# Chapter 5 The Production Process and Costs

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 Overview I. Production Analysis Total Product, Marginal Product, Average Product. Isoquants. Isocosts. Cost Minimization II. Cost Analysis Total Cost, Variable Cost, Fixed Costs. Cubic Cost Function. Cost Relations. III. Multi-Product Cost Functions 5-2

3 Production Analysis Production Function Q = F(K,L) Q is quantity of output produced. K is capital input. L is labor input. F is a functional form relating the inputs to output. The maximum amount of output that can be produced with K units of capital and L units of labor. Short-Run vs. Long-Run Decisions Fixed vs. Variable Inputs 5-3

4 Production Function Algebraic Forms Linear production function: inputs are perfect substitutes. ( ) bl Q = F K, L = ak + Leontief production function: inputs are used in fixed proportions. ( K, L) = min{ bk cl} Q = F, Cobb-Douglas production function: inputs have a degree of substitutability. ( ) b K L K a L Q = F, = 5-4

5 Productivity Measures: Total Product Total Product (TP): maximum output produced with given amounts of inputs. Example: Cobb-Douglas Production Function: K is fixed at 16 units. Q = F(K,L) = K.5 L.5 Short run Cobb-Douglass production function: Q = (16).5 L.5 = 4 L.5 Total Product when 100 units of labor are used? Q = 4 (100).5 = 4(10) = 40 units 5-5

6 Productivity Measures: Average Product of an Input Average Product of an Input: measure of output produced per unit of input. Average Product of Labor: AP L = Q/L. Measures the output of an average worker. Example: Q = F(K,L) = K.5 L.5 If the inputs are K = 16 and L = 16, then the average product of labor is AP L = [(16) 0.5 (16) 0.5 ]/16 = 1. Average Product of Capital: AP K = Q/K. Measures the output of an average unit of capital. Example: Q = F(K,L) = K.5 L.5 If the inputs are K = 16 and L = 16, then the average product of capital is AP K = [(16) 0.5 (16) 0.5 ]/16 =

7 Productivity Measures: Marginal Product of an Input Marginal Product on an Input: change in total output attributable to the last unit of an input. Marginal Product of Labor: MP L = Q/ L Measures the output produced by the last worker. Slope of the short-run production function (with respect to labor). Marginal Product of Capital: MP K = Q/ K Measures the output produced by the last unit of capital. When capital is allowed to vary in the short run, MP K is the slope of the production function (with respect to capital). 5-7

8 Increasing, Diminishing and Negative Marginal Returns Q Increasing Marginal Returns Diminishing Marginal Returns Negative Marginal Returns Q=F(K,L) MP L AP 5-8

9 Guiding the Production Process Producing on the production function Aligning incentives to induce maximum worker effort. Employing the right level of inputs When labor or capital vary in the short run, to maximize profit a manager will hire: labor until the value of marginal product of labor equals the wage: VMP L = w, where VMP L = P x MP L. capital until the value of marginal product of capital equals the rental rate: VMP K = r, where VMP K = P x MP K. 5-9

10 Isoquant Illustrates the long-run combinations of inputs (K, L) that yield the producer the same level of output. The shape of an isoquant reflects the ease with which a producer can substitute among inputs while maintaining the same level of output. 5-10

11 Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS) The rate at which two inputs are substituted while maintaining the same output level. MRTS = KL MP MP L K 5-11

12 Linear Isoquants Capital and labor are perfect substitutes Q = ak + bl MRTS KL = b/a Linear isoquants imply that inputs are substituted at a constant rate, independent of the K Increasing Output input levels employed. Q 2 Q 3 Q 1 L 5-12

13 Leontief Isoquants Capital and labor are perfect complements. Capital and labor are used in fixed-proportions. Q = min {bk, cl} K Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Increasing Output Since capital and labor are consumed in fixed proportions there is no input substitution along isoquants (hence, no MRTS KL ). L 5-13

14 Cobb-Douglas Isoquants Inputs are not perfectly substitutable. Diminishing marginal rate of technical substitution. K Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Increasing Output As less of one input is used in the production process, increasingly more of the other input must be employed to produce the same output level. Q = K a L b MRTS KL = MP L /MP K L 5-14

