Audio Coding Introduction

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Audio Coding Introduction"

Transcription

1 Audio Coding Introduction Lecture WS 2013/2014 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karlheinz Brandenburg Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerald Schuller Page Nr. 1

2 Organisatorial Details - Overview Lectures: 14 lectures read by Prof. Brandenburg and Prof. Schuller Practice lessons: Exam: Instructors: Dr. Andreas Franck M. Sc. Javier Frutos-Bonilla Periodic homework assignments, which will count 30% towards the final grade. Small groups (2-3 people) to solve the homework and deliver a single solution for the whole group. Homework presentation during the lessons (laptop with Octave or Matlab running) Written exam at the end of the semester, 90 minutes Agree to this method by signing the document that is passed around Page Nr. 2

3 Organisatorial Details Time and Place Lectures: Monday, 03:00-04:30pm, Room Sr K 2026 Practice lessons: Monday, 7:15-8:45am, Room Sr K 2003B, odd weeks (bi-weekly) Suggestion: Shift to other time, for instance Thursday K :00-02:30pm Page Nr. 3

4 Organisatorial Details - Timeline Lecture: Date: Read by: 1. Introduction Prof. Brandenburg 2. Psychoacoustics Dipl.-Ing. Werner 3. Basics of Multirate Signal Processing Prof. Schuller 4. Filter Banks Prof. Schuller 5. Filter Banks Prof. Schuller 6. Quantization & Coding Prof. Brandenburg 7. MPEG 1 / MPEG 2 BC Audio Prof. Brandenburg 8. MPEG 2 / 4 AAC Prof. Brandenburg 9. Prediction and Lossless Audio Coding Prof. Schuller 10. Audio Coding for Communication (ULD) Prof. Schuller 11. Coding of Stereophonic Signals Prof. Brandenburg 12. Parametric Coding of High-Quality Audio Prof. Brandenburg 13. Dolby AC3, DTS Prof. Schuller 14. SAOC and USAC Dr. Franck Page Nr. 4

5 Current Applications (1) Digital audio broadcasting - EU 147 (Layer 2) - WorldSpace (Layer 3) - XM Radio (HeAAC) ISDN Transmission of Audio Digital TV - MPEG-1/2 Layer 2 - Dolby AC-3 multichannel coding - MPEG- 2 AAC Storage of large music volumes (archives) DVD - Dolby Digital - DTS Page Nr. 5

6 Current Applications (2) Internet and Network Audio - MPEG-1/2 Layer 3 (.mp3, all software player) - AAC (Apple ITunes Music Store) - AAC-LD (real-time video conference systems) - others (WMA) Audio on portable phones -.mp3 - HeAAC (recommended by 3GPP) Solid state portable music player (mp3, AAC, WMA) Page Nr. 6

7 Basics of High Quality Audio Coding The goal: transparent coding of music signals The source is not known in advance Use information about the sink, not the source The solution: Modeling of the masking threshold of the ear The quantization noise has to be kept below the masked threshold Page Nr. 7

8 Psychoacoustics (Masked Threshold) 80 db 60 f =0,25 m f =1kHz f m m =4kHz L T ,02 0,05 0,1 0,2 0, khz f T Page Nr. 8

9 Demo: The "13 db-miracle" Original signal Original + white noise, SNR = 13,6 db Original + noise at threshold, S/N = 13,6 db Difference (modulated white noise) Difference (noise at threshold) Page Nr. 9

10 The Basic Paradigm of T/F Domain Audio Coding Digital Audio Input Filter Bank Bit or Noise Allocation Quantized Samples Bitstream Formatting Encoded Bitstream Signal to Mask Ratio Psychoacoustic Model Page Nr. 10

11 Differences between Audio and Speech Coding (1) Generic audio coding is similar to speech coding except: Larger bandwidth speech coders usually use up to 7 khz bandwidth Fewer audible artifacts Use of psycho-acoustic model for irrelevancy removal Page Nr. 11

12 Differences between Audio and Speech Coding (2) Different requirements for bitrate speech aims for as small as possible (e.g. GSM: <=13kbps) audio demands more for quality (>=64 kbps, decreasing) Not specialized to speech model Page Nr. 12

13 History of Audio Coding the Critical Band Coder classic ATC for Music MSC OCF MASCAM PXFM ASPEC, MUSICAM MPEG epac MPEG 2 AAC MPEG 4 AAC HE AAC USAC MPEG-H: Coding for 3D audio Page Nr. 13

14 The time line for near-cd-quality kbit/s ASPEC, MUSICAM would fail today s listening tests kbit/s MPEG-1 Layer kbit/s MPEG-1 Layer-3 (".mp3") including combined joint stereo coding bad quality for some signals kbit/s MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding better than MP3 at 128, not fully transparent kbit/s AAC-based MPEG kbit/s MPEG-4 HeAAC (AAC+ in 2000) e.g. used for XM Radio Page Nr. 14

15 What quality can be reached today? Define the quality to reach for first: High end: don t call it transparent (hard to prove) best listening conditions listeners need years to be trained large number of samples for statistics near CD - quality: defined as good enough, no formal definition much more important for practical purposes example: mp3 at 128 kbit/s for stereo Page Nr. 15

16 Demo: Can you hear it (Version 4, 2000)? Each? corresponds to either O (Original, 1536 kbit/s for two channels) or C (Coded, 48 kbp/s for two channels) (HeAAC, demo provided by Coding Technologies) Trumpet solo O??? Speech O??? Abba O??? Page Nr. 16

17 Did you hear it? O (Original, 1536 kbit/s for two channels) or C (Coded, 48 kbp/s for two channels) (HeAAC, demo provided by Coding Technologies) Trumpet solo (O) _ Speech (O) _ Abba (O) _ Page Nr. 17

