1 TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (Excerpts from Linn and Miller Measurement and Assessment in Teaching, 9 th ed) Table 1 Major categories in the cognitive domain of the taxonomy of educational objectives (Bloom, 1956) Descriptions of the Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain 1. Knowledge. Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. 2. Comprehension. Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words or numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects). These learning outcomes go lone step beyond the simple remembering of material and represent the lowest level of understanding. 3. Application. Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding that those under comprehension. 4. Analysis. Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. 5. Synthesis. Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. 6. Evaluation. Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all of the other categories plus value judgments based on clearly defined criteria.
2 Table 2 Examples of general instructional objectives and clarifying verbs for the cognitive domain of the taxonomy Illustrative General Illustrative Verbs for Stating Instructional Objectives Specific Learning Outcomes Knows common terms Defines, describes, identifies, labels, lists Knows specific facts matches, names, outlines, reproduces, Knows methods and procedures selects, states Knows principles Understands facts and principles Converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, Interprets verbal material explains, extends, generalizes, gives examples Interprets charts and graphs infers, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, Translates verbal material to summarizes mathematical formulas Estimates consequences implied in data Justifies methods and procedures Applies principles to new situations Changes, computes, demonstrates, discovers, Applies theories to practical situations manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, Solves mathematical problems prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, Constructs charts and graphs uses Demonstrates correct usage of a procedure Recognizes unstated assumptions Breaks down, diagrams, differentiates, Recognizes logical fallacies discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, in reasoning illustrates, infers, outlines, points out, relates, Distinguishes between facts and selects, separates, subdivides inferences Evaluates the relevancy of data Analyzes the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing) Writes a well-organized theme Categorizes, combines, compiles, composes Gives a well-organized speech creates, devises, designs, explains, generates Writes a creative short story (or poem) modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, Proposes a plan for an experiment reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises Integrates learning from different rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes areas into a plan for solving a problem Formulates a new scheme for classifying objects (or events or ideas) Judges the consistency of written material Appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, Judges the adequacy with which criticizes, describes, discriminates, explains, conclusions are supported by data interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, Judges the value of a work (art, music, supports writing) by use of internal criteria Judges the value of a work (art, music, writing) by use of external standards
3 Table 3 Major categories in the affective domain of the taxonomy of educational objectives (Krathwohl, 1964) Descriptions of the Major Categories in the Affective Domain 1. Receiving. Receiving refers to the student s willingness to attend to particular phenomena or stimuli (classroom activities, textbook, music, etc.) From a teaching standpoint, it is concerned with getting, holding, and directing the student s attention. Learning outcomes in this area range from the simple awareness that a thing exist to selective attention on the part of the learner. Receiving represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the affective domain. 2. Responding. Responding refers to active participation on the part of the student. At this level he not only attends to a particular phenomenon but also reacts to it in some way. Learning outcomes in this area may emphasize acquiescence in responding (reads assigned material), willingness to respond (voluntarily reads beyond assignment), or satisfaction in responding (reads for pleasure or enjoyment). The higher levels of this category include those instructional objectives that are commonly classified under interest; that is, those that stress the seeking out and enjoyment of particular activities. 3. Valuing. Valuing is concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges in degree from the more simple acceptance of a value (desires to improve group skills) to the more complex level of commitment (assumes responsibility for the effective functioning of the group). Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, but clues to theses values are expressed in the student s overt behavior. Learning outcomes in this area are concerned with behavior that is consistent and stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable. Instructional objectives that are commonly classified under attitudes and appreciation would fall into this category. 4. Organization. Organization is concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system. Thus, the emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Learning outcomes may be concerned with the conceptualization of a value (recognizes the responsibility of each individual for improving human relations) or with the organization of a value system (develops a vocational plan that satisfies his need for both economic security and social service). Instructional objectives relating to the development of a philosophy of life would fall into this category. 5. Characterization by a Value or Value Complex. At this level of the affective domain, the individual has a value system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time for him to have developed a characteristic lifestyle. Thus, the behavior is pervasive, consistent, and predictable. Learning outcomes at this level cover a broad range of activities, but the major emphasis is on the fact that the behavior is typical or characteristic of the student. Instructional objectives that are concerned with the student s general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional) would be appropriate here.