15 Isocost The combinations of inputs that produce a given level of output at the same cost: Rearranging, wl + rk = C K= (1/r)C - (w/r)l For given input prices, isocosts farther from the origin are associated with higher costs. Changes in input prices change the slope of the isocost line. C 1 /r C 0 /r K C/r K C 0 C 0 /w New Isocost Line associated with higher costs (C 0 < C 1 ). C 1 C 1 /w L New Isocost Line for a decrease in the wage (price of labor: w 0 > w 1 ). C/w 0 C/w 1 L 5-15

16 Cost Minimization Marginal product per dollar spent should be equal for all inputs: MP w But, this is just MP r MP MP L K L = = MRTS KL = K w r w r 5-16

17 Cost Minimization K Slope of Isocost = Slope of Isoquant Point of Cost Minimization Q L 5-17

18 Optimal Input Substitution A firm initially produces Q 0 by employing the combination of inputs represented by point A at a cost of C 0. Suppose w 0 falls to w 1. The isocost curve rotates counterclockwise; which represents the same cost level prior to the wage change. To produce the same level of output, Q 0, the firm will produce on a lower isocost line (C 1 ) at a point B. The slope of the new isocost line represents the lower wage relative to the rental rate of capital. K K 0 K 1 0 A L 0 L 1 B C 0 /w 0 C 1 /w 1 Q 0 C 0 /w 1 L 5-18

19 Cost Analysis Types of Costs Short-Run Fixed costs (FC) Sunk costs Short-run variable costs (VC) Short-run total costs (TC) Long-Run All costs are variable No fixed costs 5-19

20 Total and Variable Costs C(Q): Minimum total cost of producing alternative levels of output: C(Q) = VC(Q) + FC VC(Q): Costs that vary with output. FC: Costs that do not vary with output. \$ C(Q) = VC + FC VC(Q) FC 0 Q 5-20

21 Fixed and Sunk Costs FC: Costs that do not change as output changes. Sunk Cost: A cost that is forever lost after it has been paid. Decision makers should ignore sunk costs to maximize profit or minimize losses \$ C(Q) = VC + FC VC(Q) FC Q 5-21

22 Some Definitions Average Total Cost ATC = AVC + AFC ATC = C(Q)/Q \$ MC ATC AVC Average Variable Cost AVC = VC(Q)/Q Average Fixed Cost AFC = FC/Q MR Marginal Cost MC = DC/DQ AFC Q 5-22

23 Fixed Cost \$ Q 0 (ATC-AVC) = Q 0 AFC MC ATC = Q 0 (FC/ Q 0 ) AVC = FC AFC ATC AVC Fixed Cost Q 0 Q 5-23

24 Variable Cost \$ Q 0 AVC = Q 0 [VC(Q 0 )/ Q 0 ] = VC(Q 0 ) MC ATC AVC AVC Variable Cost Minimum of AVC Q 0 Q 5-24

25 Total Cost \$ Q 0 ATC = Q 0 [C(Q 0 )/ Q 0 ] MC ATC = C(Q 0 ) AVC ATC Total Cost Minimum of ATC Q 0 Q 5-25

26 Cubic Cost Function C(Q) = f + a Q + b Q 2 + cq 3 Marginal Cost? Memorize: Calculus: MC(Q) = a + 2bQ + 3cQ 2 dc/dq = a + 2bQ + 3cQ

27 An Example Total Cost: C(Q) = 10 + Q + Q 2 Variable cost function: VC(Q) = Q + Q 2 Variable cost of producing 2 units: VC(2) = 2 + (2) 2 = 6 Fixed costs: FC = 10 Marginal cost function: MC(Q) = 1 + 2Q Marginal cost of producing 2 units: MC(2) = 1 + 2(2) =

28 Long-Run Average Costs \$ LRAC Economies of Scale Q* Diseconomies of Scale Q 5-28

29 Multi-Product Cost Function C(Q 1, Q 2 ): Cost of jointly producing two outputs. General function form: ( Q Q ) = f + aq Q + bq 2 2 C +, cq

30 Economies of Scope C(Q 1, 0) + C(0, Q 2 ) > C(Q 1, Q 2 ). It is cheaper to produce the two outputs jointly instead of separately. Example: It is cheaper for Time-Warner to produce Internet connections and Instant Messaging services jointly than separately. 5-30

