Fountas-Pinnell Level G Informational Text. by Frances Solomon

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1 LESSON 8 TEACHER S GUIDE by Frances Solomon Fountas-Pinnell Level G Informational Text Selection Summary Snowstorms cause a lot of trouble and damage. They can make a lot of work. But if you are dressed warmly, it is fun to play in the snow. Number of Words: 232 Characteristics of the Text Genre Informational text Text Structure Focuses on positive and negative consequences of snow, with many examples Cause and effect text structure Inferred comparison Content Consequences of snowstorms Themes and Ideas Snowstorms cause trouble and damage. Snow can be fun to play in. Language and Clear, straightforward language Literary Features Some repetition Writer talks directly to reader (second person you). Sentence Complexity Many short sentences, often beginning with Snow can Some longer compound sentences: Snow can cover the sidewalks and make it hard to get anywhere. Vocabulary Words related to snow and cold: freezes, snowstorms, damage, jacket, gloves, ski, sled Words One- and two-syllable words Many high frequency words Content words illustrated and labeled in photographs Illustrations Photographs support text. Some photographs with labels Book and Print Features Nine pages of text, photographs on every page Large print All sentences beginning on left, some two line sentences Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida Printed in the U.S.A If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

2 by Frances Solomon Build Background Help children use their knowledge of snow to visualize this book. Build interest by asking a question such as the following: What do you know about snowstorms? Read the title and author and talk about the cover photo. Point out that the book is informational text, so the words and photos will give facts about the topic of snow. Introduce the Text Guide children through the text, noting important ideas and helping with unfamiliar language and vocabulary so they can read the text successfully. Here are some suggestions: Pages 2 3: Explain that this book is about snow and what people do in snowstorms. Suggested language: Turn to page 2. Let s read the fi rst two sentences: Snow is made from water in the sky. In winter, the water freezes and becomes snow. Snowstorms can have pounding winds. Have you ever been in a snow storm? How did the snow and wind feel? Page 4: Point out the highlighted word: damage. In the picture you can see how the branches bend under all that snow. Snowstorms can damage trees. What could happen to the branches? Page 6: Have children talk about the photograph. Look at the picture. How can snow prevent the driver of this car from driving it? What else can a snowstorm prevent people from doing? Now turn back to the beginning of the book and fi nd out about all the things that can happen on a snowy day. Target Vocabulary bend to cause something to curve without breaking it, p. 4 beware to be very careful and alert damage harm or hurt something, p. 4 equal two things are the same flash a short burst of light pounding hitting or hammering again and again, p. 3 prevent keep something from happening, p. 6 reach get to a place 2 Lesson 8:

3 Read As the children read, observe them carefully. Guide them as needed, using language that supports their problem solving ability. Remind children to use the Visualize Strategy happening as they read. to picture what is Discuss and Revisit the Text Personal Response Invite children to share their personal responses to the book. Suggested language: What new information did you learn about snow? Ways of Thinking As you discuss the text, help children understand these points: Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text Snow is made of frozen water. Snowstorms can break branches, stop drivers, close schools, and make a lot of work. If you dress warmly, you can ski, sled, and make people and houses out of snow. Snowstorms can cause a lot of damage and make a lot of work, but they provide opportunities for fun, too. It s important to wear warm clothes in the snow Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Labels help describe what is shown in the photos. The author includes examples of both the challenges and the fun caused by snow. The author s purpose in writing this book is to inform readers about snowstorms and their consequences. Choices for Further Support Fluency Invite children to choose a passage from the text to read aloud. Remind them to place stress on words in a way that refl ects meaning. Comprehension Based on your observations of the children s reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind children to go back to the text to support their ideas. Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Remind children that there are different ways to make plurals. Some words, such as snowstorm and tree (p. 4) are made plural by adding s. Other words, such as branch (p. 4) are made plural by adding es. Have children fi nd other plurals from the text and study how they are made. 3 Lesson 8:

4 Writing about Reading Critical Thinking Have children complete the Critical Thinking questions on BLM 8.7 Responding Have children complete the activities at the back of the book. Use the instruction below as needed to reinforce or extend understanding of the comprehension skill. Target Comprehension Skill Main Ideas and Details Remind children that they can tell important ideas and details about a topic. Model the skill, using a Think Aloud like the one below: Think Aloud I can tell one important idea about snowstorms by thinking about some of the details in the book. A snowstorm can close a school. Children can go outside and play in the snow. They can make snow people and snow houses. They can ski and sled. These details show me that a snowy day can be fun. Practice the Skill Have children use details from the book to show that snowstorms can cause a lot of trouble. Writing Prompt: Thinking Beyond the Text Have children write a response to the prompt on page 6. Remind them that when they think beyond the text, they use what they know and their own experience to think about the information in the book. Assessment Prompts What is the author s purpose for writing this book? Which words on page 4 help the reader to understand the meaning of the word damage? 4 Lesson 8:

5 Read directions to children. English Language Development Reading Support Make sure the text matches the child s reading level. Language and content should be accessible with regular teaching support. Cultural Support Help children understand the tradition of building snow people and snow forts. Oral Language Development Check children s comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches their English proficiency level. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the child. Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced Speaker 1: What is snow made from? Speaker 2: water Speaker 1: What can snow do to tree branches? Speaker 2: bend them Speaker 1: What can you wear to keep your hands warm in the snow? Speaker 2: gloves Speaker 1: What can happen to a school on a snowy day? Speaker 2: School may close. Speaker 1: What happens when snow covers a sidewalk? Speaker 2: Someone has to move the snow. Speaker 1: What kind of damage can snow do to trees and houses? Speaker 2: Snow can bend branches and make a roof fall in. Speaker 1: What should you wear when you play in the snow? Speaker 2: You should wear a jacket, gloves, boots, and a hat. Name Read and answer the questions. 1. During which season does it snow? Date Lesson 8 BLACKLINE MASTER How do people get around in the snow? 3. Why do you think some kids love snow? Making Connections Some places get a lot of snow, and some places don t get any. How much does it snow where you live? Why do you think that is? Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook., Unit 2: Nature Watch 5 Lesson 8:

6 Name Date Thinking Beyond the Text Write a paragraph answering the following question. How can a snowstorm be a problem for some people and fun for others? Use details from the book in your answer. 6 Lesson 8:

7 Name Read and answer the questions. 1. During which season does it snow? Date Lesson 8 BLACKLINE MASTER How do people get around in the snow? 3. Why do you think some kids love snow? Making Connections Some places get a lot of snow, and some places don t get any. How much does it snow where you live? Why do you think that is? Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook. 7 Lesson 8:

8 Student Date Lesson 8 BLACKLINE MASTER 8.11 LEVEL G Running Record Form page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections 2 Snow is made from water in the sky. In winter, the water freezes and becomes snow. 3 Snowstorms may have pounding winds. The wind may blow snow in front of the door. 4 Snowstorms can damage trees and houses. Snow can bend tree branches. It can even make a roof fall in. Comments: Accuracy Rate (# words read correctly/50 100) % Self-Correction Rate (# errors + # Self-Corrections/ Self-Corrections) 1: Behavior Code Error Read word correctly cat 0 Repeated word, sentence, or phrase Omission cat 0 cat 1 Behavior Code Error Substitution cut cat 1 Self-corrects cut sc cat Insertion the ˆcat 1 Word told T 1 cat Lesson 8:

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