a compact disc will A) shortage; rise B) shortage; fall C) surplus; rise D) surplus; fall 123) The above table gives the demand and supply schedules for compact discs Suppose that the price of a compact disc player increases, resulting in the demand for compact discs decreasing by 8,000 units at all prices What are the new equilibrium quantity and equilibrium price of compact discs? A) 8,000 and \$8 B) 16,000 and \$16 C) 20,000 and \$20 D) 28,000 and \$28 Price (dollars per disc) Quantity demanded Price (dollars per disc) Quantity supplied 4 36, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,000 Topic: Price Adjustment; Surplus 124) The above table gives the demand and supply schedules for compact discs If the price of a compact disc is \$28, there is a and the price of a compact disc will A) shortage; rise B) shortage; fall C) surplus; rise D) surplus; fall Topic: Market Equilibrium 125) The above table gives the demand and supply schedules for compact discs Based on the table, the equilibrium quantity and price of a compact discs is A) 28,000 and \$12 B) 20,000 and \$20 C) 16,000 and \$24 D) 16,000 and \$16

19 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 111 Price (dollars per cellular phone) Quantity demanded (thousands) Quantity supplied (thousands) Topic: Market Equilibrium 126) Using the data in the above table, the equilibrium quantity and equilibrium price for a cellular telephone is A) 50 thousand and \$100 B) 80 thousand and \$80 C) 60 thousand and \$50 D) 40 thousand and \$20 Topic: Price Adjustments, Surplus 127) Using the data in the above table, at the price of \$80 a phone, a A) shortage of 25 thousand cellular telephones occurs B) surplus of 80 thousand cellular telephones occurs C) surplus of 25 thousand cellular telephones occurs D) shortage of 55 thousand cellular telephones occurs Topic: Market Equilibrium 128) The equilibrium price in the above figure is A) \$2 B) \$4 C) \$6 D) \$8 Topic: Market Equilibrium 129) The equilibrium quantity in the above figure is A) 200 units B) 300 units C) 400 units D) 600 units Topic: Surplus 130) At a price of \$10 in the above figure, there is A) a surplus of 200 units B) a shortage of 200 units C) a surplus of 400 units D) a shortage of 400 units

20 112 CHAPTER 3 Topic: Shortage 131) At a price of \$4 in the above figure, A) the equilibrium quantity is 400 units B) there is a surplus of 200 units C) the quantity supplied is 400 units D) there is a shortage of 200 units 132) If the good in the above figure is a normal good and income rises, then the new equilibrium quantity A) is less than 300 units B) is 300 units C) is more than 300 units D) could be less than, equal to, or more than 300 units Supply Changes 133) The initial supply and demand curves for a good are illustrated in the above figure If there are technological advances in the production of the good, then the new price for the good A) is less than \$6 B) is \$6 C) is more than \$6 D) could be less than, equal to, or more than \$6 134) The initial supply and demand curves for a good are illustrated in the above figure If there is a rise in the price of the resources used to produce the good, then the new price A) is less than \$6 B) is \$6 C) is more than \$6 D) could be less than, equal to, or more than \$6 Topic: Price Adjustment 135) In the above figure, a price of \$15 per dozen for roses would result in A) equilibrium B) a shortage C) a surplus D) downward pressure on prices Topic: Price Adjustment 136) In the above figure, a price of \$15 per dozen roses would result in a so that the price of roses will A) surplus; rise B) surplus; fall C) shortage; rise D) shortage; fall Topic: Price Adjustment 137) In the above figure, a price of \$35 per dozen would result in A) a shortage B) equilibrium C) a surplus D) upward pressure on prices