31 Cost Complementarity The marginal cost of producing good 1 declines as more of good two is produced: MC 1 (Q 1,Q 2 ) / Q 2 < 0. Example: Cow hides and steaks. 5-31

32 Quadratic Multi-Product Cost Function C(Q 1, Q 2 ) = f + aq 1 Q 2 + (Q 1 ) 2 + (Q 2 ) 2 MC 1 (Q 1, Q 2 ) = aq 2 + 2Q 1 MC 2 (Q 1, Q 2 ) = aq 1 + 2Q 2 Cost complementarity: a < 0 Economies of scope: f > aq 1 Q 2 C(Q 1,0) + C(0, Q 2 ) = f + (Q 1 ) 2 + f + (Q 2 ) 2 C(Q 1, Q 2 ) = f + aq 1 Q 2 + (Q 1 ) 2 + (Q 2 ) 2 f > aq 1 Q 2 : Joint production is cheaper 5-32

33 A Numerical Example: C(Q 1, Q 2 ) = 90-2Q 1 Q 2 + (Q 1 ) 2 + (Q 2 ) 2 Cost Complementarity? Yes, since a = -2 < 0 MC 1 (Q 1, Q 2 ) = -2Q 2 + 2Q 1 Economies of Scope? Yes, since 90 > -2Q 1 Q

34 Conclusion To maximize profits (minimize costs) managers must use inputs such that the value of marginal of each input reflects price the firm must pay to employ the input. The optimal mix of inputs is achieved when the MRTS KL = (w/r). Cost functions are the foundation for helping to determine profit-maximizing behavior in future chapters. 5-34

### Overview. Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Baye Chapters 4-5 Edited by DF 10/12. Consumer Behavior

Managerial Economics & usiness Strategy aye hapters 4-5 Edited by DF 1/12 Overview onsumer ehavior ndifference urve nalysis onsumer Preference Ordering onstraints The udget onstraint hanges in ncome hanges

### 14.01 Principles of Microeconomics, Fall 2007 Chia-Hui Chen October 15, 2007. Lecture 13. Cost Function

Short-Run Cost Function. Principles of Microeconomics, Fall Chia-Hui Chen October, ecture Cost Functions Outline. Chap : Short-Run Cost Function. Chap : ong-run Cost Function Cost Function et w be the

### Q = ak L + bk L. 2. The properties of a short-run cubic production function ( Q = AL + BL )

Learning Objectives After reading Chapter 10 and working the problems for Chapter 10 in the textbook and in this Student Workbook, you should be able to: Specify and estimate a short-run production function

### Productioin OVERVIEW. WSG5 7/7/03 4:35 PM Page 63. Copyright 2003 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

WSG5 7/7/03 4:35 PM Page 63 5 Productioin OVERVIEW This chapter reviews the general problem of transforming productive resources in goods and services for sale in the market. A production function is the

### Profit and Revenue Maximization

WSG7 7/7/03 4:36 PM Page 95 7 Profit and Revenue Maximization OVERVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to develop a general framework for finding optimal solutions to managerial decision-making problems.

### Review of Production and Cost Concepts

Sloan School of Management 15.010/15.011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology RECITATION NOTES #3 Review of Production and Cost Concepts Thursday - September 23, 2004 OUTLINE OF TODAY S RECITATION 1.

### Learning Objectives. After reading Chapter 11 and working the problems for Chapter 11 in the textbook and in this Workbook, you should be able to:

Learning Objectives After reading Chapter 11 and working the problems for Chapter 11 in the textbook and in this Workbook, you should be able to: Discuss three characteristics of perfectly competitive

### SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION

TRUE OR FALSE STATEMENTS SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION 1. According to the law of diminishing returns, additional units of the labour input increase the total output at a constantly slower rate. 2. In the short-run

### 8. Average product reaches a maximum when labor equals A) 100 B) 200 C) 300 D) 400

Ch. 6 1. The production function represents A) the quantity of inputs necessary to produce a given level of output. B) the various recipes for producing a given level of output. C) the minimum amounts