18 Extra Material Page Nr. 18

19 Organisatorial Details Overview (Repetition) Lectures: 14 lectures read by Prof. Brandenburg and Prof. Schuller Practice lessons: Exam: Instructors: Dr. Andreas Franck M. Sc. Javier Frutos-Bonilla Periodic homework assignments, which will count 30% towards the final grade. Small groups (2-3 people) to solve the homework and deliver a single solution for the whole group. Homework presentation during the lessons (laptop with Octave or Matlab running) Written exam at the end of the semester, 90 minutes Agree to this method by signing the document that is passed around Page Nr. 19

20 Organisatorial Details Timeline (Repetition) Lecture: Date: Read by: 1. Introduction Prof. Brandenburg 2. Psychoacoustics Dipl.-Ing. Werner 3. Basics of Multirate Signal Processing Prof. Schuller 4. Filter Banks Prof. Schuller 5. Filter Banks Prof. Schuller 6. Quantization & Coding Prof. Brandenburg 7. MPEG 1 / MPEG 2 BC Audio Prof. Brandenburg 8. MPEG 2 / 4 AAC Prof. Brandenburg 9. Prediction and Lossless Audio Coding Prof. Schuller 10. Audio Coding for Communication (ULD) Prof. Schuller 11. Coding of Stereophonic Signals Prof. Brandenburg 12. Parametric Coding of High-Quality Audio Prof. Brandenburg 13. Dolby AC3, DTS Prof. Schuller 14. SAOC and USAC Dr. Franck Page Nr. 20

21 History of Audio Coding the Critical Band Coder classic ATC for Music MSC OCF MUSICAM ASPEC MPEG PAC MPEG 2 AAC MPEG 4 AAC HE AAC USAC MPEG-H: Coding for 3D audio Page Nr. 21

22 The Critical Band Coder M.A. Krasner, MIT Lincoln Laboratories, 1979 First coder to use a psycho-acoustic model Sampling rate of 30kHz Analysis/Synthesis Filter QMF Filter Tree of depth 2 to 7 Filter bandwidths ranging from 117 Hz to 3.75 khz No calculation of the Threshold in Quiet, just looked at worst case scenarios Quantization with Block-companding, fixed bit distribution from psycho-acoustic criteria Bitrate of kbps Page Nr. 22

23 classic ATC for Music Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1982 First real-time music coder Sampling rate between khz Does not use a psycho-acoustic model bad quality for some music pieces Block length of 128 samples (about 4 ms) Bitrate: 3bits/sample (about 100 kbps) Page Nr. 23

24 MSC (Multiple Adaptive Spectral Audio Coding) Krahe and others, Universität Duisburg, 1985 First Coder to use both psycho-acoustic model and transformation-coding Analysis/Synthesis: FFT with conversion of Amplitude & Phase window length of 1024 samples window ends sine-tapered with an overlap of 64 samples Threshold estimation is only using in-band masking Quantization uses block-companding with 2 bits per sample Page Nr. 24

25 OCF (Optimum Coding in Frequency Domain) Brandenburg, Universität Erlangen, 1987, 1988 MDCT-Filter bank with window length of 1024 or 512 Explicit calculation of the masking threshold with a simple model Calculation per critical band No tonality criteria used Maximum calculation instead of convolution Non-uniform quantization (quantization noise dependant on amplitude) Huffman coding from pairs of spectral values Page Nr. 25

26 ASPEC- Adaptive Spectral Perceptual Entropy Coding (1) Uni Erlangen, FhG, AT&T Bell Labs, Deutsche Thomson-Brandt, CNET, 1990 Analysis/Synthesis: MDCT with switchable block lengths Use of 2 models for psycho-acoustic Simple: like OCF Better: like PXFM + 1/3 Frequency grouping resolution + local tonality criteria (like Hybrid) Quantization/Coding: like OCF, Choice of Huffman-code-books Further division of the spectrum Control of window length (switching the number of bands) Page Nr. 26

27 MUSICAM - Masking-pattern Universal Subband Integrated Coding and Multiplexing (1) IRT, CCETT, Philips, Matsushita 1990 Subband-coding, that is good time resolution, bad frequency resolution First version used QMF-tree as filter bank Newest version uses 32 channel polyphase-filter bank Parallel FFT for fine calculation of masking Tonality criteria by local comparison of the spectral values Block-companding of the subband signal Page Nr. 27

28 MPEG-1 (1) Layer I Window length: 384 samples (8 ms) Frequency resolution: 32 subbands Quantization: Block-companding (12 samples) Layer II Window length: 1152 samples (24 ms) Frequency resolution: 32 subbands Quantization: Block companding (12 samples) Use of Scalefactor select information (SFSI) Page Nr. 28

29 MPEG-1 (2) Layer III Window length: 1152 samples (24 ms) Frequency resolution: 576/192 subbands Quantization: non-uniform with Huffman coding Use of Scalefactor Select Information Page Nr. 29

30 MPEG (1) December 1988 First meeting of Audio Expert Group July 1989 Call for Proposals (14 proposals received) Fall 1989 Clustering of similar proposals July 1990 Listening tests of Coders December 1990 Adoption the Committee Draft Page Nr. 30

31 MPEG (2) The results of the Stockholm-Tests showed 2 proposals were best, ASPEC and MUSICAM Listening tests show that ASPEC is better especially at low bitrates In comparison of complexity parameters MUSICAM is better RESULT: collaboration between ASPEC & MUSICAM in a Layered solution (hence Layer 1, Layer 2, & Layer 3) Page Nr. 31

32 PAC Resulted from split of AT&T and Lucent Technologies Branched off from MPEG-AAC, proprietary instead of standardized technology Used in American Satellite Broadcast System (XM, Sirius) Page Nr. 32

33 MPEG 2 AAC (1) first named MPEG-2 NBC (non backwards compatible), later named AAC (advanced audio coding) MPEG-2 AAC (ISO/IEC ) offers very high quality compressed audio Allows 1 to 48 channels, Sampling rates from 8 to 96 khz, with multi-channel, multi-lingual, and multi-program possibilities. AAC works at bit-rates from 8 kbit/s for mono Speech signals and up to 160 kbit/s/channel for very high quality, allows tandem coding Page Nr. 33

