# Suppose you are a seller with cost 13 who must pay a sales tax of 15. What is the lowest price you can sell at and not lose money?

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Suppose you are a seller with cost 13 who must pay a sales tax of 15. What is the lowest price you can sell at and not lose money?"

## Transcription

1 Experiment 3 Suppose that sellers pay a tax of 15. If a seller with cost 5 sells to a buyer with value 45 at a price of 25, the seller earns a profit of and the buyer earns a profit of. Suppose you are a seller with cost 13 who must pay a sales tax of 15. What is the lowest price you can sell at and not lose money? Suppose you are a buyer with value 30 and must pay a sales tax of 15. What is the highest price you can pay and still make a profit? Are buyers better off when the sellers pay the tax than when buyers pay the tax?

2 Sales Taxes You are a seller and have to pay 15 in taxes. The good costs you 8. What is the least you would possibly accept? General principle: a sales tax imposed on the seller shifts the supply up (vertically). Similarly, if the tax is imposed on the buyer, demand shifts down by the amount of the tax.

3 Buyer s Price Tax Seller s Price Demand Supply Supply with Tax

4 It doesn t matter if the buyer pays the tax or the seller pays the tax. The price the buyer pays, the price the seller gets, and the quantity are the same Demand if Seller Pays Tax Demand if Buyer Pays Tax Demand Supply Supply with Tax Demand with Tax

5 The Incidence of the Tax Who pays the tax? Who is most affected? Buyer s Tax Seller s Tax Demand Supply Supply with Tax Dark Red: Excess Burden or Dead Weight Loss

6 Only one quantity makes the price from demand minus the price from supply equal the tax. Price to Buyer S Tax Price to Seller D Q with Tax

7 A Major use of elasticities for this class: Suppose price and quantity are in balance at a price p and a quantity q. Suppose a 10% tax is imposed. What happens to the buyer s price paid and the seller s price received? Let x be the percent that the buyer s price rises. Then the seller s price falls by 10%-x. Moreover, η x = η% p = % q = ε% p = ε(10% x). d s ε Thus, x = 10%. ε + η That is, the elasticities give the relative incidence of a per unit tax increase. When demand is very inelastic (η is small), x is close to 1, and most of the tax is passed to consumers. In contrast, when demand is very elastic, (η is very large), x is near zero, and most of the tax is paid by firms. For example, in for automotive gasoline sold in California, η is about 0.25, and ε around 2. Thus, a 10% tax will increase prices by 2/2.25 x 10%, or 8.9%. ηε The quantity change is % Q = ηx = 10%. ε + η

8 tax increase (in percent)=%dpd- %Dps = %DQ/h + %DQ/e, solves for %DQ. Then, compute %Dpd, %Dps S %Dpd Tax %Dps D %DQ

9 Summary: Who pays the sales tax doesn t affect the buyer s price and seller s price. Buyer s price goes up by x = ε ε (amount of + η tax). Seller s price goes down by η (amount of ε + η tax). The quantity falls by ηε (amount of ε + η tax). The excess burden or dead weight loss is the value of the trades rendered unprofitable by the sales tax. The size of the excess burden is approximately 1 ηε (amount of tax) 2. 2 ε + η

10 1. Draw and label a market with a perfectly elastic supply and a perfectly inelastic demand. P Q

11 2. (Short answer) Suppose that, at a price of \$10, there are twice as many apples demanded as supplied. How does the price adjustment eliminate the shortage? At \$10, some consumers fail to obtain apples. Sellers can raise prices and still make sales. Increasing prices reduce quantity demanded and increase quantity supplied, eliminating the shortage. 3. (Short answer) Is electricity a normal good? Why or why not? Yes, for richer consumers will buy more electricity. Thus electricity demand rises as income rises, the definition of a normal good.

12 4. (Short answer) Red shirts and blue shirts are substitutes in production. (i) If the demand for red shirts falls, but the demand for blue shirts is unchanged, what will happen to the prices of red shirts and blue shirts? Both prices fall. The price of red shirts falls because of the demand decrease, and the price of blue shirts falls because sellers substitute to the more profitable blue shirts, increasing supply. (ii) Illustrate your answer with supply and demand diagrams: Red Shirts Blue Shirts P P Q Q

13 5. (Short answer) Provide two examples of by-products of the production of goods. What does the increase in price of a by-product do to the other good's supply? Why? Gold and silver, beef and hides, lumber and wood chips (for paper), oil and natural gas. An increase in the price of the byproduct makes the first good more profitable, increasing the supply.