### MATH MODULE 5. Total, Average, and Marginal Functions. 1. Discussion M5-1

MATH MODULE Total, Average, and Marginal Functions 1. Discussion A very important skill for economists is the ability to relate total, average, and marginal curves. Much of standard microeconomics involves

### PART A: For each worker, determine that worker's marginal product of labor.

ECON 3310 Homework #4 - Solutions 1: Suppose the following indicates how many units of output y you can produce per hour with different levels of labor input (given your current factory capacity): PART

### Production Functions

Short Run Production Function. Principles of Microeconomics, Fall Chia-Hui Chen October, ecture Production Functions Outline. Chap : Short Run Production Function. Chap : ong Run Production Function. Chap

### The Cost of Production

The Cost of Production 1. Opportunity Costs 2. Economic Costs versus Accounting Costs 3. All Sorts of Different Kinds of Costs 4. Cost in the Short Run 5. Cost in the Long Run 6. Cost Minimization 7. The

### An increase in the number of students attending college. shifts to the left. An increase in the wage rate of refinery workers.

1. Which of the following would shift the demand curve for new textbooks to the right? a. A fall in the price of paper used in publishing texts. b. A fall in the price of equivalent used text books. c.

### Technology, Production, and Costs

Chapter 10 Technology, Production, and Costs 10.1 Technology: An Economic Definition 10.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVE Learning Objective 1 Define technology and give examples of technological change. A firm s technology

### Production Function in the Long-Run. Business Economics Theory of the Firm II Production and Cost in the Long Run. Description of Technology

Business Economics Theory of the Firm II Production and Cost in the ong Run Two or more variable input factors Thomas & Maurice, Chapter 9 Herbert Stocker herbert.stocker@uibk.ac.at Institute of International

### Long-Run Average Cost. Econ 410: Micro Theory. Long-Run Average Cost. Long-Run Average Cost. Economies of Scale & Scope Minimizing Cost Mathematically

Slide 1 Slide 3 Econ 410: Micro Theory & Scope Minimizing Cost Mathematically Friday, November 9 th, 2007 Cost But, at some point, average costs for a firm will tend to increase. Why? Factory space and

### Microeconomics Topic 6: Be able to explain and calculate average and marginal cost to make production decisions.

Microeconomics Topic 6: Be able to explain and calculate average and marginal cost to make production decisions. Reference: Gregory Mankiw s Principles of Microeconomics, 2 nd edition, Chapter 13. Long-Run

### NAME: INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMIC THEORY SPRING 2008 ECONOMICS 300/010 & 011 Midterm II April 30, 2008

NAME: INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMIC THEORY SPRING 2008 ECONOMICS 300/010 & 011 Section I: Multiple Choice (4 points each) Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.

### Econ 101: Principles of Microeconomics

Econ 101: Principles of Microeconomics Chapter 12 - Behind the Supply Curve - Inputs and Costs Fall 2010 Herriges (ISU) Ch. 12 Behind the Supply Curve Fall 2010 1 / 30 Outline 1 The Production Function

### Chapter 8. Competitive Firms and Markets

Chapter 8. Competitive Firms and Markets We have learned the production function and cost function, the question now is: how much to produce such that firm can maximize his profit? To solve this question,

### Theory of the Firm. The Firm s Problem: Costs and Profits

Theory of the Firm The Firm s Problem: Costs and Profits Firm s Problem: Description We consider a firm producing a single good Q using two inputs: L (labour) and K (capital). The technology of the firm

### MERSİN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCİENCES DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS MICROECONOMICS MIDTERM EXAM DATE 18.11.

MERSİN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCİENCES DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS MICROECONOMICS MIDTERM EXAM DATE 18.11.2011 TİIE 12:30 STUDENT NAME AND NUMBER MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron.

