Human Trafficking FOR DUMMIES. What is Human Trafficking? A Guide for the Rest of Us! AND MORE! What is human trafficking? Who are the perpetrators?

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1 What is human trafficking? Who are the perpetrators? Who are the victims? Why are people trafficked? How are people exploited? AND MORE! Human Trafficking FOR DUMMIES A Guide for the Rest of Us! What is Human Trafficking? * The exploitation of individuals for financial gain can take on various forms of labour, including domestic work, begging, street sales and prostitution, to name a few. Human trafficking may be defined as a process of recruitment and transportation of an individual from their community or country of origin to a destination, through the use of deception or force, for the purposes of financial exploitation. Human Trafficking may be classified as a modern form of slavery. It is a serious crime and global phenomenon involving the violation of an individual s basic human rights. The Act (What is done) The Means (How it is done) The Purpose (Why it is done) Elements of Human Trafficking Recruitment, Transportation, Transfer, Harbouring or Receipt of persons Threats or use of force, Coercion, Fraud, Deception, Abuse of power or vulnerability or Giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim Exploitation, including: Prostitution of others; Sexual exploitation; Forced labour; Slavery or similar practices; Removal of organs and Other forms of exploitation Three constituent elements of human trafficking according to Article 3, paragraph (a) of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.

2 Who are the perpetrators? The perpetrators of human trafficking are called traffickers. Traffickers seek out vulnerable people to exploit for financial gain using false promises, coercion and/or force. Traffickers are a diverse group and include a wide range of criminals working on many different levels, including individuals, small criminal groups or large-scale organized crime networks. * It is important not to conform to the stereotypes people hold of traffickers they are usually people that the victim knows on a personal basis, such as trusted family members, friends or community members. The perpetrators behind human trafficking around the world are most often women (UNODC, 2009). Who are the victims? KNOW THE FACTS ON HUMAN There is no standard description of a trafficked person nor can generalizations be made about how they will react to their situation. Each trafficked person has a different story, a unique experience, and a different response and/or perception to what has happened to him/her. An estimated 2.5 million people are forced in labour (including sexual exploitation) at any given time (ILO, 2007). While there is no typical definition of a trafficked person, victims may share some common characteristics. Some of the characteristics are listed below. * It is important to exercise caution when reviewing the characteristics of a victim. Identifying a potential victim is not considered to be a general observation; it is a process, which requires looking for all the possible signs, asking the appropriate questions, listening for information and discovering through interviews and discussions possible indicators that exploitation has occurred. 2 lorem ipsum :: [Date]

3 Identifying a Victim of Trafficking Physical Indicators Emotional Indicators Appearance of extreme exhaustion (dark circles under the eyes or puffy eyes, slow body movements) Ashen complexion Appearance of malnourishment Signs of physical abuse (bruises, black eyes, burns, scars) Appearance of general poor health (teeth, hair, skin) Complaints of stress-related physical reactions Behavioural Cues Being evasive Changing story Showing anxiety, nervousness Denying, minimizing or validating situation Demonstrating submissive behaviour Being reluctant to speak or to disagree Not knowing the language Not knowing his/her own phone number byline Practical Lorem Indicators Ipsum Aliquam dolor. Feeling afraid, ashamed, embarrassed, uncertain Feeling responsible/at fault Feeling anxious, nervous, worried Depressed, Confused Re-experiencing trauma through dreams, thoughts, or daily triggers (PTSD) Feeling outside of own body or life (depersonalization) Avoidance of feelings Lack of passport, identity card, travel documents, birth certificate May identify him or herself with a false passport The person may only provide a first name The person may know by heart all the information on the passport or identification paper but may not be able to give specific details or explain inconsistencies Person may provide evidence of being unable to move or leave their job Why are people trafficked? Human trafficking occurs when a person exploits another person s situation or condition for the purpose of achieving a personal profit. The root causes of human trafficking are extensive and it is considered a multidimensional problem. Some of the potential causes are listed below. The United Nations has estimated that the total market value of illicit human trafficking is US$32 billion (ILO, 2005). Countries of Origin (Where potential victims may be found) Poverty Unemployment Lack of Opportunities Political and humanitarian crisis Situations of armed conflict and oppression Gender discrimination Lack of access to information and education Potential Causes of Trafficking Countries of Destination (Where victims are transported) Need for Inexpensive labour in a variety of sectors (agriculture, domestic servitude, etc) Demand for women in sex industry Universal Factors Restrictive immigration policies Lack of public awareness about trafficking High profits for those in criminal organizations A lack of effective anti-trafficking legislation Disintegration of social protection schemes 3 lorem ipsum :: [Date]

4 How are people exploited? Human trafficking is a global phenomenon affecting all countries. Many believe this crime takes place underground, in illegal markets or industries that cater to criminal activity. The reality is human trafficking occurs within legitimate settings including hotels and restaurants. Wherever there is a demand for cheap labour (or sexual services) human trafficking may flourish. Many trafficking victims have at least middlelevel education (IOM, 1999). The type of exploitation and environments in which victims of trafficking may be found is quite diverse; similarly, traffickers are continually seeking new venues for and means of exploiting people. Some of the types of exploitation and the environments in which they can be found are listed below. Type of Exploitation Sexual Economic Marriage Criminal Child Trafficking Exploitative Environment Pornography Prostitution Agencies (employment, au pair, modelling) Nightclubs, bars, cafes Domestic work (child care, house cleaning) Construction work (carpentry, renovation, tile laying) Hospitality services (restaurants, bars, night shops) Agriculture (fruit sector, greenhouse, farming) Food industry (slaughterhouse, canneries) Street sales (pirated CD/DVDs, flower selling, advertisement leaflets) Agencies (sub-contracting, employment) Automotive and ship work (professional transport, car washes, port work) Forced marriages Fake marriages Marriages with minors Begging Pick-pocketing Drug smuggling Illegal adoption Kidnapping Begging Forced marriage 4 lorem ipsum :: [Date]

5 What are the consequences of trafficking? The consequences of human trafficking are wide-ranging and diverse, which may affect victims and the countries concerned in various ways. For countries of origin and destination, consequences of human trafficking may include an increase in irregular migration. A second consequence may be the increased presence of organized crime, engaged in diverse illegal activities including drugs, theft, the exploitation of sex workers and other criminal activities. For victims, the consequences of human trafficking can be exponential. The first consequence being a serious violation to their human rights. Victims may be exposed to daily hazards including physical and psychological coercion, abuse and routine violence. Given their working conditions and environment, victims are also exposed to a variety of serious health risks (please see below). The health risks associated with trafficking reflects the cumulative effects victims often face during the trafficking process most people who are trafficked are exposed to health risks before, during and after the trafficking process. Physical Sexual Psychological Social Malnourishment Serious dental problems Infectious disease (Tuberculosis) Undetected or untreated diseases (diabetes or cancer) Bruises, scars or other signs of physical abuse and torture Chronic back, hearing, cardiovascular problems STDs HIV/AIDS Pelvic pain Rectal trauma Urinary difficulties Unwanted pregnancy Infertility Infection or mutilations Substance misuse Psychological trauma Depression Stress-related disorders Disorientation Confusion Feelings of helplessness, shame, humiliation, shock, denial or disbelief Suicidal ideation and attempts Integration or reintegration problems Discrimination Racism Stigmatization Inability to access care Isolation Linguistic or cultural barriers For more information on human trafficking, please contact: Payoke NGO Leguit Antwerp, Belgium T: F: lorem ipsum :: [Date]

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