14 6. Suppose the elasticity of demand for shirts is 2. A 10% tax is imposed, which reduces supply in the following way: for any given quantity on the old supply curve, the required price to obtain the same quantity on the new supply curve is 10% higher. (i) Using one diagram, illustrate the supply shift, and find the maximum that the equilibrium quantity can fall. P S 10% Price buyer pays rises by no more than 10%. Thus, -%DQ =h %DP 20% D Q %DQ

15 (ii) Now assume that the supply elasticity is 3. Using a second diagram, estimate the percentage change in the equilibrium price and quantity. 10%=%Dpd- %Dps = -%DQ/h +- %DQ/e =-%DQ(1/2 + 1/3) =-%DQ(5/6). Thus, %DQ=-12%, %Dpd=6%, %Dps=-4% S %Dpd 10% %Dps D %DQ

16 7. (No diagrams are necessary for the answer to this question) Tylenol is a substitute (in demand) for aspirin. (i) What does the introduction of Tylenol do to the supply and demand for aspirin? Tylenol, a substitute in demand for aspirin, will reduce demand for aspirin without affecting supply. (ii) What happens to the price of aspirin when Tylenol is introduced? The price of aspirin should fall due to the demand reduction. (iii) A bottle of poisoned Tylenol causes the company to withdraw Tylenol from the market. What happens to the price and quantity of aspirin traded? The price and quantity traded should increase, and return to their pre-tylenol level.

17 8. Consider the sales tax imposed in experiment 3. Using a supply and demand diagram (you may draw this with smooth curves), show how the tax on suppliers reduces quantity, raises the price paid by consumers by an amount less than the tax, and lowers the price paid to suppliers. On the same diagram, illustrate the dead weight loss, and outline the area corresponding to the total tax revenue collected. S with Tax Portion of tax Buyer Pays; Portion Seller Pays Tax Revenue DWL S D DQ

18 9. Consider experiment 2, where the fishers sometimes caught one, two or three fish. (i) Explain how an increase in the number of fish caught can reduce the total earnings of fishers. An increase in the number of fish reduces price, so revenue, which is price times quantity, can fall. (ii) How does the elasticity of demand affect the earnings of fishers when the number of fish caught increases? Revenue falls when the quantity increases if demand is inelastic. (iii) Fishers paid 10 to run their boats. If prices fall to 1, these fishers lose money. How many would you expect them to exit the industry? What should happen to prices? Enough should exit so that prices increases to the level that makes fishing profitable. Since some are exiting, the price should equal average cost.

19 10. Using supply and demand diagrams, show that the effect of a 15 per unit sales tax on buyers and sellers is the same when the buyer pays the tax as when the seller pays the tax. How does this claim accord with your experimental findings? Did it matter who paid the tax? Only one quantity makes the price from demand minus the price from supply equal the tax. Price to Buyer S Tax Price to Seller D Q with Tax

20 11. (i) Why does demand give marginal value of the good? Consumers are willing to pay up to their value for the good. Thus, the marginal consumer values the good at the price. (ii) What is consumer surplus? Illustrate with a demand diagram. Consumer surplus is the net gains from trade earned by consumers.

21 12. If a and b are complementary goods (in consumption) and the price of a increases, we will observe a. an increase in the price and the quantity traded of b. b. a decrease in the price and the quantity traded of b. c. an increase in the price but a decrease in the quantity traded of b. d. a decrease in price but an increase in the quantity traded of b. b. Demand complements (think consumed together ) mean that as the price of a increases, the demand for b falls. Thus both price and quantity of b should fall. 13. If a and b are substitutes in production and the price of a falls, the supply of b will a. increase, and thus the price of b will increase. b. increase, and thus the price of b will decrease. c. decrease, and thus the price of b will decrease. d. decrease, and thus the price of b will increase. b. With substitutes in production, an decrease in the price of a makes producing a less profitable, so sellers produce more b, shifting supply of b out. Thus price of b falls and quantity rises.

22 14. An increase in income will a. increase the demand for turnips if turnips are inferior goods. b. increase the demand for turnips if turnips are normal goods. c. increase the supply of turnips. d. decrease the supply of turnips. b. An increase in income increases demand for normal goods. 15. If the production of good a is a by-product of the production of good b, then an increase in the price of a will cause a. an increase in the supply of a. b. a decrease in the supply of a. c. an increase in the supply of b. d. a decrease in the supply of b. c. An increase in the price of a increases the value of producing a and b, thus shifting out the supply of b.