21 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 113 Predicting Changes in Price and Quantity 140) When the demand for a good decreases, its equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity A) falls; decreases B) falls; increases C) rises; decreases D) rises; increases Topic: Price Adjustments 138) In the above figure, if the price is \$8 then A) there is a surplus of 100 B) there is a surplus of 200 C) there is a shortage of 100 D) there is a shortage of 200 Topic: Price Adjustments 139) Based on the above figure, which of the following is true? A) At a price of \$6, quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied B) At a price of \$4, quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied C) At a price of \$8, quantity demanded is less than quantity supplied D) All of the above answers are correct 141) If good A is a normal good and income increases, the equilibrium price of A A) and the equilibrium quantity will increase B) will rise and the equilibrium quantity will decrease C) and the equilibrium quantity will decrease D) will fall and the equilibrium quantity will increase 142) The price of a gallon of milk falls Which of the following is a possible cause? A) A decrease in the price of oatmeal, a complement to milk B) A discovery that milk cause diabetes C) An increase in the income of the average household, with milk being a normal good D) A drought that reduces supplies of feed grains fed to cows that produce milk

22 114 CHAPTER 3 143) Assume that beef and pork are substitutes for consumers There is a drought in the cattle grazing areas The drought will cause the A) supply curve for pork to shift rightward B) supply curve for pork to shift leftward C) demand curve for pork to shift rightward D) demand curve for pork to shift leftward 144) An increase in demand combined with no change in supply causes A) the equilibrium price to rise B) the equilibrium price to fall C) a movement rightward along the demand curve D) a decrease in demand because the supply curve does not shift 145) Goods A and B are complementary goods (in consumption) The cost of a resource used in the production of A decreases As a result, A) the equilibrium price of B will fall and the equilibrium price of A will rise B) the equilibrium price of B will rise and the equilibrium price of A will fall C) the equilibrium prices of both A and B will rise D) the equilibrium prices of both A and B will fall 146) When demand decreases and supply does not change, the equilibrium price A) rises and the equilibrium quantity increases B) falls and the equilibrium quantity decreases C) rises and the equilibrium quantity decreases D) falls and the equilibrium quantity increases Supply Changes 147) When supply decreases and demand does not change, the equilibrium quantity A) increases and the price rises B) decreases and the price falls C) increases and the price falls D) decreases and the price rises Supply Changes 148) Beef and leather belts are complements in production If people s concern about health shifts the demand curve for beef leftward, the result in the market for leather belts will be a A) lower equilibrium price for a leather belt because there is an increase in the supply of leather belts B) lower equilibrium price for a leather belt because there is a decrease in the supply of leather belts C) higher equilibrium price for a leather belt because there is a decrease in the supply of leather belts D) higher equilibrium price for a leather belt because there is an increase in the supply of leather belts Supply Changes 149) You observe that the price of a good rises and the quantity decreases These observations can be the result of A) the demand curve shifting rightward B) the demand curve shifting leftward C) the supply curve shifting rightward D) the supply curve shifting leftward

23 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 115 Supply Changes 150) Leather belts and leather shoes are substitutes in production If style changes increase the demand for leather belts, the supply curve of leather shoes will shift A) leftward and the equilibrium price of leather shoes will fall B) leftward and the equilibrium price of leather shoes will rise C) rightward and the equilibrium price of leather shoes will fall D) rightward and the equilibrium price of leather shoes will rise Demand/Supply Increase 151) If both demand and supply increase, what will be the effect on the equilibrium price and quantity? A) Both the price and the quantity will increase B) The quantity will increase but the price could either rise, fall, or remain the same C) The price will fall but the quantity will increase D) The price will rise but the quantity could either increase, decrease, or remain the same Topic: Predicting Changes; Demand Increases, Supply Decreases 153) The price will rise and the equilibrium quantity might increase, decrease, or stay the same when the A) demand and the supply of a good both increase B) demand for a good increases and the supply of it decreases C) demand for a good decreases and the supply of it increases D) demand and the supply of a good both decrease Topic: Predicting; Demand Decreases, Supply Increases 154) The price will fall and the equilibrium quantity might increase, decrease, or stay the same when the A) demand and the supply of a good both increase B) demand for a good increases and the supply of it decreases C) demand for a good decreases and the supply of it increases D) demand and the supply of a good both decrease Demand/Supply Increase 152) If both the demand and supply increase, the equilibrium quantity A) increases and the price falls B) decreases and the effect on price is indeterminate C) decreases and the price rises D) increases and the effect on price is indeterminate