34 MPEG 2 AAC (2) 3 Profiles from AAC with varying levels of complexity and scalability. Joint Stereo -Mode is more flexible compared to MP3 in that it is switchable for individual scale factor bands whereas MP3 was only switchable for the whole spectrum. Page Nr. 34

35 MPEG 2 AAC Basic Features High frequency resolution filter bank-based coder (1024 subbands MDCT with 50% overlap) 1: 8 block switching (1024/128 subbands MDCT) Non- uniform quantizer Noise shaping in half critical bands (scalefactor bands) Huffman coding of scalefactors and spectral coefficients Page Nr. 35

36 HE AAC Combination of the MPEG-4 AAC Low Complexity (LC) Object and the MPEG-4 Spectral Band Replication (SBR) Object SBR: parametric coding of high frequency envelope with small amount of control data Parametric stereo and multi-channel coding Backwards compatible to AAC 5.1 surround sound at 128 kbps Good quality stereo at 32 kbps or above Page Nr. 36

MPEG-1 / MPEG-2 BC Audio. Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Brandenburg, Dr.-Ing. G. Schuller,

MPEG-1 / MPEG-2 BC Audio. Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Brandenburg, Dr.-Ing. G. Schuller, MPEG-1 / MPEG-2 BC Audio Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Brandenburg, bdg@idmt.fraunhofer.de Dr.-Ing. G. Schuller, shl@idmt.fraunhofer.de Page 1 The Basic Paradigm of T/F Domain Audio Coding Digital Audio Input Filter

More information

AUDIO CODING: BASICS AND STATE OF THE ART

AUDIO CODING: BASICS AND STATE OF THE ART AUDIO CODING: BASICS AND STATE OF THE ART PACS REFERENCE: 43.75.CD Brandenburg, Karlheinz Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen, Arbeitsgruppe Elektronische Medientechnolgie Am Helmholtzring 1 98603

More information

Chapter 14. MPEG Audio Compression

Chapter 14. MPEG Audio Compression Chapter 14 MPEG Audio Compression 14.1 Psychoacoustics 14.2 MPEG Audio 14.3 Other Commercial Audio Codecs 14.4 The Future: MPEG-7 and MPEG-21 14.5 Further Exploration 1 Li & Drew c Prentice Hall 2003 14.1

More information

MPEG-1 / MPEG-2 BC Audio. Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Brandenburg, bdg@idmt.fraunhofer.de Dr.-Ing. G. Schuller, shl@idmt.fraunhofer.de

MPEG-1 / MPEG-2 BC Audio. Prof. Dr.-Ing. K. Brandenburg, bdg@idmt.fraunhofer.de Dr.-Ing. G. Schuller, shl@idmt.fraunhofer.de MPEG-1 / MPEG-2 BC Audio The Basic Paradigm of T/F Domain Audio Coding Digital Audio Input Filter Bank Bit or Noise Allocation Quantized Samples Bitstream Formatting Encoded Bitstream Signal to Mask Ratio

More information

Dolby AC-3 and other audio coders

Dolby AC-3 and other audio coders Dolby AC-3 and other audio coders Prof. Dr. Karlheinz Brandenburg Fraunhofer IDMT & Ilmenau Technical University Ilmenau, Germany Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karlheinz Brandenburg, bdg@idmt.fraunhofer.de Page 1 Dolby

More information

AC-3 and DTS. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerald Schuller. Fraunhofer IDMT & Ilmenau University of Technology Ilmenau, Germany

AC-3 and DTS. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerald Schuller. Fraunhofer IDMT & Ilmenau University of Technology Ilmenau, Germany AC-3 and DTS Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerald Schuller Fraunhofer IDMT & Ilmenau University of Technology Ilmenau, Germany Page 1 Dolby Digital Dolby Digital (AC-3) was first commercially used in 1992 Multi-channel

More information

Audio Coding, Psycho- Accoustic model and MP3

Audio Coding, Psycho- Accoustic model and MP3 INF5081: Multimedia Coding and Applications Audio Coding, Psycho- Accoustic model and MP3, NR Torbjørn Ekman, Ifi Nils Christophersen, Ifi Sverre Holm, Ifi What is Sound? Sound waves: 20Hz - 20kHz Speed:

More information

Digital Audio Compression: Why, What, and How

Digital Audio Compression: Why, What, and How Digital Audio Compression: Why, What, and How An Absurdly Short Course Jeff Bier Berkeley Design Technology, Inc. 2000 BDTI 1 Outline Why Compress? What is Audio Compression? How Does it Work? Conclusions

More information

MPEG, the MP3 Standard, and Audio Compression

MPEG, the MP3 Standard, and Audio Compression MPEG, the MP3 Standard, and Audio Compression Mark ilgore and Jamie Wu Mathematics of the Information Age September 16, 23 Audio Compression Basic Audio Coding. Why beneficial to compress? Lossless versus

More information

MPEG Unified Speech and Audio Coding Enabling Efficient Coding of both Speech and Music

MPEG Unified Speech and Audio Coding Enabling Efficient Coding of both Speech and Music ISO/IEC MPEG USAC Unified Speech and Audio Coding MPEG Unified Speech and Audio Coding Enabling Efficient Coding of both Speech and Music The standardization of MPEG USAC in ISO/IEC is now in its final

More information

Introduction and Comparison of Common Videoconferencing Audio Protocols I. Digital Audio Principles

Introduction and Comparison of Common Videoconferencing Audio Protocols I. Digital Audio Principles Introduction and Comparison of Common Videoconferencing Audio Protocols I. Digital Audio Principles Sound is an energy wave with frequency and amplitude. Frequency maps the axis of time, and amplitude

More information

Acoustics II: Kurt Heutschi sound storage media. vinyl records. analog tape recorder. compact disc. DVD Audio, Super Audio CD

Acoustics II: Kurt Heutschi sound storage media. vinyl records. analog tape recorder. compact disc. DVD Audio, Super Audio CD Acoustics II: sound storage Kurt Heutschi 2013-01-18 sound storage : introduction main building blocks of a sound storage device: concept: signal is stored as geometrical form on rotating disc basic idea:

More information

DAB + The additional audio codec in DAB

DAB + The additional audio codec in DAB DAB + The additional audio codec in DAB 2007 Contents Why DAB + Features of DAB + Possible scenarios with DAB + Comparison of DAB + and DMB for radio services Performance of DAB + Status of standardisation

More information

MPEG Layer-3. An introduction to. 1. Introduction

MPEG Layer-3. An introduction to. 1. Introduction An introduction to MPEG Layer-3 MPEG Layer-3 K. Brandenburg and H. Popp Fraunhofer Institut für Integrierte Schaltungen (IIS) MPEG Layer-3, otherwise known as MP3, has generated a phenomenal interest among

More information

MP3 AND AAC EXPLAINED

MP3 AND AAC EXPLAINED MP3 AND AAC EXPLAINED KARLHEINZ BRANDENBURG ½ ½ Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits FhG-IIS A, Erlangen, Germany bdg@iis.fhg.de The last years have shown widespread proliferation of.mp3-files,

More information

Digital terrestrial television broadcasting Audio coding

Digital terrestrial television broadcasting Audio coding Digital terrestrial television broadcasting Audio coding Televisão digital terrestre Codificação de vídeo, áudio e multiplexação Parte 2: Codificação de áudio Televisión digital terrestre Codificación

More information

Audio Coding Algorithm for One-Segment Broadcasting

Audio Coding Algorithm for One-Segment Broadcasting Audio Coding Algorithm for One-Segment Broadcasting V Masanao Suzuki V Yasuji Ota V Takashi Itoh (Manuscript received November 29, 2007) With the recent progress in coding technologies, a more efficient

More information

high-quality surround sound at stereo bit-rates

high-quality surround sound at stereo bit-rates FRAUNHOFER Institute For integrated circuits IIS MPEG Surround high-quality surround sound at stereo bit-rates Benefits exciting new next generation services MPEG Surround enables new services such as

More information

HE-AAC v2. MPEG-4 HE-AAC v2 (also known as aacplus v2 ) is the combination of three technologies:

HE-AAC v2. MPEG-4 HE-AAC v2 (also known as aacplus v2 ) is the combination of three technologies: HE- v2 MPEG-4 audio coding for today s digital media world Stefan Meltzer and Gerald Moser Coding Technologies Delivering broadcast-quality content to consumers is one of the most challenging tasks in

More information

Digital Multi-Channel Audio Compression and Metadata

Digital Multi-Channel Audio Compression and Metadata Digital Multi-Channel Audio Compression and Metadata Dolby E and Dolby Digital (AC3) surround sound, concept of Dolby metadata #1 assuredcommunications Feb 19, 20 Digital Audio Compression Multi-Channel

More information

DAB + The additional audio codec in DAB (Updated March 2008)

DAB + The additional audio codec in DAB (Updated March 2008) DAB + The additional audio codec in DAB 2007 (Updated March 2008) Contents Why DAB + Features of DAB + Possible scenarios with DAB + Comparison of DAB + and DMB for radio services Performance of DAB +

More information

EE3414 Multimedia Communication Systems Part I

EE3414 Multimedia Communication Systems Part I EE3414 Multimedia Communication Systems Part I Spring 2003 Lecture 1 Yao Wang Electrical and Computer Engineering Polytechnic University Course Overview A University Sequence Course in Multimedia Communication

More information

The AAC audio Coding Family For

The AAC audio Coding Family For White PapER The AAC audio Coding Family For Broadcast and Cable TV Over the last few years, the AAC audio codec family has played an increasingly important role as an enabling technology for state-of-the-art

More information

A Comparison of the ATRAC and MPEG-1 Layer 3 Audio Compression Algorithms Christopher Hoult, 18/11/2002 University of Southampton

A Comparison of the ATRAC and MPEG-1 Layer 3 Audio Compression Algorithms Christopher Hoult, 18/11/2002 University of Southampton A Comparison of the ATRAC and MPEG-1 Layer 3 Audio Compression Algorithms Christopher Hoult, 18/11/2002 University of Southampton Abstract This paper intends to give the reader some insight into the workings

More information

Audioin next-generation

Audioin next-generation Audioin next-generation DVB broadcast systems Roland Vlaicu Dolby Laboratories Broadcasters have significant new requirements for audio delivery in nextgeneration broadcast systems such as High-Definition

More information

AC-3: Flexible Perceptual Coding for Audio Transmission and Storage

AC-3: Flexible Perceptual Coding for Audio Transmission and Storage AC-3: Flexible Perceptual Coding for Audio Transmission and Storage Craig C. Todd, Grant A. Davidson, Mark F. Davis, Louis D. Fielder, Brian D. Link, Steve Vernon Dolby Laboratories San Francisco 0. Abstract

More information

DRA Audio Coding Standard

DRA Audio Coding Standard Chinese Journal of Electronics Vol.23, No.3, July 2014 DRA Audio Coding Standard MA Wenhua 1,XUJing 2, MA Yuanzhe 3 and YOU Yuli 4 (1.Department of Computers, Cisco School of Informatics, Guangdong University

More information

Convention Paper 5553

Convention Paper 5553 Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 5553 Presented at the 112th Convention 2 May 1 13 Munich, Germany This convention paper has been reproduced from the author's advance manuscript, without editing,

More information

The Theory Behind Mp3

The Theory Behind Mp3 The Theory Behind Mp3 Rassol Raissi December 2002 Abstract Since the MPEG-1 Layer III encoding technology is nowadays widely used it might be interesting to gain knowledge of how this powerful compression/decompression

More information

IBOC FM Digital Radio System

IBOC FM Digital Radio System Chapter 2.5 IBOC FM Digital Radio System Jerry C. Whitaker, Editor-in-Chief 2.5.1 Introduction 1 The principal system analysis work on the in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for FM broadcasting

More information

(Refer Slide Time: 2:08)

(Refer Slide Time: 2:08) Digital Voice and Picture Communication Prof. S. Sengupta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 30 AC - 3 Decoder In continuation with

More information

TECHNICAL PAPER. Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS

TECHNICAL PAPER. Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS TECHNICAL PAPER The Future of Communication: Full-HD Voice powered by EVS and the AAC-ELD Family We have grown accustomed to HD Everywhere by consuming high fidelity content in most aspects of our lives.

More information

STUDY OF MUTUAL INFORMATION IN PERCEPTUAL CODING WITH APPLICATION FOR LOW BIT-RATE COMPRESSION

STUDY OF MUTUAL INFORMATION IN PERCEPTUAL CODING WITH APPLICATION FOR LOW BIT-RATE COMPRESSION STUDY OF MUTUAL INFORMATION IN PERCEPTUAL CODING WITH APPLICATION FOR LOW BIT-RATE COMPRESSION Adiel Ben-Shalom, Michael Werman School of Computer Science Hebrew University Jerusalem, Israel. {chopin,werman}@cs.huji.ac.il

More information

Quantization. Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY11201

Quantization. Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY11201 Quantization Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY11201 http://eeweb.poly.edu/~yao Outline Review the three process of A to D conversion Quantization Uniform Non-uniform Mu-law Demo on quantization

More information

Dolby Digital Codec Profile

Dolby Digital Codec Profile Dolby Digital Codec Profile for SelenioFlex Ingest February 2015 for SelenioFlex Ingest Publication Information 2015 Imagine Communications Corp. Proprietary and Confidential. Imagine Communications considers

More information

APPLICATION BULLETIN AAC Transport Formats

APPLICATION BULLETIN AAC Transport Formats F RA U N H O F E R I N S T I T U T E F O R I N T E G R A T E D C I R C U I T S I I S APPLICATION BULLETIN AAC Transport Formats INITIAL RELEASE V. 1.0 2 18 1 AAC Transport Protocols and File Formats As

More information

Multichannel stereophonic sound system with and without accompanying picture

Multichannel stereophonic sound system with and without accompanying picture Recommendation ITU-R BS.775-2 (07/2006) Multichannel stereophonic sound system with and without accompanying picture BS Series Broadcasting service (sound) ii Rec. ITU-R BS.775-2 Foreword The role of the

More information

Matrixed Surround sound in an MPEG digital world

Matrixed Surround sound in an MPEG digital world Matrixed Surround sound in an MPEG digital world D. J. Meares BBC Research and Development Department, Kingswood Warren, Tadworth, Surrey KT20 6NP, U. K. G. Theile Institut für Rundfunktechnik, Floriansmühlstrasse

More information

!"#$"%&' What is Multimedia?

!#$%&' What is Multimedia? What is Multimedia? %' A Big Umbrella Goal of This Course Understand various aspects of a modern multimedia pipeline Content creating, editing Distribution Search & mining Protection Hands-on experience

More information

A Review of Algorithms for Perceptual Coding of Digital Audio Signals

A Review of Algorithms for Perceptual Coding of Digital Audio Signals A Review of Algorithms for Perceptual Coding of Digital Audio Signals Ted Painter, Student Member IEEE, and Andreas Spanias, Senior Member IEEE Department of Electrical Engineering, Telecommunications

More information

For Articulation Purpose Only

For Articulation Purpose Only E305 Digital Audio and Video (4 Modular Credits) This document addresses the content related abilities, with reference to the module. Abilities of thinking, learning, problem solving, team work, communication,

More information

An Optimised Software Solution for an ARM Powered TM MP3 Decoder. By Barney Wragg and Paul Carpenter

An Optimised Software Solution for an ARM Powered TM MP3 Decoder. By Barney Wragg and Paul Carpenter An Optimised Software Solution for an ARM Powered TM MP3 Decoder By Barney Wragg and Paul Carpenter Abstract The market predictions for MP3-based appliances are extremely positive. The ability to maintain

More information

Multimedia Communications

Multimedia Communications Multimedia Communications Dr. Ing. Audio Processing and Coding MMC Overview 1. Introduction 2. Fundamentals (Signal Processing, Information Theorie) 3. Speech Processing & Coding 4. Audio Processing &

More information

Does PMSE waste spectrum? A balanced view from a Scientist in Communications and Cellular

Does PMSE waste spectrum? A balanced view from a Scientist in Communications and Cellular Does PMSE waste spectrum? A balanced view from a Scientist in Communications and Cellular Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Fischer Lehrstuhl für Technische Elektronik Content 1. Speakers background 2. Basic communications

More information

Tutorial about the VQR (Voice Quality Restoration) technology

Tutorial about the VQR (Voice Quality Restoration) technology Tutorial about the VQR (Voice Quality Restoration) technology Ing Oscar Bonello, Solidyne Fellow Audio Engineering Society, USA INTRODUCTION Telephone communications are the most widespread form of transport

More information

Overview ISDB-T for sound broadcasting Terrestrial Digital Radio in Japan. Shunji NAKAHARA. NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation)

Overview ISDB-T for sound broadcasting Terrestrial Digital Radio in Japan. Shunji NAKAHARA. NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) Overview ISDB-T for sound broadcasting Terrestrial Digital Radio in Japan Shunji NAKAHARA NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) 2003/11/04 1 Contents Features of ISDB-T SB system Current status of digital

More information

FREE TV AUSTRALIA OPERATIONAL PRACTICE OP 60 Multi-Channel Sound Track Down-Mix and Up-Mix Draft Issue 1 April 2012 Page 1 of 6

FREE TV AUSTRALIA OPERATIONAL PRACTICE OP 60 Multi-Channel Sound Track Down-Mix and Up-Mix Draft Issue 1 April 2012 Page 1 of 6 Page 1 of 6 1. Scope. This operational practice sets out the requirements for downmixing 5.1 and 5.0 channel surround sound audio mixes to 2 channel stereo. This operational practice recommends a number

More information

Mastering for Surround Sound

Mastering for Surround Sound Multichannel Audio Technologies: Lecture 7 Mastering for Surround Sound Surround sound mastering is a highly specialized skill which differs significantly from stereo mastering. Although the purpose of

More information

Sound and video technology

Sound and video technology Visoka škola elektrotehnike i računarstva Sound and video technology (film, home theater, television) Beograd, jun 2014 Dragan Drincic The origins and development of multichannel sound on film First commercially

More information

5.1 audio. How to get on-air with. Broadcasting in stereo. the Dolby "5.1 Cookbook" for broadcasters. Tony Spath Dolby Laboratories, Inc.

5.1 audio. How to get on-air with. Broadcasting in stereo. the Dolby 5.1 Cookbook for broadcasters. Tony Spath Dolby Laboratories, Inc. 5.1 audio How to get on-air with the Dolby "5.1 Cookbook" for broadcasters Tony Spath Dolby Laboratories, Inc. This article is aimed at television broadcasters who want to go on-air with multichannel audio

More information

Technical Paper. Dolby Digital Plus Audio Coding

Technical Paper. Dolby Digital Plus Audio Coding Technical Paper Dolby Digital Plus Audio Coding Dolby Digital Plus is an advanced, more capable digital audio codec based on the Dolby Digital (AC-3) system that was introduced first for use on 35 mm theatrical

More information

Dolby Volume: An Innovative Solution to Inconsistent Volume Issues

Dolby Volume: An Innovative Solution to Inconsistent Volume Issues Dolby Volume: An Innovative Solution to Inconsistent Volume Issues As home entertainment options have increased more channels, more media, more content so have inconsistencies in perceived volume levels.

More information

4 Digital Video Signal According to ITU-BT.R.601 (CCIR 601) 43

4 Digital Video Signal According to ITU-BT.R.601 (CCIR 601) 43 Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Analog Television 7 3 The MPEG Data Stream 11 3.1 The Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) 13 3.2 The MPEG-2 Transport Stream Packet.. 17 3.3 Information for the Receiver

More information

Sound. Overview. Sound-Capture Basics. How Sound Works in a PC. Sound-Capture Basics. Sound-Capture Basics

Sound. Overview. Sound-Capture Basics. How Sound Works in a PC. Sound-Capture Basics. Sound-Capture Basics Overview Sound In this part, you will learn to Describe how sound works in a PC Select the appropriate sound card for a given scenario Install a sound card in a Windows system Troubleshoot problems that

More information

Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Director Prof. Dr.-Ing. Albert Heuberger Am Wolfsmantel 33 91058 Erlangen www.iis.fraunhofer.

Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Director Prof. Dr.-Ing. Albert Heuberger Am Wolfsmantel 33 91058 Erlangen www.iis.fraunhofer. WHITE PAPER MPEG audio encoders and decoders on various platforms Fraunhofer IIS offers quality- and resource optimized software implementations of the MPEG-4 audio en- and decoding algorithms on various

More information

ISO/IEC 11172-4 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

ISO/IEC 11172-4 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 11172-4 First edition 1995-03-I 5 Information technology - Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about I,5 Mbit/s - Part 4: Compliance

More information

Creating Content for ipod + itunes

Creating Content for ipod + itunes apple Apple Education Creating Content for ipod + itunes This guide provides information about the file formats you can use when creating content compatible with itunes and ipod. This guide also covers

More information

The Fraunhofer Gesellschaft - FhG

The Fraunhofer Gesellschaft - FhG Implementing Low-Delay Communication Audio Coding on ARM Processors Marc Gayer (marc.gayer@iis.fraunhofer.de) Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS Overview The Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated

More information

The use of BWF files in Swedish Radio

The use of BWF files in Swedish Radio The use of BWF files in Swedish Radio (Swedish Broadcasting Corporation) An article by Richard Chalmers [1] offers a brief introduction to the new audio file format known as the Broadcast Wave Format (BWF).

More information

SX Pro the Flexible stereo to surround up-mix Solution

SX Pro the Flexible stereo to surround up-mix Solution FRAUNHOFER Institute For integrated circuits IIS SX Pro the Flexible stereo to surround up-mix Solution Benefits upgrade your stereo to surround content Owners of 5.1 systems want to enjoy the surround

More information

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. E January 30, 2008 Doc. No. SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS The ibiquity Digital logo and ibiquity Digital are registered trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation.

More information

A HIGH PERFORMANCE SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF MPEG AUDIO ENCODER. Figure 1. Basic structure of an encoder.

A HIGH PERFORMANCE SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF MPEG AUDIO ENCODER. Figure 1. Basic structure of an encoder. A HIGH PERFORMANCE SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF MPEG AUDIO ENCODER Manoj Kumar 1 Mohammad Zubair 1 1 IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hgts, NY, USA ABSTRACT The MPEG/Audio is a standard for both

More information

White Paper: An Overview of the Coherent Acoustics Coding System

White Paper: An Overview of the Coherent Acoustics Coding System White Paper: An Overview of the Coherent Acoustics Coding System Mike Smyth June 1999 Introduction Coherent Acoustics is a digital audio compression algorithm designed for both professional and consumer

More information

S Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr)

S Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr) S-72.245 Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr) Sampling and Pulse Coded Modulation Sampling and Pulse Coded Modulation Pulse amplitude modulation Sampling Ideal sampling by impulses

More information

FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS IIS AUDIO COMMUNICATION ENGINE RAISING THE BAR IN COMMUNICATION QUALITY

FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS IIS AUDIO COMMUNICATION ENGINE RAISING THE BAR IN COMMUNICATION QUALITY FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS IIS AUDIO COMMUNICATION ENGINE RAISING THE BAR IN COMMUNICATION QUALITY BENEFITS HIGHEST AUDIO QUALITY FOR NEXT GENERATION COMMU- NICATION SYSTEMS Communication

More information

JPEG Compression Reference: Chapter 6 of Steinmetz and Nahrstedt Motivations: 1. Uncompressed video and audio data are huge. In HDTV, the bit rate easily exceeds 1 Gbps. --> big problems for storage and

More information

Introduction to DAB Digital Radio

Introduction to DAB Digital Radio Introduction to DAB Digital Radio Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a free-to-receive terrestrial radio transmission system, like AM and FM, and uses a separate region of the radio spectrum. This article

More information

Advanced Speech-Audio Processing in Mobile Phones and Hearing Aids

Advanced Speech-Audio Processing in Mobile Phones and Hearing Aids Advanced Speech-Audio Processing in Mobile Phones and Hearing Aids Synergies and Distinctions Peter Vary RWTH Aachen University Institute of Communication Systems WASPAA, October 23, 2013 Mohonk Mountain

More information

How MP3 Changed The Music Industry!