23 16. Silver and gold are complements in supply and substitutes in demand. A new kind of film is developed that has the direct effect of reducing the demand for silver, affecting the gold market only through substitution. The price of gold and the quantity of gold traded. a. increases, decreases b. is indeterminate, decreases c. decreases, is indeterminate d. decreases, increases b. The shift in the demand for silver decreases the price of silver. As a demand substitute, this reduces the demand for gold (decreasing both price and quantity of gold). As a supply complement, the decrease in the price of silver decreases the supply of gold (increasing price and decreasing quantity of gold). Thus, the quantity falls, but the price could go up or down.

24 17. Suppose a decrease in the price of peanuts due to an increase in supply occurs, and both the price and quantity traded increase for chicken. Which of the following would explain this observation? a. chicken and peanuts are substitutes in supply. b. chicken and peanuts are complements in demand. c. chicken and peanuts are substitutes in demand. d. chicken and peanuts are complements in supply. b. Price and quantity both increasing requires an increase in demand. Thus, chicken and peanuts would have to be demand complements. 18. The demand for a good is inelastic if a. an increase in price results in an increase in total revenue. b. a decrease in price results in a decrease in total revenue. c. an increase in price results in a decrease in total revenue. d. the good is a luxury. a. Think perfectly inelastic, or vertical. An increase in price increases total revenue.

25 19. A demand curve that has a price elasticity of a. 0 will be vertical. b. 0 will be horizontal. c. 1 will be vertical. d. 1 will be horizontal. a. Zero elasticity no change in quantity with a change in price is vertical. 20. A 10 percent increase in the quantity of good a demanded results from a 20 percent decline in its price. The price elasticity of demand for good a is a b c. 2 d d. % Q η = % P = 10% 20%

26 21. If the price elasticity of demand is 3, a 15% increase in price will cause a a. 45% decrease in quantity demanded. b. 5% decrease in quantity demanded. c. 15% decrease in quantity demanded. d. It cannot be determined without knowing the supply elasticity. a. % Q 3 =η = % P % Q = 15%

### Consumer and Producer Surplus. Consumer and Producer Surplus. Consumer Surplus. Consumer Surplus. Consumer Surplus Individual consumer surplus

Consumer and Consumer and February 6, 2007 Reading: Chapter 6 Introduction Consumer surplus Producer surplus Efficiency and the gains from trade s 2 Introduction Connections to: Opportunity costs to consumers

### Name: Date: 2. When the price goes down, the quantity demanded goes up. This price elasticity measures how:

Name: Date: 1. The price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the change in the: A) quantity demanded to a change in the price. B) price to a change in the quantity demanded. C) slope of

### INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS Instructor: Filip Vesely 12

INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS Instructor: Filip Vesely 12 MIDTERM EXAM will be on March 29 Everything you earn and many things you buy are taxed. Who really pays these taxes? Tax Incidence is the division

### Jacob: If there is a tax, there is a dead weight loss; why do we speak of a social gain?

Microeconomics, sales taxes, final exam practice problems (The attached PDF file has better formatting.) *Question 1.1: Social Gain Suppose the government levies a sales tax on a good. With the sales tax,

### Figure 4-1 Price Quantity Quantity Per Pair Demanded Supplied \$ 2 18 3 \$ 4 14 4 \$ 6 10 5 \$ 8 6 6 \$10 2 8

Econ 101 Summer 2005 In-class Assignment 2 & HW3 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A government-imposed price ceiling set below the market's equilibrium price for a good will produce an excess supply of the good. a.

### Practice Questions Week 3 Day 1

Practice Questions Week 3 Day 1 Figure 4-1 Quantity Demanded \$ 2 18 3 \$ 4 14 4 \$ 6 10 5 \$ 8 6 6 \$10 2 8 Price Per Pair Quantity Supplied 1. Figure 4-1 shows the supply and demand for socks. If a price

### a. Meaning: The amount (as a percentage of total) that quantity demanded changes as price changes. b. Factors that make demand more price elastic

Things to know about elasticity. 1. Price elasticity of demand a. Meaning: The amount (as a percentage of total) that quantity demanded changes as price changes. b. Factors that make demand more price

### University of Lethbridge - Department of Economics ECON 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi. Lab #4

University of Lethbridge - Department of Economics ECON 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi Lab #4 Chapter 4 Elasticity MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best