24 116 CHAPTER 3 157) The above figure shows the market for pizza Which figure shows the effect of an increase in the price of a substitute such as sandwiches? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure C D) Figure D 155) The above figure shows the market for pizza Which figure shows the effect of a decrease in the price of a pizza substitute such as hamburgers? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure D D) Figures B and C 156) The above figure shows the market for pizza Which figure shows the effect of an increase in the price of a complement such as soda? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure C D) Figure D Supply Changes 158) The above figure shows the market for pizza Which figure shows the effect of an increase in the price of the tomato sauce used to produce pizza? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure C D) Figure D 159) The above figure shows the market for pizza Which figure shows the effect of a new report by the US Surgeon General that pizza, as a part of the Mediterranean diet, contributes to lower cholesterol levels? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure C D) Figure D

25 DEMAND AND SUPPLY 117 Supply Changes 162) The above figure shows the market for hamburger Which panel shows the effect of a new excise tax on all beef products? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure C D) Figure D 160) The above figure shows the market for hamburger Which figure shows the effect of an announcement by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that eating hamburger causes early death? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure C D) Figure D Demand/Supply Decrease 163) The equilibrium quantity will decrease and the price might rise, fall, or stay the same when the A) demand and the supply of a good both increase B) demand for a good increases and the supply of it decreases C) demand for a good decreases and the supply of it increases D) demand and the supply of a good both decrease Demand/Supply Increase 164) The equilibrium quantity of a good will increase and its equilibrium price might rise, fall, or stay the same when A) its demand and supply both increase B) its demand increases and supply decreases C) its demand decreases and supply increases D) its demand and supply both decrease Supply Changes 161) The above figure shows the market for hamburger Which panel shows the effect of a drought in cattle country? A) Figure A B) Figure B C) Figure C D) Figure D

26 118 CHAPTER 3 Demand/Supply Increase 165) The price of compact disc players fell over the past decade because a combination of improving technology, rising incomes, and falling prices of compact discs caused the A) demand curve for compact disc players to shift rightward faster than the supply curve of compact disc players shifted rightward B) supply curve of compact disc players to shift rightward faster than the demand curve for compact disc players shifted rightward C) supply curve of compact disc players to shift rightward and the demand curve for compact disc players to shift leftward D) demand curve for compact disc players to shift leftward and the supply curve of compact disc players to shift leftward Topic: Predicting Changes; Demand Increases, Supply Decreases 166) Which of the following always raises the equilibrium price? A) An increase in both demand and supply B) A decrease in both demand and supply C) An increase in demand combined with a decrease in supply D) A decrease in demand combined with an increase in supply Topic: Predicting Changes; Demand Decreases, Supply Increases 167) Which of the following definitely causes a fall in the equilibrium price? A) An increase in both demand and supply B) A decrease in both demand and supply C) An increase in demand combined with a decrease in supply D) A decrease in demand combined with an increase in supply The Market for Wapanzo Beans Quantity Demanded (millions of pounds per year) Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Price (dollars per pound) Quantity Supplied (millions of pounds per year) Case A Case B Case C \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Topic: Market Equilibrium 168) Refer to the table above Suppose that in normal years demand is represented by Case 2 and supply is represented by Case B In a normal year the price of wapanzo beans will be A) \$1 per pound B) \$2 per pound C) \$3 per pound D) \$4 per pound Topic: Market Equilibrium 169) Refer to the table above Suppose that in normal years demand is represented by Case 2 and supply is represented by Case B In a normal year the equilibrium quantity of wapanzo beans will be A) 2 million pounds B) 4 million pounds C) 6 million pounds D) 8 million pounds Topic: Change in Supply 170) Refer to the table above Suppose that in normal years demand is represented by Case 2 and supply is represented by Case B If there is a drought in the wapanzo bean growing region then supply will and demand will A) become case A; become case 1 B) become case A; stay at case 2 C) stay at case B; become case 3 D) stay at case B; become case 1

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