1 Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter 8 Managing in Competitive, Monopolistic, and Monopolistically Competitive Markets
2 I. Perfect Competition Overview Characteristics and profit outlook. Effect of new entrants. II. Monopolies Sources of monopoly power. Maximizing monopoly profits. Pros and cons. III. Monopolistic Competition Profit maximization. Long run equilibrium.
3 Perfect Competition Environment Many buyers and sellers. Homogeneous (identical) product. Perfect information on both sides of market. No transaction costs. Free entry and exit.
4 Key Implications Firms are price takers (P = MR). In the short-run, firms may earn profits or losses. Long-run profits are zero.
5 Unrealistic? Why Learn? Many small businesses are price-takers, and decision rules for such firms are similar to those of perfectly competitive firms. It is a useful benchmark. Explains why governments oppose monopolies. Illuminates the danger to managers of competitive environments. Importance of product differentiation. Sustainable advantage.
6 Managing a Perfectly Competitive Firm (or Price-Taking Business)
7 Setting Price $ S $ P e D f D Market Q M Firm Q f
8 Profit-Maximizing Output Decision MR = MC. Since, MR = P, Set P = MC to maximize profits.
9 Graphically: Representative Firm s Output Decision $ Profit = (P e - ATC) Q f* MC ATC P e AVC P e = D f = MR ATC Q f* Q f
10 A Numerical Example Given P=$10 C(Q) = 5 + Q 2 Optimal Price? P=$10 Optimal Output? MR = P = $10 and MC = 2Q 10 = 2Q Q = 5 units Maximum Profits? PQ - C(Q) = (10)(5) - (5 + 25) = $20
11 Should this Firm Sustain Short Run Losses or Shut Down? $ Profit = (P e - ATC) Q f* < 0 MC ATC AVC ATC P e Loss P e = D f = MR Q f* Q f
12 Shutdown Decision Rule A profit-maximizing firm should continue to operate (sustain short-run losses) if its operating loss is less than its fixed costs. Operating results in a smaller loss than ceasing operations. Decision rule: A firm should shutdown when P < min AVC. Continue operating as long as P min AVC.
13 Firm s Short-Run Supply Curve: MC Above Min AVC $ MC AVC ATC P min AVC Q f* Q f
14 Short-Run Market Supply Curve The market supply curve is the summation of each individual firm s supply at each price. P Firm 1 Firm 2 P P Market S 1 S 2 S M Q Q 30 43Q
15 Long Run Adjustments? If firms are price takers but there are barriers to entry, profits will persist. If the industry is perfectly competitive, firms are not only price takers but there is free entry. Other greedy capitalists enter the market.
16 Effect of Entry on Price? S* $ S $ Entry P e P e* D f* D D f Market Q M Firm Q f
17 Effect of Entry on the Firm s Output and Profits? $ MC AC P e D f P e* Df* Q L Q f * Q
18 Summary of Logic Short run profits leads to entry. Entry increases market supply, drives down the market price, increases the market quantity. Demand for individual firm s product shifts down. Firm reduces output to maximize profit. Long run profits are zero.
19 Features of Long Run Competitive Equilibrium P = MC Socially efficient output. P = minimum AC Efficient plant size. Zero profits Firms are earning just enough to offset their opportunity cost.
20 Monopoly Environment Single firm serves the relevant market. Most monopolies are local monopolies. The demand for the firm s product is the market demand curve. Firm has control over price. But the price charged affects the quantity demanded of the monopolist s product.
21 Natural Sources of Monopoly Power Economies of scale Economies of scope Cost complementarities
22 Created Sources of Monopoly Power Patents and other legal barriers (like licenses) Tying contracts Exclusive contracts I. Collusion Contract... II. III.
23 Managing a Monopoly Market power permits you to price above MC Is the sky the limit? No. How much you sell depends on the price you set!
24 A Monopolist s Marginal Revenue P TR 100 Elastic Unit elastic Inelastic 40 Unit elastic Q MR Elastic Inelastic Q
25 Monopoly Profit Maximization Produce where MR = MC. Charge the price on the demand curve that corresponds to that quantity. $ Profit MC ATC P M ATC D Q M MR Q
26 Useful Formulae What s the MR if a firm faces a linear demand curve for its product? P = a + bq MR = a + 2 bq, where b < 0. Alternatively, MR = 1+ E P E
27 A Numerical Example Given estimates of P = 10 - Q C(Q) = 6 + 2Q Optimal output? MR = 10-2Q MC = Q = 2 Q = 4 units Optimal price? P = 10 - (4) = $6 Maximum profits? PQ - C(Q) = (6)(4) - (6 + 8) = $10
28 Long Run Adjustments? None, unless the source of monopoly power is eliminated.
29 Why Government Dislikes P > MC Monopoly? Too little output, at too high a price. Deadweight loss of monopoly.
30 Deadweight Loss of Monopoly $ Deadweight Loss of Monopoly MC ATC P M MC D Q M MR Q
31 Arguments for Monopoly The beneficial effects of economies of scale, economies of scope, and cost complementarities on price and output may outweigh the negative effects of market power. Encourages innovation.