### ECON Chapter 4 review quiz

1) The price elasticity of demand measures: ECON 1900-02 Chapter 4 review quiz a) the percentage change in quantity demanded as a result of a 1 percent change in supply b) the change in quantity demanded

### 11 PERFECT COMPETITION. Chapter. Competition

Chapter 11 PERFECT COMPETITION Competition Topic: Perfect Competition 1) Perfect competition is an industry with A) a few firms producing identical goods B) a few firms producing goods that differ somewhat

### Chapter 5 Elasticity of Demand and Supply. These slides supplement the textbook, but should not replace reading the textbook

Chapter 5 Elasticity of Demand and Supply These slides supplement the textbook, but should not replace reading the textbook 1 What is total revenue? Price multiplied by the quantity sold at that price

### A. a change in demand. B. a change in quantity demanded. C. a change in quantity supplied. D. unit elasticity. E. a change in average variable cost.

1. The supply of gasoline changes, causing the price of gasoline to change. The resulting movement from one point to another along the demand curve for gasoline is called A. a change in demand. B. a change

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Survey of Microeconomics, Quiz #1 Fall 2006 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A relative price is A) the number of dollars that

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The law of demand states that, other things remaining the same, the lower the price of a good,

### ELASTICITY AND ITS APPLICATION

5 ELASTICITY AND ITS APPLICATION CHAPTER OUTLINE: I. The Elasticity of Demand A. Definition of elasticity: a measure of the responsiveness of quantity demanded or quantity supplied to one of its determinants.

### Microeconomic FRQ s. Scoring guidelines and answers

Microeconomic FRQ s 2005 1. Bestmilk, a typical profit-maximizing dairy firm, is operating in a constant-cost, perfectly competitive industry that is in long-run equilibrium. a. Draw correctly-labeled

### Sample Exam Questions/Chapter 7

Sample Exam Questions/Chapter 7 1. The burden of a tax that is imposed on a good is said to fall completely on the consumers if the: A) price paid by consumers for the good declines by the amount of the

### Chapter 4: Elasticity. McTaggart, Findlay, Parkin: Microeconomics 2007 Pearson Education Australia

Chapter 4: Elasticity Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Define, calculate, and explain the factors that influence the price elasticity of demand Define, calculate, and explain

### SUPPLY AND DEMAND : HOW MARKETS WORK

SUPPLY AND DEMAND : HOW MARKETS WORK Chapter 4 : The Market Forces of and and demand are the two words that economists use most often. and demand are the forces that make market economies work. Modern

### Microeconomics Instructor Miller Elasticity Practice Problems

Microeconomics Instructor Miller Elasticity Practice Problems 1. Price elasticity of demand measures A) how responsive suppliers are to price changes. B) how responsive sales are to changes in the price

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 11 Perfect Competition - Sample Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Perfect competition is an industry with A) a

### Non Sequitur by Wiley Miller

SUPPLY & DEMAND Non Sequitur by Wiley Miller Graph Basics Movement change along the curve Shift the curve moves Increase to the right Decrease to the left Intersection of curves Price Label: both axis,

### EC130 FOUNDATIONS OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

EC130 FOUNDATIONS OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 2004-2005 DEARTMENT OF ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK Topic 2 Market equilibrium Stability revisited Elasticity Tax Tax incidence Tax incidence and elasticity 1

### Non Sequitur by Wiley Miller

SUPPLY & DEMAND Non Sequitur by Wiley Miller MARKETS Institution that brings together buyers (DEMAND) and sellers (SUPPLY) of resources, goods and services DEMAND is Amount of a good or service consumers

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 3 - Demand and Supply - Sample Questions Answers are at the end fo this file MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A relative

### Chapter 3 Key for homework questions

Chapter 3 Key for homework questions 3. (Key Question) What effect will each of the following have on the demand for small automobiles such as the Mini Cooper and Smart car? a. Small automobiles become

### 3. George W. Bush is the current U.S. President. This is an example of a: A. Normative statement B. Positive statement

Econ 3144 Fall 2006 Test 1 Dr. Rupp Name Sign Pledge I have neither given nor received aid on this exam Multiple Choice Questions (3 points each) 1. What you give up to obtain an item is called your A.