4 Table 4 Examples of general instructional objectives are clarifying verbs for the affective domain of the taxonomy Illustrative General Illustrative Verbs for Stating Instructional Objectives Specific Learning Outcomes Listens attentively Asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds Shows awareness of the identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, importance of learning sits erect, replies, uses Shows sensitivity to social problems Accepts differences of race and culture Attends closely to the classroom activities Completes assigned homework Answers, assists, complies, conforms, discusses, Obeys school rules greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, Participates in class presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, discussion Completes laboratory work Volunteers for special tasks Shows interest in subject Enjoys helping others Demonstrates belief in the Completes, describes, differentiates, explains, democratic process follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, Appreciates good literature (art proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, or music) studies, works Appreciates the role of science (or other subjects) in everyday life Shows concern for the welfare of others Demonstrates problem-solving attitude Demonstrates commitment to social improvement Recognizes the need for balance between Adheres, alters, arranges, combines, freedom and responsibility in a democracy compares, completes, defends, explains Recognizes the role of systematic generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, planning in solving problems orders, organizes, prepares, relates, Accepts responsibility for own behavior synthesizes Understands and accepts own strengths and limitations Formulates a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs Displays safety consciousness Acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, Demonstrates self-reliance in modifies, performs, practices, proposes, working independently qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, Practices cooperation in group uses, verifies activities Uses objective approach in problem solving Demonstrates industry and self-discipline Maintains good health habits
5 Table 5 A classification of educational objectives in the psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) Description of the Major Categories in the Psychomotor Domain 1. Perception. The first level is concerned with the use of the sense organs to obtain cues that guide motor activity. This category ranges from sensory stimulation (awareness of a stimulus), through cue selection (selecting task-relevant cues), to translation (relating cue perception to action in a performance). 2. Set. Set refers to readiness to take a particular type of action. This category includes mental set (mental readiness to act), physical set (physical readiness to act), and emotional set (willingness to act). Perception of cues serves as an important prerequisite for this level. 3. Guided Response. Guided response is concerned with the early stages in learning a complex skill. It includes imitation (repeating an act demonstrated by the instructor) and trial and error (using a multiple-response approach to identify an appropriate response). Adequacy of performance is judged by an instructor or by a suitable set of criteria. 4. Mechanism. Mechanism is concerned with performance acts where the learned response has become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Learning outcomes at this level are concerned with performance skills of various types, but the movement patterns are less complex than at the next higher level. 5. Complex Overt Response. Complex overt response is concerned with the skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, smooth, accurate performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes resolution of uncertainty (performs without hesitation) and automatic performance (movements are made with ease and good muscle control). Learning outcomes at this level include highly coordinated motor activities. 6. Adaptation. Adaptation is concerned with skills that are so well developed that the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements or to meet a problem situation. 7. Origination. Origination refers to the creating of new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes at this level emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.
6 Table 6 Examples of general instructional objectives and clarifying verbs for the psychomotor domain Illustrative General Illustrative Verbs for Stating Instructional Objectives Specific Learning Outcomes Recognizes malfunction by sound Chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, of machine distinguishes, identifies, isolate, relates, Relates taste of food to need for selects, separates seasoning Relates music to a particular dance step Knows sequence of steps in Begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, varnishing wood reacts, responds, shows, starts, volunteers Demonstrates proper bodily stance for batting a ball Shows desire to type efficiently Performs a golf swing as demonstrated Assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, Applies first aid bandage as demonstrated dismantles, displays, dissects, fastens, fixes, Determines best sequence for preparing grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, a meal mixes, organizes, sketches Writes smoothly and legibly (Same list as for Guided Response) Sets up laboratory equipment Operates a slide projector Demonstrates a simple dance step Operates a power saw skillfully (Same list as Guided Response) Demonstrates correct form in swimming Demonstrates skill in driving a automobile Performs skillfully on the violin Repairs electronic equipment quickly and accurately Adjusts tennis play to counteract Adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, opponent s style reorganizes, revises, varies Modifies swimming strokes to fit the roughness of the water Creates a dance step Arranges, combines, composes, constructs, Creates a musical composition creates, designs, originates Designs a new dress style