2 A quick lesson about bones: Why healthy bones matter The healthier your bones The more active you can be Bone health has a major effect on your quality of life and on the quality of life of those who care for you. The better your bone health, the more independent you can be a benefit for everyone.
3 Prostate Cancer & Bone Health: What is the Bone health may be affected by prostate cancer & its treatment Connection?????????
4 Two conditions that can arise and impact bone health are: 1. Treatment-induced bone loss could be caused by the side effects of medications taken for prostate cancer 2. Bone metastases a result of advancing prostate cancer, when the disease spreads to the bones
5 Background on Bones: Did you know your bones perform these vital functions? 1. Bones provide the body s framework 2. Bones act as the attachment point for muscles, allowing us movement 3. Bones protect our organs 4. Bones store and release minerals vital to bodily functions 5. Bones produce blood cells.
6 Bone is constantly changing, living tissue. Bones are constantly renewing themselves through a process called REMODELING.
7 BONE REMODELING Cells called osteoclasts break apart old areas of bone Cells called osteoblasts create new bone and fill in old areas
8 When the breakdown of old bone and the creation of new bone are equal, bone strength and bone health are maintained. It s never too early or too late to begin taking steps to maintain bone mass and prevent bone loss.
9 Bone Loss: Men Are Not Immune Bone loss is a condition in which bone mass and density are lost and the bones become weakened, thereby increasing the risk for fracture. There are no warning signs, and most often it affects the bones of the hip, wrist, and spine. Bone loss occurs in men more often than commonly thought. It will cause a fracture in 1 of 4 men older than age 50. It can be managed, and is preventable.
10 INSIDE YOUR BONES A Healthy Bone (Microscopic view) Bone Loss (Microscopic view)
11 The Relationship Between Prostate Cancer Some treatments for prostate cancer can increase bone loss risk and Bone Loss
12 PCa Treatment & Bone Loss Men with decreased testosterone levels resulting from treatment for prostate cancer are at an increased risk for developing bone loss. Radiation therapy to the bone and some kinds of chemotherapy also might decrease bone density and increase the risk for bone loss
13 PCa meds that can cause bone loss Examples of medications that decrease testosterone include: Lupron (leuprolide acetate) Zoladex (goserelin acetate implant)
14 Bone loss RISK FACTOR #1 Age The older you are, Age The older you are, the greater the risk the greater the risk for bone loss
15 Bone loss RISK FACTOR #2 Family history Men whose immediate relatives have or have had bone loss are at greater risk
16 Bone loss RISK FACTOR #3 Lifestyle factors Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, not consuming enough calcium, and not getting enough exercise
17 Bone loss RISK FACTOR #4 Race/ethnicity White males seem to be Lifestyle factors Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, not consuming enough calcium, and not getting enough exercise at greatest risk, although men from all racial and ethnic groups can develop bone loss
18 Bone loss RISK FACTOR #5 Medications & medical conditions Prolonged use of certain medications used to treat chronic medical problems, such as asthma, diabetes, hypothyroidism, liver disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, may have side effects that can damage bone and lead to bone loss
19 What You Can Do to Maintain Healthy Bones As You Manage Your Prostate Cancer Manage your diet Take a calcium supplement Vitamin D Limit salt Limit protein Don t smoke or drink alcohol Exercise BONE LOSS CAN BE MANAGED AND IT IS PREVENTABLE
20 How Bone Loss Is Diagnosed Review of medical & family history, including a survey of your risk factors Complete physical exam Bone mineral density (BMD) test
21 Questions For Your Doctor Am I at increased risk for bone loss? How do prostate cancer and my past & current treatments affect my bones? Am I currently taking any medication or had any treatment in the past that increases my risk for bone loss? Is it safe for me to exercise? If so, what exercise is best for me? Are there any other steps I can take to slow bone loss or increase my bone density?
22 RECOMMENDATIONS Get a bone density test (BMD) prior to and during hormone therapy (ADT) to establish a baseline value and monitor levels. BMD should be evaluated annually. Have your physician monitor your urinary output of calcium and serum vitamin D. The best source of calcium intake is leafy green vegetables, followed by calcium supplements.
23 How bone loss is treated Lifestyle Diet, quit smoking, calcium, exercise, Vitamin D, limit protein, limit salt Medications 1. anti-resorptives: slows bone breakdown 2. bisphosphonates: slows bone loss, in some cases increases bone mass
24 If you have low bone mineral density If you have low BMD, your doctor may prescribe a bisphosphonate to help improve your bone density. Two bisphosphonates are: Fosamax (alendronate) Actonel (risedronate) NOTE: Both are approved in the United States for bone loss in men, but have not been studied in men suffering from bone loss due to treatment for their prostate cancer
25 Another option If you. do not like to take medications daily or weekly have a sensitive stomach have treatment-induced bone loss, you can take intravenous bisphosphonate once every 3 months. Example: Zometa (zoledronic acid) prevents bone loss increases BMD. Note: While taking Zometa, patents should also be administered an oral calcium supplement of 500 mg and a multiple vitamin containing 400 IU of Vitamin D daily.
26 Bone Metastases & Advancing Prostate Cancer The most common place for the cancer to travel/spread is to the bone. The bones most commonly affected are the spine, hips, and ribs. Bone metastases cause damage that may make the bone more susceptible to complications such as pain and fractures. Bone metastases result in areas of weak, unstable bone that could cause debilitating pain and fractures. Prostate cancer behaves differently in each individual. -In many men, prostate cancer never spreads to any other site. - When it does spread, bone metastases occur in 65% to 75% of all patients, and the bone is often the only site of metastases. Prostate cancer that spreads to the bones is still prostate cancer, not bone cancer.
27 Symptoms of Bone Metastases Pain in the bones, but not always. Sometimes bone metastases are silent. Arthritic pain can be confused with bone metastases. The pain usually not in the joints. The bone pain lingers; it won t just go away by itself in a few days. History of fracture(s). Prior radiation to bone. Rising PSA.
28 How Bone Metastases Are Diagnosed Radionuclide bone scans X-rays MRI scans CT scans Blood tests
29 How Bone Metastases Are Treated Hormone therapy: ADT, androgen deprivation Intravenous (IV) bisphosphonate therapy: Zometa Radiation therapy Immunotherapy Surgery Chemotherapy
30 Questions For Your Doctor About Bone Metastases Questions You May Want to Ask Your Doctor About Bone Metastases What are my treatment options for relieving bone pain? What are my treatment options for preventing bone fractures? Which of the available treatments do you recommend for me, and why? What is the goal of the treatment you re recommending? What side effects might result from treatment, and what can I do to minimize them? What does this mean to me? What are my treatment options for relieving bone pain? What are my treatment options for preventing bone fractures? Which of the available treatments do you recommend for me, and why? What is the goal of the treatment you re recommending? What side effects might result from treatment, and what can I do to minimize them? What does this mean to me?
31 Suggestions 1. All patients with advanced prostate cancer should get an annual bone scan. 2. It is best to have all your dental problems taken care of before you start treatment, because treatment affects bone healing and recovery. 3. Keep a copy of all reports in your files.
32 Prostate Cancer & Bone Health THE BOTTOM LINE An independent, successful, satisfying life is possible with prostate cancer. Because prostate cancer has an affinity for your bones, knowing about your bones is important.
33 You can make a difference in managing your bone health Don t let symptoms scare you. See them as a signal to get more information and take action. Not all symptoms represent recurrence of prostate cancer.
34 PAY ATTENTION & ACT PAY ATTENTION AND ACT If you have symptoms that concern you, quickly tell your health care provider. The sooner your symptoms are diagnosed, the more that can be done to help.
35 You are the expert YOU ARE THE EXPERT Maintaining your bone health will help maintain your quality of life. You are the expert on you. Know yourself...and trust yourself.
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