### Q D = 100 - (5)(5) = 75 Q S = 50 + (5)(5) = 75.

4. The rent control agency of New York City has found that aggregate demand is Q D = 100-5P. Quantity is measured in tens of thousands of apartments. Price, the average monthly rental rate, is measured

### THE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND

In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions: What is elasticity? What kinds of issues can elasticity help us understand? What is the price elasticity of demand? How is it related to the demand

### 1 st Exam. 7. Cindy's cross-price elasticity of magazine demand with respect to the price of books is

1 st Exam 1. Marginal utility measures: A) the total utility of all your consumption B) the total utility divided by the price of the good C) the increase in utility from consuming one additional unit

### 1. If the price elasticity of demand for a good is.75, the demand for the good can be described as: A) normal. B) elastic. C) inferior. D) inelastic.

Chapter 20: Demand and Supply: Elasticities and Applications Extra Multiple Choice Questions for Review 1. If the price elasticity of demand for a good is.75, the demand for the good can be described as:

### The Efficiency of Markets. What is the best quantity to be produced from society s standpoint, in the sense of maximizing the net benefit to society?

The Efficiency of Markets What is the best quantity to be produced from society s standpoint, in the sense of maximizing the net benefit to society? We need to look at the benefits to consumers and producers.

### Chapter 03 The Concept of Elasticity and Consumer and

Chapter 03 The Concept of Elasticity and Consumer and Multiple Choice Questions Use the following Figure 3.1 to answer questions 1-4: Figure 3.1 1. In Figure 3.1, if demand is considered perfectly elastic,

### AP MICRO Week 4 Practice Quiz: M, 20

1 1. A marketing survey shows that gate receipts would increase if the price of tickets to a summer rock concert increased, even though the number of tickets sold would fall. What does this imply about

### Pre Test Chapter 3. 8.. DVD players and DVDs are: A. complementary goods. B. substitute goods. C. independent goods. D. inferior goods.

1. Graphically, the market demand curve is: A. steeper than any individual demand curve that is part of it. B. greater than the sum of the individual demand curves. C. the horizontal sum of individual

### Recitation #5 Week 02/08/2009 to 02/14/2009. Chapter 6 - Elasticity

Recitation #5 Week 02/08/2009 to 02/14/2009 Chapter 6 - Elasticity 1. This problem explores the midpoint method of calculating percentages and why this method is the preferred method when calculating price

### MFP SET. Lecture 3 Surplus: Consumer & producer Elasticity & its applications MFP SET 2000 1

MFP SET Lecture 3 Surplus: Consumer & producer Elasticity & its applications MFP SET 1 Consumer surplus! Willingness to pay: the maximum amount that a consumer will pay for a good! Consumer surplus: the

### 2007 Thomson South-Western

Elasticity... allows us to analyze supply and demand with greater precision. is a measure of how much buyers and sellers respond to changes in market conditions THE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND The price elasticity

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MBA 640 Survey of Microeconomics Fall 2006, Quiz 6 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A monopoly is best defined as a firm that

### Practice Questions Week 2 Day 1 Multiple Choice

Practice Questions Week 2 Day 1 Multiple Choice 1. When individuals come together to buy and sell goods and services, they form a(n) a. economy b. market c. production possibilities frontier d. supply

### PROBLEM SET#3 PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE

1 PROBLEM SET#3 PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. In general, elasticity is a measure of a. the extent to which advances in technology are adopted by producers. b. the extent to which a market is competitive.

### Demand, Supply and Elasticity

Demand, Supply and Elasticity CHAPTER 2 OUTLINE 2.1 Demand and Supply Definitions, Determinants and Disturbances 2.2 The Market Mechanism 2.3 Changes in Market Equilibrium 2.4 Elasticities of Supply and

### Graph 1: Market equilibrium

ISSN 1314-74, Volume 9, 015 CONSUMER AND PRODUCER SURPLUS CHANGES AFTER TAXATION Fran Galetic Faculty of Economics and Business Zagreb, University of Zagreb, J.F. Kennedy square 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

### 6. In general, over longer periods, demand tends to become (A) More elastic (B) Perfectly elastic (C) Perfectly inelastic (D) Less elastic

5. The demand for a good is said to be inelastic if (A) More units will be purchased if price increases (B) The percentage change in quantity demanded is greater than the percentage in price (C) The demand

### Chapter 3 Market Demand, Supply, and Elasticity

Chapter 3 Market Demand, Supply, and Elasticity After reading chapter 3, MARKET DEMAND, SUPPLY, AND ELASTICITY, you should be able to: Discuss the Law of Demand and draw a Demand Curve. Distinguish between

### Supply and Demand. A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service.

Supply and Demand A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service. The definition of the good is a matter of judgement: Should different locations entail different goods (and

### Sample Questions for ECN 302 Midterm 1

Sample Questions for ECN 302 Midterm 1 The correct answers are highlighted in yellow and the explanations for selected questions are provided in bold italics. Question (1): Which of the following will

### Elasticity and Its Application

Elasticity and Its Application Chapter 5 Elasticity... is a measure of how much buyers and sellers respond to changes in market conditions allows us to analyze supply and demand with greater precision.