Principles of Microeconomics, Quiz #5 Fall 2007 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron. 1) Perfect competition

### Cost OVERVIEW. WSG6 7/7/03 4:36 PM Page 79. Copyright 2003 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

WSG6 7/7/03 4:36 PM Page 79 6 Cost OVERVIEW The previous chapter reviewed the theoretical implications of the technological process whereby factors of production are efficiently transformed into goods

### Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter 8. Managing in Competitive, Monopolistic, and Monopolistically Competitive Markets

Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter 8 Managing in Competitive, Monopolistic, and Monopolistically Competitive Markets I. Perfect Competition Overview Characteristics and profit outlook. Effect

### Costs of Production and Profit Maximizing Production: 3 examples.

Costs of Production and Profit Maximizing Production: 3 examples. In this handout, we analyze costs and profit maximizing output decisions by looking at three different possible costs structures. Three

### 19 : Theory of Production

19 : Theory of Production 1 Recap from last session Long Run Production Analysis Return to Scale Isoquants, Isocost Choice of input combination Expansion path Economic Region of Production Session Outline

economicsentrance.weebly.com Basic Exercises Micro Economics AKG 09 Table of Contents MICRO ECONOMICS Budget Constraint... 4 Practice problems... 4 Answers... 4 Supply and Demand... 7 Practice Problems...

### Chapter 7: The Costs of Production QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW

HW #7: Solutions QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW 8. Assume the marginal cost of production is greater than the average variable cost. Can you determine whether the average variable cost is increasing or decreasing?

### Chapter 22 The Cost of Production Extra Multiple Choice Questions for Review

Chapter 22 The Cost of Production Extra Multiple Choice Questions for Review 1. Implicit costs are: A) equal to total fixed costs. B) comprised entirely of variable costs. C) "payments" for self-employed

### Fixed Cost. Marginal Cost. Fixed Cost. Marginal Cost

1. Complete the following table (round each answer to the nearest whole number): Output Total Variable Fixed Marginal Average Avg. Var. Avg. Fixed 0 30 1 35 60 3 110 4 00 5 30 6 600 Output Total Variable

### Costs. Accounting Cost{stresses \out of pocket" expenses. Depreciation costs are based on tax laws.

Costs Accounting Cost{stresses \out of pocket" expenses. Depreciation costs are based on tax laws. Economic Cost{based on opportunity cost (the next best use of resources). 1. A self-employed entrepreneur's

### AP Microeconomics Review

AP Microeconomics Review 1. Firm in Perfect Competition (Long-Run Equilibrium) 2. Monopoly Industry with comparison of price & output of a Perfectly Competitive Industry 3. Natural Monopoly with Fair-Return

### AP Microeconomics Chapter 12 Outline

I. Learning Objectives In this chapter students will learn: A. The significance of resource pricing. B. How the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm s demand for that resource.

### Cost Constraint/Isocost Line

Cost Constraint/Isocost ine COST CONSTRAINT C= w + rk (m = p 1 x 1 +p 2 x 2 ) w: wage rate (including fringe benefits, holidays, PRSI, etc) r: rental rate of capital Rearranging: K=C/r-(w/r) COST CONSTRAINT

### Pre-Test Chapter 20 ed17

Pre-Test Chapter 20 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. In the above diagram it is assumed that: A. some costs are fixed and other costs are variable. B. all costs are variable. C. the law of diminishing

### COST THEORY. I What costs matter? A Opportunity Costs

COST THEORY Cost theory is related to production theory, they are often used together. However, the question is how much to produce, as opposed to which inputs to use. That is, assume that we use production

### CHAPTER 10 MARKET POWER: MONOPOLY AND MONOPSONY

CHAPTER 10 MARKET POWER: MONOPOLY AND MONOPSONY EXERCISES 3. A monopolist firm faces a demand with constant elasticity of -.0. It has a constant marginal cost of \$0 per unit and sets a price to maximize

### Production Functions and Cost of Production

1 Returns to Scale 1 14.01 Principles of Microeconomics, Fall 2007 Chia-Hui Chen October, 2007 Lecture 12 Production Functions and Cost of Production Outline 1. Chap 6: Returns to Scale 2. Chap 6: Production

### , to its new position, ATC 2

S171-S184_Krugman2e_PS_Ch12.qxp 9/16/08 9:22 PM Page S-171 Behind the Supply Curve: Inputs and Costs chapter: 12 1. Changes in the prices of key commodities can have a significant impact on a company s

### Cosumnes River College Principles of Microeconomics Problem Set 6 Due Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Name: Solutions Cosumnes River College Principles of Microeconomics Problem Set 6 Due Tuesday, March 24, 2015 Spring 2015 Prof. Dowell Instructions: Write the answers clearly and concisely on these sheets

