1 Educational Goals and Objectives A GUIDE TO DEVELOPING LEARNER BASED INSTRUCTION
2 Educational Objectives for this Presentation At the end of this presentation you will be able to: Compare and contrast educational goals vs. educational objectives Write an educational objective using the ABCD model Develop educational objectives that focus on the learner or participant as the intended audience List three adult learning preferences
3 A Brief History of Educational Goals The development of educational goals and objectives began in WWII as a way of conceptualizing instruction and training programs in the military. Educational psychologists and educators jumped on the concept!
4 1956 Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues published a taxonomy of learner behaviors which was taken into the public schools and eventually adopted in the health profession schools. It has influenced curriculum development and driven the movement towards competency based instruction for health professionals. Bloom. B. and Krathwolh,D. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives:The Classification of Educational Goals, New York,Longmans
5 Today- Educational goals and objectives are widely used and required for the development of continuing professional education activities that award continuing education credit. Bloom s original work has been revised and updated.
6 Educational Objectives are also called: Learning Objectives Outcomes Terminal Objectives Enabling Objectives Performance Objectives Aims Competencies Instructional Objectives Behavioral Objectives The use of the terms goals and objectives can be confusing! Let s clarify the differences.
7 The Difference Between Goals and Objectives GOALS Broad statements General intentions Intangible Abstract Generally hard to measure OBJECTIVES Specific Precise Tangible Concrete Measureable
8 Goal The goal of a learning activity is like a target
9 Objectives The objectives are the arrows that help the learner reach the target and demonstrate mastery
10 Can you identify the Goals? A. State the definition of a complimentary medical intervention or therapy. B. Provide the health professional with the latest information about over the counter (OTC) antihistamines and their side effects. C. Introduce the reader to a new development in the early detection of oral cancer. D. Be exposed to a new way of organizing paperwork.
11 Clue: There is only one objective on the previous slide- A.State the definition of a complimentary medical intervention or therapy. The rest are all broad based goals!
12 Common Pitfalls in Writing Goals Focus on the instructor actions-not the learner Provide an overview of the latest site research. The purpose of this course is to provide the participant with print and web references regarding site research. Dispel common myths about hand washing. The goal of this course is to provide the health care professional with a review of the history and origin of common myths about hand washing. Confusing a goal (broad) with an objective (specific) How to turn just ten minutes a day into a revenue stream. To clarify this example the author or presenter needs to decide what is the overall goal-then what specific behaviors the learners need to do to demonstrate mastery of the information or skill.
13 A few things to remember about goals Every educational activity should have a goal The goal focuses on what the learner will experience, rather than what the instructor will share or do It is a broad statement of purpose
14 In general terms what is the overall purpose of the educational activity? What is the main intention? Example: The purpose of this article is to provide health care professionals with new information on MRSA screening.
15 Writing educational goals and objectives does not have to be a struggle. Mastering the basic components will help you to zero in on what you want the learners or participants to gain from the experience. Goals and objectives help to focus your presentation! Clearly written objectives help to define the outcome of the activity.
16 The Components of an Educational Objective ALWAYS BEGIN WITH THE END RESULT IN MIND! THE ABCD APPROACH
17 Who is this activity intended for? Be specific! At the end of the webinar the participants will be able to.. At the conclusion of the conference presentation the attendees will be able to A=Audience (the learners, readers or participants, not the instructor)
18 What exactly is it that you want the learner to be able to do as a result of your Journal article Webinar Self Study Module Conference presentation Hands on Workshop B=BEHAVIOR (what the participants will do)
19 What type of behavior do you want? Behaviors for educational objectives fall into three categories, called domains Think of them as three flavors of ice cream!
20 Dealing with intellectual abilities Approximately 80% of educational objectives fall into this domain Most familiar to both instructors, authors and learners Head objectives Cognitive Domain
21 Relating to the expression of feelings, including emotions, fears, interests, attitudes, beliefs, values and appreciations Often the most difficult objectives to develop Sometimes called heart objectives Affective Domain
22 Motor Skills The easiest objectives to write as the behavior is easily observed and monitored. Psychomotor skills often involve the use of tools or instruments. Hands On courses will contain psychomotor objectives Hand Objectives Psychomotor Domain
23 All three domains are hierarchical More complex and higher level skills are at the top Each level builds on itself and assumes mastery at the lower levels Fundamentals are at the earliest levels
24 States what conditions the instructor will impose when the learners are demonstrating mastery of a skill. Usually a WHEN or WHILE statement when given a set of five unlabeled slides when given a list of common over the counter drugs while working independently C= Condition (imposed by the instructor)
25 The standard or criterion for judging the behavioral performance. What has to happen for the learner to succeed? It might be: Speed Accuracy Quality Quantity D=Degree What is Good Enough?