### Exam: Principles Micro ECO 2023.U07 Fall 2009 Name

Exam: Principles Micro ECO 2023.U07 Fall 2009 Name Panther ID Instructions: 1. Please write in your name and Panther ID on the question paper. 2. Please Bubble in your name and Panther ID on the Scantron

### 6. Which of the following is likely to be the price elasticity of demand for food? a. 5.2 b. 2.6 c. 1.8 d. 0.3

Exercise 2 Multiple Choice Questions. Choose the best answer. 1. If a change in the price of a good causes no change in total revenue a. the demand for the good must be elastic. b. the demand for the good

### Demand and Supply. Demand and supply determine the quantities and prices of goods and services.

Demand and Supply Chapter CHAPTER CHECKLIST Demand and supply determine the quantities and prices of goods and services. Distinguish between quantity demanded and demand, and explain what determines demand.

### MICROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES SPRING 2001 MIDTERM ONE -- Answers. February 16, 2001. Table One Labor Hours Needed to Make 1 Pounds Produced in 20 Hours

MICROECONOMIC PRINCIPLES SPRING 1 MIDTERM ONE -- Answers February 1, 1 Multiple Choice. ( points each) Circle the correct response and write one or two sentences to explain your choice. Use graphs as appropriate.

### Pre-Test Chapter 18 ed17

Pre-Test Chapter 18 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. (Consider This) Elastic demand is analogous to a and inelastic demand to a. A. normal wrench; socket wrench B. Ace bandage; firm rubber tie-down C.

### LAW OF MARKET EQUILIBRIUM A free market, if out of equilibrium, tends toward equilibrium.

LAW OF MARKET EQUILIBRIUM A free market, if out of equilibrium, tends toward equilibrium. Free market = one in which prices and quantities are set by bargaining between fully informed buyers and sellers

### BASIC MARKET ELEMENTS. Supply Demand Price Competition

BASIC MARKET ELEMENTS Supply Demand Price Competition Supply Supply is the quantity of goods that firms are willing to produce and sale with respect to the market price when all other conditions (like

### Midterm Exam #2. ECON 101, Section 2 summer 2004 Ying Gao. 1. Print your name and student ID number at the top of this cover sheet.

NAME: STUDENT ID: Midterm Exam #2 ECON 101, Section 2 summer 2004 Ying Gao Instructions Please read carefully! 1. Print your name and student ID number at the top of this cover sheet. 2. Check that your

### Chapter 4. Elasticity

Chapter 4 Elasticity -comparative static exercises in the supply and demand model give us the direction of changes in equilibrium prices and quantities -sometimes we want to know more we want to know about

### Supply and Demand Fundamental tool of economic analysis Used to discuss unemployment, value of \$, protection of the environment, etc.

Supply and emand Fundamental tool of economic analysis Used to discuss unemployment, value of \$, protection of the environment, etc. Chapter Outline: (a) emand is the consumer side of the market. (b) Supply

### Module 2 Lecture 5 Topics

Module 2 Lecture 5 Topics 2.13 Recap of Relevant Concepts 2.13.1 Social Welfare 2.13.2 Demand Curves 2.14 Elasticity of Demand 2.14.1 Perfectly Inelastic 2.14.2 Perfectly Elastic 2.15 Production & Cost

### Government Intervention. Section 1.3

Government Intervention Section 1.3 Indirect taxes Learning Objectives Specific (fixed amount) taxes and ad valorem (percentage) taxes and their impact on markets Explain why governments impose indirect

### Chapter 3 Market Demand, Supply and Elasticity

Chapter 3 Market Demand, Supply and Elasticity Multiple Choice Questions Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Ceteris paribus means (a) other things

### Government Intervention in the Market. Price Controls. Price Ceilings. Government Intervention in the Market

Government Intervention in the Market Price Controls Buyers look to government for ways to hold prices down. Sellers look to government for ways to hold prices up. Government Intervention in the Market

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Economics 103 Spring 2012: Multiple choice review questions for final exam. Exam will cover chapters on perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly up to the Nash equilibrium

### Practice Exam 1. 1. Economics is the study of choice under conditions of a. demand b. supply c. scarcity d. opportunity e.