### A Detailed Price Discrimination Example

A Detailed Price Discrimination Example Suppose that there are two different types of customers for a monopolist s product. Customers of type 1 have demand curves as follows. These demand curves include

### Market Structure: Perfect Competition and Monopoly

WSG8 7/7/03 4:34 PM Page 113 8 Market Structure: Perfect Competition and Monopoly OVERVIEW One of the most important decisions made by a manager is how to price the firm s product. If the firm is a profit

### N. Gregory Mankiw Principles of Economics. Chapter 13. THE COSTS OF PRODUCTION

N. Gregory Mankiw Principles of Economics Chapter 13. THE COSTS OF PRODUCTION Solutions to Problems and Applications 1. a. opportunity cost; b. average total cost; c. fixed cost; d. variable cost; e. total

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 11 Perfect Competition - Sample Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Perfect competition is an industry with A) a

### We will study the extreme case of perfect competition, where firms are price takers.

Perfectly Competitive Markets A firm s decision about how much to produce or what price to charge depends on how competitive the market structure is. If the Cincinnati Bengals raise their ticket prices

### c. Given your answer in part (b), what do you anticipate will happen in this market in the long-run?

Perfect Competition Questions Question 1 Suppose there is a perfectly competitive industry where all the firms are identical with identical cost curves. Furthermore, suppose that a representative firm

### MICROECONOMICS AND POLICY ANALYSIS - U8213 Professor Rajeev H. Dehejia Class Notes - Spring 2001

MICROECONOMICS AND POLICY ANALYSIS - U8213 Professor Rajeev H. Dehejia Class Notes - Spring 2001 General Equilibrium and welfare with production Wednesday, January 24 th and Monday, January 29 th Reading:

### 11 PERFECT COMPETITION. Chapter. Competition

Chapter 11 PERFECT COMPETITION Competition Topic: Perfect Competition 1) Perfect competition is an industry with A) a few firms producing identical goods B) a few firms producing goods that differ somewhat

### CHAPTER 8 PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND COMPETITIVE SUPPLY

CHAPTER 8 PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND COMPETITIVE SUPPLY TEACHING NOTES This chapter begins by explaining what we mean by a competitive market and why it makes sense to assume that firms try to maximize profit.

### chapter Behind the Supply Curve: >> Inputs and Costs Section 2: Two Key Concepts: Marginal Cost and Average Cost

chapter 8 Behind the Supply Curve: >> Inputs and Costs Section 2: Two Key Concepts: Marginal Cost and Average Cost We ve just seen how to derive a firm s total cost curve from its production function.

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Firms that survive in the long run are usually those that A) remain small. B) strive for the largest

### Price Theory Lecture 4: Production & Cost

Price Theory Lecture 4: Production & Cost Now that we ve explained the demand side of the market, our goal is to develop a greater understanding of the supply side. Ultimately, we want to use a theory

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron.

Principles of Microeconomics Fall 2007, Quiz #6 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question on the accompanying scantron. 1) A monopoly is

### Practice Questions Week 8 Day 1

Practice Questions Week 8 Day 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The characteristics of a market that influence the behavior of market participants

### Unit 2.3 - Theory of the Firm Unit Overview

Unit 2.3.1 - Introduction to Market Structures and Cost Theory Intro to Market Structures Pure competition Monopolistic competition Oligopoly Monopoly Cost theory Types of costs: fixed costs, variable

### Chapter 12. The Costs of Produc4on

Chapter 12 The Costs of Produc4on Copyright 214 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. What will you learn

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Practice for Perfect Competition Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following is a defining characteristic of a

### Monopoly and Monopsony Labor Market Behavior

Monopoly and Monopsony abor Market Behavior 1 Introduction For the purposes of this handout, let s assume that firms operate in just two markets: the market for their product where they are a seller) and

### D) Marginal revenue is the rate at which total revenue changes with respect to changes in output.

Ch. 9 1. Which of the following is not an assumption of a perfectly competitive market? A) Fragmented industry B) Differentiated product C) Perfect information D) Equal access to resources 2. Which of

### 21 : Theory of Cost 1

21 : Theory of Cost 1 Recap from last Session Production cost Types of Cost: Accounting/Economic Analysis Cost Output Relationship Short run cost Analysis Session Outline The Long-Run Cost-Output Relations

### Chapter 6 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

Chapter 6 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUETION 1. Which one of the following is generally considered a characteristic of a perfectly competitive labor market? a. A few workers of varying skills and capabilities b.