32 Monopoly Multi-Plant Decisions Consider a monopoly that produces identical output at two production facilities (think of a firm that generates and distributes electricity from two facilities). Let C 1 (Q 2 ) be the production cost at facility 1. Let C 2 (Q 2 ) be the production cost at facility 2. Decision Rule: Produce output where MR(Q) = MC 1 (Q 1 ) and MR(Q) = MC 2 (Q 2 ) Set price equal to P(Q), where Q = Q 1 + Q 2.
33 Monopolistic Competition: Environment and Implications Numerous buyers and sellers Differentiated products Implication: Since products are differentiated, each firm faces a downward sloping demand curve. Consumers view differentiated products as close substitutes: there exists some willingness to substitute. Free entry and exit Implication: Firms will earn zero profits in the long run.
34 Managing a Monopolistically Competitive Firm Like a monopoly, monopolistically competitive firms But have market power that permits pricing above marginal cost. level of sales depends on the price it sets. The presence of other brands in the market makes the demand for your brand more elastic than if you were a monopolist. Free entry and exit impacts profitability. Therefore, monopolistically competitive firms have limited market power.
35 Marginal Revenue Like a Monopolist P TR 100 Elastic Unit elastic Inelastic 40 Unit elastic Q MR Elastic Inelastic Q
36 Monopolistic Competition: Profit Maximization Maximize profits like a monopolist Produce output where MR = MC. Charge the price on the demand curve that corresponds to that quantity.
37 Short-Run Monopolistic Competition $ Profit MC ATC P M ATC D Q M MR Quantity of Brand X
38 Long Run Adjustments? If the industry is truly monopolistically competitive, there is free entry. In this case other greedy capitalists enter, and their new brands steal market share. This reduces the demand for your product until profits are ultimately zero.
39 Long-Run Monopolistic Competition $ Long Run Equilibrium (P = AC, so zero profits) MC AC P* P 1 Entry D MR D 1 Q 1 Q* MR 1 Quantity of Brand X
40 Monopolistic Competition The Good (To Consumers) Product Variety The Bad (To Society) P > MC Excess capacity Unexploited economies of scale The Ugly (To Managers) P = ATC > minimum of average costs. Zero Profits (in the long run)!
41 Optimal Advertising Decisions Advertising is one way for firms with market power to differentiate their products. But, how much should a firm spend on advertising? Advertise to the point where the additional revenue generated from advertising equals the additional cost of advertising. Equivalently, the profit-maximizing level of advertising occurs where the advertising-to-sales ratio equals the ratio of the advertising elasticity of demand to the own-price elasticity of demand. A R = E Q, A E Q, P
42 Maximizing Profits: A Synthesizing Example C(Q) = Q 2 Determine the profit-maximizing output and price, and discuss its implications, if You are a price taker and other firms charge $40 per unit; You are a monopolist and the inverse demand for your product is P = Q; You are a monopolistically competitive firm and the inverse demand for your brand is P = 100 Q.
43 Marginal Cost C(Q) = Q 2, So MC = 8Q. This is independent of market structure.
44 MR = P = $40. Set MR = MC. 40 = 8Q. Q = 5 units. Price Taker Cost of producing 5 units. C(Q) = Q 2 = = $225. Revenues: PQ = (40)(5) = $200. Maximum profits of -$25. Implications: Expect exit in the long-run.
45 Monopoly/Monopolistic Competition MR = 100-2Q (since P = Q). Set MR = MC, or 100-2Q = 8Q. Optimal output: Q = 10. Optimal price: P = (10) = $90. Maximal profits: PQ - C(Q) = (90)(10) -( (100)) = $375. Implications Monopolist will not face entry (unless patent or other entry barriers are eliminated). Monopolistically competitive firm should expect other firms to clone, so profits will decline over time.
46 Conclusion Firms operating in a perfectly competitive market take the market price as given. Produce output where P = MC. Firms may earn profits or losses in the short run. but, in the long run, entry or exit forces profits to zero. A monopoly firm, in contrast, can earn persistent profits provided that source of monopoly power is not eliminated. A monopolistically competitive firm can earn profits in the short run, but entry by competing brands will erode these profits over time.
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