Practice Exam 1 1. Economics is the study of choice under conditions of a. demand b. supply c. scarcity d. opportunity e. abundance 2. Suppose your friends take you out for dinner on your birthday and

### Problems: Table 1: Quilt Dress Quilts Dresses Helen 50 10 1.8 9 Carolyn 90 45 1 2

Problems: Table 1: Labor Hours needed to make one Amount produced in 90 hours: Quilt Dress Quilts Dresses Helen 50 10 1.8 9 Carolyn 90 45 1 2 1. Refer to Table 1. For Carolyn, the opportunity cost of 1

### Gov t Intervention: Price Floors & Price Ceilings / Taxes & Subsidies

Gov t Intervention: Price Floors & Price Ceilings / Taxes & Subsidies Price Floor: Regulated price, cannot charge below this price. A price floor will be binding if it is set above the true equilibrium

### Econ 2113 Test 2A Pledge: I have neither given or received aid on this exam Signature

Econ 2113 Test 2A Dr. Rupp Fall 2012 Name Pledge: I have neither given or received aid on this exam Signature Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

### Economic Efficiency. Chapter 6 CHAPTER SUMMARY

Chapter 6 Economic Efficiency CHAPTER SUMMARY The central idea in this chapter is Adam Smith s invisible hand. Free-market competition will ensure that the allocation of resources is economically efficient.

### Taxation-Incidence (Chapter 19)

(Chapter 19) Who bears the burden of a tax? Is it the party that sends the check to the government? Not necessarily. Three rules of tax incidence The statutory burden of a tax does not describe who really

### 4. Market Structures. Learning Objectives 4-63. Market Structures

1. Supply and Demand: Introduction 3 2. Supply and Demand: Consumer Demand 33 3. Supply and Demand: Company Analysis 43 4. Market Structures 63 5. Key Formulas 81 2014 Allen Resources, Inc. All rights

### 17. Suppose demand is given by Q d = 400 15P + I, where Q d is quantity demanded, P is. I = 100, equilibrium quantity is A) 15 B) 20 C) 25 D) 30

Ch. 2 1. A relationship that shows the quantity of goods that consumers are willing to buy at different prices is the A) elasticity B) market demand curve C) market supply curve D) market equilibrium 2.

### CHAPTER 10 MARKET POWER: MONOPOLY AND MONOPSONY

CHAPTER 10 MARKET POWER: MONOPOLY AND MONOPSONY EXERCISES 3. A monopolist firm faces a demand with constant elasticity of -.0. It has a constant marginal cost of \$0 per unit and sets a price to maximize

### CHAPTER 4 WORKING WITH SUPPLY AND DEMAND

CHAPTER 4 WORKING WITH SUPPLY AND DEMAND ANSWERS TO ONLINE REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. The rate of change along a demand curve measures how much one variable changes for every one-unit change in another variable.

### Quantity Tax Incidence Subsidy Welfare Effects Case Study. Equilibrium Chapter 16

Equilibrium Chapter 16 Competitive Equilibrium: Motivating Questions Firms are price-takers in competitive markets, but how is the market price (and quantity) determined? competitive equilibrium What happens

### Midterm #1: Practice Midterm

Dr. Barry Haworth University of Louisville Department of Economics Economics 201 Midterm #1: Practice Midterm 1. One topic that is sometimes debated at all levels of government is whether to fund athletic

### Elasticity and Its Application

Elasticity and Its Application Chapter 5 All rights reserved. Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department,

### Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes

CHAPTER 4 Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes Modified by: Changwoo Nam 1 Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes A legally determined maximum price that sellers may

### Chapter 5: Elasticity and Its Application

Ch. 5: Elasticity and Its Application Why are breakfast foods cheaper than tobacco products? Elasticity: is a numerical measure of the responsiveness of quantity demanded or quantity supplied to one of

### 1. Supply and demand are the most important concepts in economics.

Page 1 1. Supply and demand are the most important concepts in economics. 2. Markets and Competition a. Market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service. P. 66. b. These individuals

### Final Exam Microeconomics Fall 2009 Key

Final Exam Microeconomics Fall 2009 Key On your Scantron card, place: 1) your name, 2) the time and day your class meets, 3) the number of your test (it is found written in ink--the upper right-hand corner

### Economics 181: International Trade Homework # 4 Solutions

Economics 181: International Trade Homework # 4 Solutions Ricardo Cavazos and Robert Santillano University of California, Berkeley Due: November 1, 006 1. The nation of Bermuda is small and assumed to