### Econ 201 Final Exam. Douglas, Fall 2007 Version A Special Codes 00000. PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam.

, Fall 2007 Version A Special Codes 00000 PLEDGE: I have neither given nor received unauthorized help on this exam. SIGNED: PRINT NAME: Econ 201 Final Exam 1. For a profit-maximizing monopolist, a. MR

### Lecture 2. Marginal Functions, Average Functions, Elasticity, the Marginal Principle, and Constrained Optimization

Lecture 2. Marginal Functions, Average Functions, Elasticity, the Marginal Principle, and Constrained Optimization 2.1. Introduction Suppose that an economic relationship can be described by a real-valued

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 23-1 Briefly indicate the basic characteristics of pure competition, pure monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. Under which of these market classifications

### Profit Maximization. 2. product homogeneity

Perfectly Competitive Markets It is essentially a market in which there is enough competition that it doesn t make sense to identify your rivals. There are so many competitors that you cannot single out

### ECON 103, 2008-2 ANSWERS TO HOME WORK ASSIGNMENTS

ECON 103, 2008-2 ANSWERS TO HOME WORK ASSIGNMENTS Due the Week of June 23 Chapter 8 WRITE [4] Use the demand schedule that follows to calculate total revenue and marginal revenue at each quantity. Plot

### Agenda. Productivity, Output, and Employment, Part 1. The Production Function. The Production Function. The Production Function. The Demand for Labor

Agenda Productivity, Output, and Employment, Part 1 3-1 3-2 A production function shows how businesses transform factors of production into output of goods and services through the applications of technology.

### Chapter. Perfect Competition CHAPTER IN PERSPECTIVE

Perfect Competition Chapter 10 CHAPTER IN PERSPECTIVE In Chapter 10 we study perfect competition, the market that arises when the demand for a product is large relative to the output of a single producer.

### a. What is the total revenue Joe can earn in a year? b. What are the explicit costs Joe incurs while producing ten boats?

Chapter 13 1. Joe runs a small boat factory. He can make ten boats per year and sell them for 25,000 each. It costs Joe 150,000 for the raw materials (fibreglass, wood, paint, and so on) to build the ten

### Principles of Economics: Micro: Exam #2: Chapters 1-10 Page 1 of 9

Principles of Economics: Micro: Exam #2: Chapters 1-10 Page 1 of 9 print name on the line above as your signature INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This Exam #2 must be completed within the allocated time (i.e., between

### Profit Maximization. PowerPoint Slides prepared by: Andreea CHIRITESCU Eastern Illinois University

Profit Maximization PowerPoint Slides prepared by: Andreea CHIRITESCU Eastern Illinois University 1 The Nature and Behavior of Firms A firm An association of individuals Firms Who have organized themselves

### Market for cream: P 1 P 2 D 1 D 2 Q 2 Q 1. Individual firm: W Market for labor: W, S MRP w 1 w 2 D 1 D 1 D 2 D 2

Factor Markets Problem 1 (APT 93, P2) Two goods, coffee and cream, are complements. Due to a natural disaster in Brazil that drastically reduces the supply of coffee in the world market the price of coffee

### Chapter 4: Elasticity

Chapter : Elasticity Elasticity of eman: It measures the responsiveness of quantity emane (or eman) with respect to changes in its own price (or income or the price of some other commoity). Why is Elasticity

### Pure Competition urely competitive markets are used as the benchmark to evaluate market

R. Larry Reynolds Pure Competition urely competitive markets are used as the benchmark to evaluate market P performance. It is generally believed that market structure influences the behavior and performance

### Economics 10: Problem Set 3 (With Answers)

Economics 1: Problem Set 3 (With Answers) 1. Assume you own a bookstore that has the following cost and revenue information for last year: - gross revenue from sales \$1, - cost of inventory 4, - wages

### or, put slightly differently, the profit maximizing condition is for marginal revenue to equal marginal cost:

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes 1 Economics 35: Intermediate Microeconomics Notes and Sample Questions Chapter 9: Profit Maximization Profit Maximization The basic assumption here is that firms are profit maximizing.