26 Getting Started Putting It All Together First develop the overall broad goal for your educational activity. o The purpose of this activity (lecture, article, etc) is to..
27 A=Audience Next o Define your AUDIENCE o If possible, identify what level they are..novice, intermediate, advanced or mixed? Remember, the audience is always the learner, not the instructor
28 B=Behaviors the learners will demonstrate What does a participant have to do to demonstrate they have mastered the material? Are those behaviors cognitive, affective or psychomotor? This will influence your word choice.
29 Cognitive Domain Because educational objectives frequently target the cognitive domain, examples of the levels and sample action verbs will be helpful in developing your educational objectives. These examples are based on the revised version of Bloom s work. Anderson, L.W. and Krathwohl(Eds.) 2001 A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.New York, Longman
30 Level One Cognitive Domain REMEMBERING Action Verbs Recall of information match list define arrange label name order remember memorize recognize relate recall repeat reproduce
31 Level Two Cognitive Domain UNDERSTANDING Action Verbs Interpret information in one s own words classify discuss express indicate recognize restate select tell describe explain identify locate report review sort translate
32 Level Three Cognitive Domain APPLYING Use knowledge or generalization in a new situation demonstrate dramatize apply employ interpret prepare schedule solve Action Verbs choose illustrate operate practice sketch use
33 Level Four Cognitive Domain ANALYSING Break down knowledge into parts and show relationships among parts Action Verbs discriminate differentiate analyze appraise calculate categorize compare contrast criticize diagram distinguish examine inventory question experiment test
34 Level Five Cognitive Domain EVALUATING Action Verbs Making judgments based on criteria and standards appraise assess choose defend evaluate predict score support argue attack compare estimate judge rate select value
35 Level Six Cognitive Domain CREATING Action Verbs Bring together parts of knowledge to form a whole and build relationships for new situations arrange collect construct design manage plan propose synthesize assemble compose create formulate organize prepare set up write
36 C=Condition The condition(s )imposed on the learner Examples: when given a list of 20 words within one hour independently while working in a small group
37 The criterion for success! Examples: select the correct one with 80% accuracy 4 out of 5 times three How do you evaluate if the learner got it? D=Degree
38 Examples of Objectives Using ABCD At the end of this webinar the participant will be able to recall the three most common types of personal protection in breaking the chain of transmission for effective infection control. Audience the participant Behavior recall (Level One Cognitive) Condition the end of this webinar Degree three
39 Example When given a list of 20 words, the learner will be able to identify correctly all the cognitive action verbs. Audience the learner Behavior identify (Level Two Cognitive) Condition when given a list of 20 words Degree all (100%)
40 Common Pitfalls When Writing Objectives Not using measurable action verbs in the educational objective to be knowledgeable out the rates of osteoporosis Know, learn, understand, be aware of, be exposed to are too general to be effectively measured Not listing the degree required for mastery At the conclusion of this presentation the learner will be able to list (how many) common side effects of low dose aspirin therapy.
41 Thoughts on Adult Learning Preferences Adults seek information to solve problems-more than acquiring new knowledge Presenting solutions and potential strategies for solving problems increases the probability of success for your educational activity
42 Adult Learning Preferences Adults are engaged when learning builds on real life experiences and prefer case studies, role play, simulations, hands on components and other interactive methods
43 Adult Learning Preferences Adults want reference materials and quick guides to take away from a learning experience and use in their daily work life
44 Summary Educational goals are general statements of intent and purpose Every educational activity should have a goal Educational objectives are specific, measureable and precise The cognitive domain is most frequently used in developing educational objectives The ABCD method of writing educational objectives helps to assure that all the critical components are included Adult learners select educational activities to solve problems Adult learners prefer to have interactive, real life scenarios, role play and references
45 For more information: Additional resources for exploring the affective and psychomotor domains and key words are easily found on the web. Congratulations! Good luck and thank you for completing this presentation!