THE ILLEGAL TRADE IN WILD ANIMALS AND PLANTS

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1 THE ILLEGAL TRADE IN WILD ANIMALS AND PLANTS Collaborative Actions with the Transport Logistics sector James Compton, Senior Director Asia, TRAFFIC FIATA World Congress 2015, Taipei

2 From Here Now, Think Global Economic growth forecasts Vessel upsizing, container shipping alliances Expansion of physical infrastructure Free Trade agreements Growth of e-commerce Local touch or cultural context Logistics service models Industry values Identifying bottlenecks Regulatory transparency Compliance

3 Wildlife Trade What Is It? Wildlife trade is the buying, selling, bartering, exchanging, importing, exporting, re-exporting of wild animals plants alive or as parts derivatives Traded for.. Food(e.g. fisheries, wild meat) Building materials Fuel (e.g. timber for furniture) Health care (e.g. Traditional Western Medicine) Zoos, Exhibitions Pets Collectors Trophies Decorations Fashion(e.g. Luxury Items)

4 The Legal Trade in Wildlife Worth around USD 320 billion/year (majority in timber fisheries) Can provide economic incentives for sustainably managed harvests Contributes significantly to local livelihoods sustainable development Paul Hilton / Greenpeace Some international trade regulated by CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna Flora)

5 The Illegal Trade in Wildlife Perceived as high-profit low-risk Hugely adaptable, using legal loopholes sophisticated techniques to smuggle wildlife Clear links to organized crime facilitated by corruption

6 Estimated Value Of Illegal Wildlife Trade

7 Rhinos in Crisis: Illegal Rhino Horn Trade 1400 Number of Rhinos Killed Currently, every 7 hours a rhino is illegally killed in South Africa

8 Elephant Ivory Crisis More than 30,000 elephants are killed every year to supply dem for ivory Illegal trade in African elephant ivory at its highest levels African ivory is illegally moved into Asian countries where market dem persists Darren Potgieter/CITES/UNEP

9 Why Does It Matter to FIATA Members? Wildlife traffickers highly rely on legitimate logistics, l, air sea carrier servicesto move their commodities nationally transnationally The sector is increasingly exposed to risk of exploitation

10 Transport Supply Chains

11 Regional Trends of Supply Dem Significance of Asia s rapid economic growth Exping transport, finance & communications infrastructure Higher dem for: Traditional Medicine Luxury goods Wild meat Pets

12 Illegal Ivory Trade Routes Large-scale (>500kg) seizures of ivory where trade routes were known, (ETIS November 2013)

13 Complex Trafficking Routes (1) 2.3 tons of African pangolin scaleshidden in two shipping containers Believed to have come from more than 8,000 animals Declared as timber Shipment route: Central Africa, via East Africa, Southeast Asia seized in Hong Kong

14 Complex Trafficking Routes (2) 3 tonnesof ivory tusks The cargo container was declared as 11 tonnesof TEA LEAVES Cargo moved from East Africa, through South Asia, into Southeast Asia bound for Lao PDR Pornchai Kittiwongsakul(AFP)

15 Complex Trafficking Routes (3) Viet Nam -three seizures in August 2015 in Da Nang From Mozambique 593kg ivory, 142kg rhino horn (MZ-MY-VN tbc) From Nigeria (full route tbc) 2.2 tonnes ivory From Malaysia (full route tbc) 1t ivory, 4t pangolin scales Concealed in cargoes of marble, wood red beans VNS Photos Cong Thanh

16 Complex Trafficking Routes (4) Credit: Hong Kong government Part of 850 kg of ivory seized in Hong Kong in May 2014 from 16 Vietnamese mules traveling by air from Angola Ethiopia Hong Kong South Korea Cambodia in 32 suitcases.

17 Private Sector Collaboration Co-Operation WHAT CAN THE TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SECTOR DO?

18 Awareness of Wildlife Trafficking...

19 Learning To Speak The Same Language with the Transportation Logistics Sector

20 Movement of Wildlife Contrab AIR SEA Passenger airlines Small shipments of live animals or high-value, lowweight animal products typically hidden in carry-on or checked-in luggage, or on passengers. Examples: Rhino horns, elephant ivory curios live reptiles. Air cargo carriers couriers Larger shipments, live animals. Airmail parcels of relatively small light to medium weight wildlife products. Examples:Pangolin products, elephant ivory, animal skins, tortoises, rare plants, tiger lion bones. Shipping lines Bulky, heavy weight shipments mixed with legal commodities in sealed containers. Nearly 3/4 of large-scale ivory seizures by weight in sea containers. Examples: Elephant ivory, timber, large live animals.

21 Regulatory Checks Transport Channels TECHNIQUES: Custom Evasion Export COUNTRY A Concealment / Fraud Falsification of Documents Forging of Documents Import COUNTRY B

22 Analysing the Supply Chain Source Country International Transit Consumer Country Air, sea, l port Air, sea, l port Middle man Supplier (Poacher) Bank Sender Insurance CITES Management Authority* Customs Broker Freight forwarder Consolidation & local transport Customs Port authority Terminal operators Subcontracted preinspection companies Cargo hlers Trucking, railroad, air & sea cargo carriers Logistics companies Mail/Express courier Customs Port authority Terminal operators Subcontracted preinspection companies Cargo hlers Customs Broker Freight forwarder Bank Local transport Buyer Market (medicine, food, pets, luxury goods) Middle man Courier ( passenger mule ) Airport security Sub-contracted companies (e.g. luggage hling security services) Passenger airline Airport security Sub-contracted companies (e.g. luggage hling security services) Courier Middle man Processing of wildlife products might take place at different points along the chain *For export of CITES-listed species only M. Zavagli/TRAFFIC

23 Turning Risks Into Opportunities REPUTATIONAL RISK LEGAL RISK ECONOMIC RISK OPPORTUNITIES Demonstrate a sector/company s commitment to an illegal wildlife-free business, through for example: Adoption of approaches policies that address wildlife conservation trade concerns (e.g. codes of conduct) Awareness raising among partners employees Know your clients Red Flag on unusual behavior/patterns Information sharing & capacity building vocational training programmes Responsible trade management marketing company profile benefits

24 Promoting Industry-led Actions Download the report at: Read the Report :

25 Public-Private Sector Partnerships

26 A Holistic Approach REDUCE MOTIVATION FOR CRIMINAL INVOLVEMENT IN POACHING AND ILLEGAL TRADE Increase the effort criminals need to make Increase the indirect direct risks Reduce the rewards Community support for conservation Protective interventions at source Private Sector Avoidance Visibility exposure Law, enforcement judicial action Seize criminal assets Consumer dem reduction Stop the Poaching: Helping to strengthen field protection, including by strengthening community incentives for protection Stop the Trafficking: prompting supporting stronger governance enforcement action to suppress trafficking Stop the Buying: Motivating change in consumer behaviour International Policy: Mobilising policy pressure, ensuring transparency compliance

27 Thank you Martin Harvey/Canon-WWF

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