### Sample Midterm Solutions

Sample Midterm Solutions Instructions: Please answer both questions. You should show your working and calculations for each applicable problem. Correct answers without working will get you relatively few

### ECON 103, 2008-2 ANSWERS TO HOME WORK ASSIGNMENTS

ECON 103, 2008-2 ANSWERS TO HOME WORK ASSIGNMENTS Due the Week of July 14 Chapter 11 WRITE: [2] Complete the following labour demand table for a firm that is hiring labour competitively and selling its

### REVIEW OF MICROECONOMICS

ECO 352 Spring 2010 Precepts Weeks 1, 2 Feb. 1, 8 REVIEW OF MICROECONOMICS Concepts to be reviewed Budget constraint: graphical and algebraic representation Preferences, indifference curves. Utility function

### Production and Cost Analysis

Production and Cost Analysis The entire production process begins with the supply of factors of production or inputs used towards the production of a final good we all consume in the final good market.

### Constrained Optimisation

CHAPTER 9 Constrained Optimisation Rational economic agents are assumed to make choices that maximise their utility or profit But their choices are usually constrained for example the consumer s choice

### 2.4 Multiproduct Monopoly. 2.4 Multiproduct Monopoly

.4 Multiproduct Monopoly Matilde Machado Slides available from: http://www.eco.uc3m.es/oi-i-mei/.4 Multiproduct Monopoly The firm is a monopoly in all markets where it operates i=,.n goods sold by the

### Problem Set #5-Key. Economics 305-Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

Problem Set #5-Key Sonoma State University Economics 305-Intermediate Microeconomic Theory Dr Cuellar (1) Suppose that you are paying your for your own education and that your college tuition is \$200 per

### Where are we? To do today: finish the derivation of the demand curve using indifference curves. Go on then to chapter Production and Cost

Where are we? To do today: finish the derivation of the demand curve using indifference curves Go on then to chapter Production and Cost Utility and indifference curves The point is to find where on the

### Chapter 9: Perfect Competition

Chapter 9: Perfect Competition Perfect Competition Law of One Price Short-Run Equilibrium Long-Run Equilibrium Maximize Profit Market Equilibrium Constant- Cost Industry Increasing- Cost Industry Decreasing-

### Practice Multiple Choice Questions Answers are bolded. Explanations to come soon!!

Practice Multiple Choice Questions Answers are bolded. Explanations to come soon!! For more, please visit: http://courses.missouristate.edu/reedolsen/courses/eco165/qeq.htm Market Equilibrium and Applications

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MBA 640 Survey of Microeconomics Fall 2006, Quiz 6 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A monopoly is best defined as a firm that

### POTENTIAL OUTPUT and LONG RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY

POTENTIAL OUTPUT and LONG RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY Aggregate Supply represents the ability of an economy to produce goods and services. In the Long-run this ability to produce is based on the level of production

### N. Gregory Mankiw Principles of Economics. Chapter 15. MONOPOLY

N. Gregory Mankiw Principles of Economics Chapter 15. MONOPOLY Solutions to Problems and Applications 1. The following table shows revenue, costs, and profits, where quantities are in thousands, and total

### Connecting the Firm s Optimal Output and Input Decisions

Perspectives on Economic Education Research Connecting the Firm s Optimal Output and Input Decisions Stephen Shmanske * Abstract: The paper presents a figure and some simple numerical/algebraic examples

### Chapter 6 Competitive Markets

Chapter 6 Competitive Markets After reading Chapter 6, COMPETITIVE MARKETS, you should be able to: List and explain the characteristics of Perfect Competition and Monopolistic Competition Explain why a

### Pre-Test Chapter 25 ed17

Pre-Test Chapter 25 ed17 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Refer to the above graph. An increase in the quantity of labor demanded (as distinct from an increase in demand) is shown by the: A. shift from labor

### Cost of Production : An Example

University of California, Berkeley Spring 008 ECON 00A Section 0, Cost of Production : An Example What you should get out of this example: Understand the technical derivation of optimal inputs in Cost

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MBA 640, Survey of Microeconomics, Quiz #4 Fall 2006 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In the short run, A) there are no variable