How MP3 Changed The Music Industry! Page of 1 11 How MP3 Changed The Music Industry! DMT412 Case Study Maximilian Crosby Performance Sound BA Hons Friday 13th June 2014 Page 2 of 11 MP3 is a type of digital format. It s without doubt the

More information

MPEG-4 HIGH-EFFICIENCY AAC CODING

MPEG-4 HIGH-EFFICIENCY AAC CODING MPEG-4 HIGH-EFFICIENCY AAC CODING Jürgen Herre and Martin Dietz The name MPEG-4 High-Efficiency AAC (HE-AAC) refers to a family of recent audio coders that were developed by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture

More information

Improved MPEG Low-Delay Audio Coding on DaVinci and TI C64 series DSPs. Negjmedin Fazlija Fraunhofer IIS faz@iis.fraunhofer.de

Improved MPEG Low-Delay Audio Coding on DaVinci and TI C64 series DSPs. Negjmedin Fazlija Fraunhofer IIS faz@iis.fraunhofer.de Improved MPEG Low-Delay Audio Coding on DaVinci and TI C64 series DSPs Negjmedin Fazlija Fraunhofer IIS faz@iis.fraunhofer.de Agenda The Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits What Is Low Delay Audio

More information

Chapter 6: Broadcast Systems. Mobile Communications. Unidirectional distribution systems DVB DAB. High-speed Internet. architecture Container

Chapter 6: Broadcast Systems. Mobile Communications. Unidirectional distribution systems DVB DAB. High-speed Internet. architecture Container Mobile Communications Chapter 6: Broadcast Systems Unidirectional distribution systems DAB DVB architecture Container High-speed Internet Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/ MC

More information

TECHNICAL PAPER. Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS

TECHNICAL PAPER. Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS TECHNICAL PAPER Enhanced Voice Services (EVS) Codec Until now, telephone services have generally failed to offer a high-quality audio experience due to limitations such as very low audio bandwidth and

More information

MP3 Player CSEE 4840 SPRING 2010 PROJECT DESIGN. zl2211@columbia.edu. ml3088@columbia.edu

MP3 Player CSEE 4840 SPRING 2010 PROJECT DESIGN. zl2211@columbia.edu. ml3088@columbia.edu MP3 Player CSEE 4840 SPRING 2010 PROJECT DESIGN Zheng Lai Zhao Liu Meng Li Quan Yuan zl2215@columbia.edu zl2211@columbia.edu ml3088@columbia.edu qy2123@columbia.edu I. Overview Architecture The purpose

More information

Preservation Handbook

Preservation Handbook Preservation Handbook Digital Audio Author Gareth Knight & John McHugh Version 1 Date 25 July 2005 Change History Page 1 of 8 Definition Sound in its original state is a series of air vibrations (compressions

More information

ARIB STD-T64-C.S0042 v1.0 Circuit-Switched Video Conferencing Services

ARIB STD-T64-C.S0042 v1.0 Circuit-Switched Video Conferencing Services ARIB STD-T-C.S00 v.0 Circuit-Switched Video Conferencing Services Refer to "Industrial Property Rights (IPR)" in the preface of ARIB STD-T for Related Industrial Property Rights. Refer to "Notice" in the

More information

Ideal CD player and FM tuner for use with other 301 Reference Series components also supports RDS and USB memory playback

Ideal CD player and FM tuner for use with other 301 Reference Series components also supports RDS and USB memory playback Reference301 Series PD-301 CD Player /FM Tuner Ideal CD player and FM tuner for use with other 301 Reference Series components also supports RDS and USB memory playback Main functions High-precision slot-in

More information

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 5 Broadcast Communication Networks Lesson 9 Cellular Telephone Networks Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the student will be able to: Explain the operation of Cellular

More information

Digital Speech Coding

Digital Speech Coding Digital Speech Processing David Tipper Associate Professor Graduate Program of Telecommunications and Networking University of Pittsburgh Telcom 2720 Slides 7 http://www.sis.pitt.edu/~dtipper/tipper.html

More information

INTERNET SPEED REQUIREMENTS:

INTERNET SPEED REQUIREMENTS: INTERNET SPEED REQUIREMENTS: The internet speed requirement is completely based on the end-users uploading audio quality because J-Cast will not re-encode or re-compress the uploading contents anywhere

More information

The ISO/MPEG Unified Speech and Audio Coding Standard Consistent High Quality for all Content Types and at all Bit Rates

The ISO/MPEG Unified Speech and Audio Coding Standard Consistent High Quality for all Content Types and at all Bit Rates PAPERS The ISO/MPEG Unified Speech and Audio Coding Standard Consistent High Quality for all Content Types and at all Bit Rates MAX NEUENDORF, 1 AES Member, MARKUS MULTRUS, 1 AES Member, NIKOLAUS RETTELBACH

More information

PRIMER ON PC AUDIO. Introduction to PC-Based Audio

PRIMER ON PC AUDIO. Introduction to PC-Based Audio PRIMER ON PC AUDIO This document provides an introduction to various issues associated with PC-based audio technology. Topics include the following: Introduction to PC-Based Audio Introduction to Audio

More information

Trigonometric functions and sound

Trigonometric functions and sound Trigonometric functions and sound The sounds we hear are caused by vibrations that send pressure waves through the air. Our ears respond to these pressure waves and signal the brain about their amplitude

