Using the PRECEDE- PROCEED Planning Model PRECEDE-PROCEED P R E C E D E. Model for health promotion programming Best known among health scientists

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1 Using the PRECEDE- PROCEED Planning Model Dr. McKinley Thomas Associate Professor Department of Community Medicine Mercer University PRECEDE-PROCEED Model for health promotion programming Best known among health scientists Most widely used model Nine phases or steps P R E C E D E Predisposing, Reinforcing, Enabling Constructs Educational / Environmental Diagnosis Evaluation Developed in the early 1970s Diagnostic portion of the model 1

2 P R O C E E D Policy Regulatory Organizational Constructs Educational Environmental Development Conceived in the 1980s Implementation and evaluation portion of the model How it Works The model begins with an analysis of final consequences Negative health outcomes Retrospective explanations are offered relative to etiologic factors Factors are categorized Predisposing Reinforcing Enabling How it Works, Continued From an understanding of causative factors, educational objectives may be developed. Program implementation and evaluation follow programmatic planning activities. 2

3 Phases of the Model Phase 1: Social Diagnosis Phase 2: Epidemiological Diagnosis Phase 3: Behavioral and Environmental Diagnosis Phase 4: Educational and Organizational Diagnosis Phase 5: Administrative and Policy Diagnosis Phase 6: Implementation Phase 7: Process Evaluation Phase 8: Impact Evaluation Phase 9: Outcome Evaluation Phase 1: Social Diagnosis Subjectively seeks to define the quality of life for those within a given population. This is best accomplished by involving community members, key stakeholders, etc. Community directed self study is suggested 3

4 Phase 2: Epidemiological Diagnosis Planners secure and utilize statistical data specific to the target population in an effort to identify / rank health problems and goals that may contribute to community identified needs. Phase 3: Behavioral and Environmental Diagnosis Determination and prioritization of behavioral / environmental issues that may be correlated with issues identified in Phase 2 Phase 4: Educational and Organizational Diagnosis Identifies / classifies the multitude of factors with the potential to influence a given behavior into three areas Predisposing Enabling Reinforcing Programmatic objectives developed based upon included factors 4

5 SMART Specific Measurable Appropriate Realistic Time-Bound Bloom s Taxonomy (1956) Cognitive Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Affective Psychomotor 5

6 Knowledge List Name Identify Show Define Recognize Recall State Comprehension Summarize Explain Put Into Your Own Words Interpret Describe Paraphrase Differentiate Demonstrate Visualize Find More Information Compare About Restate Application Solve Illustrate Calculate Use Interpret Relate Manipulate Apply Classify Modify Put Into Practice 6

7 Analysis Analyze Organize Deduce Choose Contrast Compare Distinguish Synthesis Design Hypothesize Support Schematize Write Report Discuss Discuss Plan Devise Compare Create Construct Evaluation Evaluate Choose Estimate Judge Defend Criticize Justify 7

8 Components of an Objective Target Population Who will be performing the specific task? Outcome What exactly do you want the target population to do? Criterion What will be used to judge success or failure? Condition When will the task be performed? Example By the end of week one, community members participating in the drug prevention focus group will discuss 15 benefits of offering area youth drug prevention opportunities. Predisposing Knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, perceptions Can facilitate / hinder individual motivation toward change 8

9 Enabling Barriers to change created by societal forces / systems Reinforcing Feedback and rewards received among target population Phase 5: Administrative and Policy Diagnosis Planners determine of capacity / resources are available to develop and implement program PRECEDE ends (phase 5) PROCEED begins (phase 6) 9

10 Phase 6: Implementation Planners select methods / strategies for intervention Phase 7: Process Evaluation Provides relevant documentation during program implementation Makes it possible for program adjustment to be made Example: Survey regarding acceptable meeting times / locations Phase 8: Impact Evaluation Evaluates global effectiveness of a program regarding its ability to produce favorable knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, health status, and / or skills among the target population. Example: Number of individuals who report that they have not smoked in the past 15 days 10

11 Phase 9: Outcome Evaluation Determines whether the program met the stated long-term goals / objectives Example Reduction in mortality rate due to unintended injury 11

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