### Exam 1. Corn (bushels)

ECONOMICS 10-008 Dr. John Stewart Feb. 13, 2001 Exam 1 Instructions: Mark the letter for your chosen answer for each question on the computer readable answer sheet using a No.2 pencil. Please note that

### Econ 101: Principles of Microeconomics

Econ 101: Principles of Microeconomics Chapter 7: Taxes Fall 2010 Herriges (ISU) Ch. 7: Taxes Fall 2010 1 / 25 Outline 1 The Excise Tax 2 The Benefits and Costs of Taxation 3 Tax Fairness versus Tax Efficiency

### Elasticity of Demand and Supply

Elasticity of Demand and Supply Price Elasticity of Demand (Ep) Calculating Percentage Change Significance of Price Elasticity of Demand (Ep) Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand (Ep) For Next Time

### Unit 7. Firm behaviour and market structure: monopoly

Unit 7. Firm behaviour and market structure: monopoly Learning objectives: to identify and examine the sources of monopoly power; to understand the relationship between a monopolist s demand curve and

### http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-hill.com/hm.tpx

Page 1 of 17 1. Assume the price elasticity of demand for U.S. Frisbee Co. Frisbees is 0.5. If the company increases the price of each Frisbee from \$12 to \$16, the number of Frisbees demanded will Decrease

### Economics 101 Fall 2011 Homework #3 Due 10/11/11

Economics 101 Fall 2011 Homework #3 Due 10/11/11 Directions: The homework will be collected in a box before the lecture. Please place your name, TA name and section number on top of the homework (legibly).

### Elasticity and Its Uses

CHAPTER 4 Elasticity and Its Uses CHAPTER OVERVIEW One of the most practical uses of economic analysis is to predict the effects of changes in underlying conditions or policies on the prices and production

### ECON 101 MIDTERM 1 REVIEW SESSION (WINTER 2015) BY BENJI HUANG

ECON 101 MIDTERM 1 REVIEW SESSION (WINTER 2015) BY BENJI HUANG TABLE OF CONTENT I. CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS ECONOMICS II. CHAPTER 2: THE ECONOMIC PROBLEM III. CHAPTER 3: DEMAND AND SUPPLY IV. CHAPTER 4: ELASTICITY

### Managerial Economics Prof. Trupti Mishra S.J.M School of Management Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture - 14 Elasticity of Supply

Managerial Economics Prof. Trupti Mishra S.J.M School of Management Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 14 Elasticity of Supply We will continue our discussion today, on few more concept of

### QE1: Economics Notes 1

QE1: Economics Notes 1 Box 1: The Household and Consumer Welfare The final basket of goods that is chosen are determined by three factors: a. Income b. Price c. Preferences Substitution Effect: change

### Principle of Microeconomics Econ 202-506 chapter 13

Principle of Microeconomics Econ 202-506 chapter 13 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The WaveHouse on Mission Beach in San Diego

### 4 THE MARKET FORCES OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND

4 THE MARKET FORCES OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL Learn what a competitive market is Examine what determines the demand for a good in a competitive market Chapter Overview Examine what

### PAGE 1. Econ 2113 - Test 2 Fall 2003 Dr. Rupp. Multiple Choice. 1. The price elasticity of demand measures

PAGE 1 Econ 2113 - Test 2 Fall 2003 Dr. Rupp Multiple Choice 1. The price elasticity of demand measures a. how responsive buyers are to a change in income. b. how responsive sellers are to a change in

### KEELE UNIVERSITY MID-TERM TEST, 2007 BA BUSINESS ECONOMICS BA FINANCE AND ECONOMICS BA MANAGEMENT SCIENCE ECO 20015 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS II

KEELE UNIVERSITY MID-TERM TEST, 2007 Thursday 22nd NOVEMBER, 12.05-12.55 BA BUSINESS ECONOMICS BA FINANCE AND ECONOMICS BA MANAGEMENT SCIENCE ECO 20015 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS II Candidates should attempt

### Microeconomics Instructor Miller Practice Problems Monopolistic Competition

Microeconomics Instructor Miller Practice Problems Monopolistic Competition 1. A monopolistically competitive market is described as one in which there are A) a few firms producing an identical product.

### ELASTICITY AND ITS APPLICATION

5 ELASTICITY AND ITS APPLICATION WHAT S NEW IN THE FOURTH EDITION: There is a new In the News box that discusses the short-run and long-run price elasticity of demand for gasoline. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: