1 Module 5 - Speaking of Bones Osteoporosis For Health Professionals: Fracture Risk Assessment William D. Leslie, MD MSc FRCPC
2 Case #1 Age 53: 3 years post-menopause Has always enjoyed excellent health with no past fracture, medical or surgical history Stable Height = 154 cm (60.5 in.) Stable Weight = 55.5 kg (122 lbs.) High Caffeine Intake
3 2002 Guidelines Who Should Be Tested for Osteoporosis? Brown JP et al. CMAJ 2002.
4 T-scores and Treatment Decisions Age BMD T-scores Action taken 53 Spine: -1.8 Femoral neck: -2.4 Ruled out secondary causes Initiated: - risedronate 35 mg weekly - calcium 1500 mg daily - vitamin D 400 IU daily
5 Question Does this healthy 53 year old woman with femoral neck T-score -2.4 have: (A) normal BMD, (B) osteopenia, (C) osteoporosis or (D) none of the above? Should a healthy 53 year old woman with femoral neck T-score -2.4 receive pharmacotherapy to reduce her fracture risk? Yes or No?
6 2002 Guidelines Who Should Be Treated for Osteoporosis? Long-term glucocorticoid therapy Personal history of fragility fracture after age 40 Non-traumatic vertebral compression deformities Clinical risk factors (1 major or 2 minor) Low DXA BMD (T-score < 2.5) Start bisphosphonate therapy AND Low DXA BMD (T-score < 1.5) Obtain DXA BMD for follow-up Consider therapy Repeat DXA BMD after 1or 2 years Brown JP et al. CMAJ 2002.
7 2002 Guidelines Who Should Be Treated for Osteoporosis? Long-term glucocorticoid therapy Personal history of fragility fracture after age 40 Non-traumatic vertebral compression deformities Clinical risk factors (1 major or 2 minor) Low DXA BMD (T-score < 2.5) Start bisphosphonate therapy AND Low DXA BMD (T-score < 1.5) Obtain DXA BMD for follow-up Consider therapy Repeat DXA BMD after 1or 2 years Brown JP et al. CMAJ 2002.
8 WHO Definition of Osteoporosis A disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk.
9 BMD Categories Age Category Criteria* Severe (established) osteoporosis T-score -2.5 with fragility fracture 50 years Osteoporosis T-score -2.5 X Osteopenia Low bone mass T-score -1.0 to -2.5 Normal T-score -1.0 T-scores: white female reference.
10 What s Changed? - Clinical risk factors - Absolute fracture risk - New fracture risk assessment systems - New integrated management paradigm 1980 s 1990 s 2000 s
11 Key Changes from to Increased focus on the clinical impact of fragility fractures Increased focus on the care gap that exists in the identification and treatment of high-risk individuals 1. Brown JP, Josse RG. CMAJ 2002; 167(10 Suppl):S Papaioannou A, et al. CMAJ 2010.
12 No. of fractures Fracture rate, per 1000 person-years Most Fragility Fractures in Postmenopausal Women Occur with Low Bone Mass ("Osteopenia") Fracture rate No. of fractures > to to to to to to to Normal Osteopenia Osteoporosis 0 T-score WHO category Cranney A, et al. CMAJ 2007; 177(6):
13 Fragility Fracture: Definition A fracture occurring spontaneously or following minor trauma such as a fall from standing height or less 1,2 Excluding craniofacial, hand, ankle, and foot fractures 1. Kanis JA, et al. Osteoporos Int 2001; 12(5): Bessette L, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:79-86.