More information

Technical Advances in Digital Audio Radio Broadcasting

Technical Advances in Digital Audio Radio Broadcasting Technical Advances in Digital Audio Radio Broadcasting CHRISTOF FALLER, BIING-HWANG JUANG, FELLOW, IEEE, PETER KROON, FELLOW, IEEE, HUI-LING LOU, MEMBER, IEEE, SEAN A. RAMPRASHAD, MEMBER, IEEE, AND CARL-ERIK

More information

MP3 DECODER in Theory and Practice

MP3 DECODER in Theory and Practice Masters Thesis: MEE06:09 MP3 DECODER in Theory and Practice Praveen Sripada Masters Thesis Report Blekinge Tekniska Högskola March 2006 Supervisors: Josef Ström Bartunek Jörgen Nordberg Department of Signal

More information

Spatial Audio Coding: Next-generation efficient and compatible coding of multi-channel audio

Spatial Audio Coding: Next-generation efficient and compatible coding of multi-channel audio : Next-generation efficient and compatible coding of multi-channel audio J. Herre 1, C. Faller 2, S. Disch 1, C. Ertel 1, J. Hilpert 1, A. Hoelzer 1, K. Linzmeier 1, C. Spenger 1 and P. Kroon 2 1 Fraunhofer

More information

MPEG-H Audio System for Broadcasting

MPEG-H Audio System for Broadcasting MPEG-H Audio System for Broadcasting ITU-R Workshop Topics on the Future of Audio in Broadcasting Jan Plogsties Challenges of a Changing Landscape Immersion Compelling sound experience through sound that

More information

Signal Encoding Techniques

Signal Encoding Techniques CSE 3461/5461: Introduction to Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Signal Encoding Techniques Presentation C Study: 5.1, 5.2 (pages 151-155 only), 5.3, 5.4 (Figure 5.24 only) Gojko Babić 09-04-2012

More information

Loudness and Dynamic Range

Loudness and Dynamic Range Loudness and Dynamic Range in broadcast audio the Dolby solution Tony Spath Dolby Laboratories, Inc. Digital delivery media offer a wider dynamic range for audio than their analogue predecessors. This

More information

TR 036 TV PROGRAMME ACCOMMODATION IN A DVB-T2 MULTIPLEX FOR (U)HDTV WITH HEVC VIDEO CODING TECHNICAL REPORT VERSION 1.0

TR 036 TV PROGRAMME ACCOMMODATION IN A DVB-T2 MULTIPLEX FOR (U)HDTV WITH HEVC VIDEO CODING TECHNICAL REPORT VERSION 1.0 TV PROGRAMME ACCOMMODATION IN A DVB-T2 MULTIPLEX FOR (U)HDTV WITH HEVC VIDEO CODING TECHNICAL REPORT VERSION 1.0 Geneva March 2016 Page intentionally left blank. This document is paginated for two sided

More information

Implementation of a DRM+ transmitter in the GNU Radio software radio framework

Implementation of a DRM+ transmitter in the GNU Radio software radio framework Implementation of a DRM+ transmitter in the GNU Radio software radio framework Felix Wunsch Mentor: Jens Elsner Prof. Dr.rer.nat. Friedrich K. Jondral KIT Universität des Landes Baden-Württemberg und nationales

More information

Multichannel audio: From studio to listener

Multichannel audio: From studio to listener Multichannel audio: From studio to listener Senior Engineer Corporate Development Technology Swedish htelevision i How multichannel audio came home. HOLLYWOOD FILMS CINEMA VHS DVD HOME THEATRE DIGITAL

More information

DAB Digital Radio Broadcasting. Dr. Campanella Michele

DAB Digital Radio Broadcasting. Dr. Campanella Michele DAB Digital Radio Broadcasting Dr. Campanella Michele Intel Telecomponents Via degli Ulivi n. 3 Zona Ind. 74020 Montemesola (TA) Italy Phone +39 0995664328 Fax +39 0995932061 Email:info@telecomponents.com

More information

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011 HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011 SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS HD Radio and the HD, HD Radio, and Arc logos are proprietary trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation. ibiquity,

More information

Digital Audio Compression

Digital Audio Compression By Davis Yen Pan Abstract Compared to most digital data types, with the exception of digital video, the data rates associated with uncompressed digital audio are substantial. Digital audio compression

More information

Convention Paper Presented at the 112th Convention 2002 May 10 13 Munich, Germany

Convention Paper Presented at the 112th Convention 2002 May 10 13 Munich, Germany Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 112th Convention 2002 May 10 13 Munich, Germany This convention paper has been reproduced from the author's advance manuscript, without editing,

More information

Appendix C GSM System and Modulation Description

Appendix C GSM System and Modulation Description C1 Appendix C GSM System and Modulation Description C1. Parameters included in the modelling In the modelling the number of mobiles and their positioning with respect to the wired device needs to be taken

More information

RightMark Audio Analyzer

RightMark Audio Analyzer RightMark Audio Analyzer Version 2.5 2001 http://audio.rightmark.org Tests description 1 Contents FREQUENCY RESPONSE TEST... 2 NOISE LEVEL TEST... 3 DYNAMIC RANGE TEST... 5 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION TEST...

More information

ACCESS Rack & Portable. Small, compact and powerful IP audio codec...

ACCESS Rack & Portable. Small, compact and powerful IP audio codec... ACCESS Rack & Portable Small, compact and powerful IP audio codec... 1 2... for delivering broadcast quality, real-time audio over the public Internet. ACCESS. Really. It works. The Access worked so well

More information

MPEG-4. The new standard for multimedia on the Internet, powered by QuickTime. What Is MPEG-4?

MPEG-4. The new standard for multimedia on the Internet, powered by QuickTime. What Is MPEG-4? The new standard for multimedia on the Internet, powered by QuickTime. is the new worldwide standard for interactive multimedia creation, delivery, and playback for the Internet. What MPEG-1 and its delivery

More information