14 Consequences of Fracture Increased risk of Hospitalization 1 Institutionalization 2 Death 3-5 Subsequent fracture 6-8 Decreased quality of life 9-12 Economic burden on healthcare system 2 1. Papaioannou A, et al. Osteoporos Int 2001; 12(10): Wiktorowicz ME, et al. Osteoporos Int 2001; 12(4): Ioannidis G, et al. CMAJ 2009; 181(5): Papaioannou A, et al. J SOGC 2000; 22(8): Tosteson AN, et al. Osteoporos Int 2007; 18(11): Papaioannou A, et al. J SOGC 2000; 22(8): Colon-Emeric C, et al. Osteoporos Int 2003; 14: Lindsay R, et al. JAMA 2001; 285: Sawka AM, et al. Osteoporos Int 2005; 16: Cranney A, et al. J Rheumatol 2005; 32(12): Pasco JA, et al. Osteoporos Int 2005; 16(12): Papaioannou A, et al. Osteoporos Int 2009; 20(5):
15 Undertreatment of Osteoporosis Post Fracture in women 1 5.5% 15.4% No diagnosis or treatment for osteoporosis Diagnosis of osteoporosis only 79.0% Prescribed treatment for osteoporosis This care gap is even wider in men and those who reside in long-term care 2,3 1. Bessette L, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19: Papaioannou A, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19(4): Giangregorio L, Osteoporos Int 2009; 20(9):
16 % of patients being treated Post-fracture Care Gap: Comparison with Heart Attack ~80% ~15% 0 Anti-osteoporosis medication 1 post fracture Beta-blockers post heart attack 1. Bessette L, et al. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19: Austin PC, et al. CMAJ 2008; 179(9):
17 Fracture Risk Assessment: Where Are We in 2012? Selected Fracture Systems 2010 Canadianized FRAX / CAROC
18 10-year Risk Assessment: CAROC Semiquantitative method for estimating 10-year absolute risk of a major osteoporotic fracture* in postmenopausal women and men over age 50 Three zones (low: < 10%, moderate, high: > 20%) * Fractures of proximal femur, vertebra [clinical], forearm, and proximal humerus Siminoski K, et al. Can Assoc Radiol J 2005; 56(3):
19 10-year Risk Assessment for Women (CAROC Basal Risk) Adapted from Siminoski K, et al. Can Assoc Radiol J 2005; 56(3):
20 Risk Assessment with CAROC: Important Additional Risk Factors Factors that increase CAROC basal risk by one category (i.e., from low to moderate or moderate to high) Fragility fracture after age 40 Recent prolonged systemic glucocorticoid use
21 Example of Adjusting Basal Risk: Based on Additional Risk Factors 60-year-old woman Femoral neck T-score = -2.8 Based on age and T-score alone = moderate risk History of fragility fracture or prolonged systemic glucocorticoid use would shift her to high risk Adapted from Siminoski K, et al. Can Assoc Radiol J 2005; 56(3):
22 Calculating Fracture Risk
25 Sweden Switzerland US Caucasian Austria United Kingdom CANADA Belgium Japan Italy Argentina Hong Kong Finland Germany US Hispanic US Asian France New Zealand US Black Spain Lebanon China Turkey Percent fracture Variations in Estimated 10-Year Fracture Probabilities According to Country Year Major Fracture Probability Age 65 years, prior fracture with femoral neck T-score -2.5 Female Male Year Hip Fracture Probability Age 65 years, prior fracture with femoral neck T-score -2.5 Leslie WD, et al. J Bone Miner Res Leslie WD, et al. Osteoporos Int 2010.
26 Evaluating Prediction Models Independent validation Risk stratification Model calibration
27 Comparison: 10y Fracture Risk Systems 2010 CAROC Canadian FRAX Model Semi-quantitative (low, moderate, high) Quantitative (fracture probability) BMD * Femoral neck (required) Femoral neck (optional) Clinical Fragility fracture Prolonged steroids Fragility fracture Prolonged steroids BMI Parental hip fracture Current smoking High alcohol use Rheumatoid arthritis Secondary causes Output Major fracture Major fracture Hip fracture High risk >20% >20% Validation Level 1 evidence Level 1 evidence
28 Which One Is Better? Canadian FRAX FRAX Lite
29 It s Not the Model, It s the Management The stone age was marked by man s clever use of crude tools; the information age, to date, has been marked by man s crude use of clever tools. Anonymous
30 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm (Basic Paradigm) Fracture Risk Assessment Low Risk Don t Treat Moderate Risk Stop and Think High Risk Treat
31 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 1 of 2 Basic Bone Health Calcium up to 1200 mg daily (diet and supplement) Vitamin D IU daily (over age 50) Regular weight bearing exercise
32 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 1 of 2 Basic Care (suitable for all) Lifestyle changes; adequate calcium intake & vitamin D; falls prevention Age < 50 Age Age 65 Identify medical conditions associated with osteoporosis and fractures Identify medical conditions and other clinical risk factors associated with osteoporosis and fractures All men and women Initial BMD Testing Continued on next slide
33 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 1 of 2 Initial BMD Testing Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX Canada 3.1 CAROC 2010
34 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 2 of 2 Continued from previous slide Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX or CAROC Low Risk 10-year fracture risk < 10% Moderate Risk 10-year fracture risk 10-20% High Risk 10-year fracture risk > 20% or Prior fragility fracture of hip or spine or More than one fragility fracture
35 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 2 of 2 Continued from previous slide Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX or CAROC Low Risk 10-year fracture risk < 10% Unlikely to benefit from pharmacotherapy. Reassess risk in 5 years. Moderate Risk 10-year fracture risk 10-20% High Risk 10-year fracture risk > 20% or Prior fragility fracture of hip or spine or More than one fragility fracture Good evidence of benefit from pharmacotherapy
36 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 2 of 2 Continued from previous slide Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX or CAROC Low Risk 10-year fracture risk < 10% Moderate Risk 10-year fracture risk 10-20% Perform spine imaging (x-ray or vertebral fracture assessment) to identify vertebral fractures High Risk 10-year fracture risk > 20% or Prior fragility fracture of hip or spine or More than one fragility fracture
37 VFA Recognition and Reporting Vertebral fractures unrelated to trauma are associated with a 5x risk for another vertebral fracture Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a DXA scanning/software option.
38 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 2 of 2 Continued from previous slide Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX or CAROC Low Risk 10-year fracture risk < 10% Moderate Risk 10-year fracture risk 10-20% Perform spine imaging (x-ray or vertebral fracture assessment) to identify vertebral fractures High Risk 10-year fracture risk > 20% or Prior fragility fracture of hip or spine or More than one fragility fracture Look for additional factors that warrant consideration for pharmacological therapy
39 First Line Therapies with Evidence for Fracture Prevention in Postmenopausal Women* Type of Fracture Alendronate Bisphosphonates Risedronate Antiresorptive therapy Zoledronic acid Denosumab Raloxifene Hormone therapy (Estrogen)** Bone formation therapy Teriparatide Vertebral Hip - - Nonvertebral - +
40 Case #1: Question Does this healthy 53 year old woman with femoral neck T-score -2.4 have: (A) normal BMD, (B) osteopenia, (C) osteoporosis or (D) none of the above? Should a healthy 53 year old woman with femoral neck T-score -2.4 receive pharmacotherapy to reduce her fracture risk? Yes or No?
41 FRAX Calculation (Age 53 Six Years Ago)
42 CAROC Calculation (Age 53 Six Years Ago) 53-year-old woman Femoral neck T-score = -2.4 Based on age and T-score alone = low risk
43 Case #1: Answer Does a healthy 53 year old woman with femoral neck T-score -2.4 have: (A) normal BMD, (B) osteopenia, (C) osteoporosis or (D) none of the above? Should a healthy 53 year old woman with femoral neck T-score -2.4 receive pharmacotherapy to reduce her fracture risk? Yes or No?
44 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 2 of 2 Continued from previous slide Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX or CAROC Low Risk 10-year fracture risk < 10% Unlikely to benefit from pharmacotherapy. Reassess risk in 5 years. Moderate Risk 10-year fracture risk 10-20% High Risk 10-year fracture risk > 20% or Prior fragility fracture of hip or spine or More than one fragility fracture
45 Case #2 65-year-old woman Natural menopause at age year history of hypertension (currently) Body mass index (BMI): 24.8 kg/m 2 Blood Pressure: 136 / 84 mmhg
46 Case #2: Risk Factor Assessment No hormone treatment No personal fracture history Positive family history: Hip fracture in her mother at age 75 (fell in own home; ended up in personalcare home) Non smoker No history of systemic steroid use No history of rheumatoid arthritis No potential secondary causes of osteoporosis Alcohol use: < 3 drinks/day Femoral neck T-score -2.3
47 Case #2: Questions What is the fracture risk? What is the impact of family history of hip fracture on risk assessment? Is pharmacologic treatment indicated?
48 CAROC Calculation 65-year-old woman Femoral neck T-score = -2.3 Based on age and T-score alone = moderate risk
49 FRAX Calculation with Family History
50 FRAX Calculation without Family History
51 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 2 of 2 Continued from previous slide Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX or CAROC Low Risk 10-year fracture risk < 10% Moderate Risk 10-year fracture risk 10-20% Perform spine imaging (x-ray or vertebral fracture assessment) to identify vertebral fractures High Risk 10-year fracture risk > 20% or Prior fragility fracture of hip or spine or More than one fragility fracture Look for additional factors that warrant consideration for pharmacological therapy
52 Impact of Family History of Hip Fracture on Risk Assessment For Case #2, the family history of parental hip fracture increases absolute 10-year risk of major osteoporotic fractures by 9.0% This moves her from the lower end to the higher end of the moderate-risk range using FRAX
53 Case #2: To Treat or Not to Treat? Decision on whether to treat patients at moderate risk with pharmacologic therapy also involves Discussion of benefits (e.g., fracture risk reduction) and risks (e.g., adverse events) of treatment Assessment of patient preferences and health priorities to come up with an "individualized intervention threshold"
54 Case #3 66-year-old retired firefighter Complaining his back has been worse than usual the past three weeks Height: 180 cm (5'11") Patient recalls being cm (6'1") Weight: 80 kg (up 5 kg from one year ago) Body mass index (BMI): 24.7 kg/m 2
55 Case #3: Risk Factor Assessment Family history: none significant No medications, systemic glucocorticoids or androgen-deprivation therapy No history of secondary causes of osteoporosis Historical height loss No previous trauma Prior smoker (45 pack/year history) Alcohol use: approximately two drinks per week
56 Case #3: Further Testing Screening for osteoporosis with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is indicated T-score -1.9 at femoral neck Lateral thoraco-lumbar spine x-ray is ordered to rule out fractures X-ray shows two vertebral compression fractures
57 Case #3: Questions What is the fracture risk? What is the impact of vertebral fractures on risk assessment? Is pharmacologic treatment indicated?
58 Case #3: CAROC Calculation 66-year-old man Femoral neck T-score = -1.9 Based on age and T-score alone = low risk History of fragility fracture = moderate risk
59 2010 Guidelines Integrated Management Model Algorithm, part 2 of 2 Continued from previous slide Fracture Risk Assessment FRAX or CAROC Low Risk 10-year fracture risk < 10% Moderate Risk 10-year fracture risk 10-20% High Risk 10-year fracture risk > 20% or Prior fragility fracture of hip or spine or More than one fragility fracture Good evidence of benefit from pharmacotherapy
60 Case #3: Conclusions High risk because of vertebral fractures In this case, 10-year assessment tools underestimate risk Patients at high risk benefit from pharmacologic therapy Recommended agents for first-line use in men are alendronate, risedronate, or zoledronic acid
61 Key Points The management of osteoporosis should be guided by an assessment of the patient s absolute risk of osteoporosis related fractures. Fragility fracture increases the risk of further fractures and should be considered in the assessment. Lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy should be individualized to enhance adherence to the treatment plan.
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