1 Poverty, Inequality and Trends in the Labor Market Hilary Hoynes, University of California Berkeley
2 Overview Since the 1980s we have seen little improvement in poverty despite steady economic growth At the same time, inequality is increasing, with more resources for skilled and high income groups Here I examine these trends and investigate the causes of poverty and inequality, paying particular attention to the labor market causes We conclude by discussing the efficacy of policies to address these concerns Hoynes, Page 2
3 Roadmap 1. Facts on poverty and inequality in the U.S. 2. Linking the trends in poverty and inequality to trends in the labor market 3. Identifying the driving forces of these trends in the labor market 4. Policy solutions Hoynes, Page 3
4 Roadmap 1. Facts on poverty and inequality in the U.S. 2. Linking the trends in poverty and inequality to trends in the labor market 3. Identifying the driving forces of these trends in the labor market 4. Policy solutions Hoynes, Page 4
5 Trends in Official Poverty 5
6 Limitations of official poverty measure Income measure is pre-tax family income; includes only cash income Does not include Food Stamps (SNAP) or Earned Income Tax Credit (the most important government benefits for low income families!) Not adjusted for work-related expenses Not adjusted for regional variation in costs of living (e.g., housing) Definition of poverty has not changed since measure developed in early 1960s Recent Supplemental Poverty Measure released by Census; addresses these concerns 6
7 New poverty measure shows more improvement, yet poverty remains high and in recent period only fell during strong labor market of late 1990s
8 State Child Poverty by State, SPM Annie E. Casey, Data Snapshot and Kids Count, Feb 2015
9 Trends in Inequality Piketty and Saez have developed a world database for measuring inequality Getting data to measure the level and trend in incomes at the very top of the distribution is hard. Standard survey data does not have enough information on these high income earners. Piketty and Saez came up with the novel idea of using data from income tax returns to estimate trends in top incomes. This is high quality data that is provided by most countries.
11 Inequality: The facts for the U.S. Source: Piketty and Saez (2003) updated to Series based on pre-tax cash income including realized capital gains and excluding government transfers.
12 Decline in top income shares between pre-wwi and post-ww2 The great compression period = growth of the middle class Source: Piketty and Saez (2003) updated to Series based on pre-tax cash income including realized capital gains and excluding government transfers.
13 Post-WW2 and through the 1970s, top income remained low Source: Piketty and Saez (2003) updated to Series based on pre-tax cash income including realized capital gains and excluding government transfers.
14 Beginning in late 1970s top income share trends steadily up Source: Piketty and Saez (2003) updated to Series based on pre-tax cash income including realized capital gains and excluding government transfers.
15 The period through the 1970s was similar in the U.S. compared to other countries suggesting that global factors were responsible The upward trend beginning in the late 1970s IS NOT experienced by all countries suggesting that global factors CAN NOT explain the trend
16 Greater progressive taxation (higher top MTR) is associated with LESS inequality
17 Comparisons across countries shows that: Back in the early 1960s the US was on the HIGH end of progressivity of the income tax (and the middle of the pack in inequality) Today we have the highest inequality and very low progressivity
18 Roadmap 1. Facts on poverty and inequality in the U.S. 2. Linking the trends in poverty and inequality to trends in the labor market 3. Identifying the driving forces of these trends in the labor market 4. Policy solutions Hoynes, Page 18
19 The big picture Since the mid 1970s, there has been little gain in wages for less skilled workers, especially for men Additionally, labor force participation rates are declining for prime age men, and more recently, prime age women The implication is stagnant family incomes for the bottom quintile of Americans The growth of real wages and the distribution among workers is a crucial factor for determining trends in poverty.
20 EPI, State of Working America.
21 EPI, State of Working America.
22 Declines in labor force participation Economic Report of the President, Prime age is
24 These changes in wage and income distribution contribute fundamentally to trends in poverty This factor would be putting upward pressure on poverty rates over time; thus the observed trends should be interpreted against this finding. But taking a step back, what do we know about why these labor market trends are occurring?
25 Roadmap 1. Facts on poverty and inequality in the U.S. 2. Linking the trends in poverty and inequality to trends in the labor market 3. Identifying the driving forces of these trends in the labor market 4. Policy solutions Hoynes, Page 25
26 Returns to Skill earnings gap between college and high school degrees Rising steadily; doubled between 1979 and 2012 This trend is also experienced by other countries Autor, The Hamilton Project.
27 Autor, Science.
28 Rising Skill Premium is explained by demand and supply factors DEMAND Over last 100 years innovation has led to reduction in demand for physical labor (technological change) In recent decades the process of machine substitution for routine human tasks has reduced demand for those doing routine tasks (where workers are substitutes) and increased the demand for those who excel in more abstract tasks (where workers are complements) SUPPLY Educational attainment increases slowed beginning in 1980s Overall if demand for skilled labor keeps increasing AND the supply of skilled labor does not keep up, then the wages of skilled labor increase.
29 Trends in education 1960s/1970s: supply of young college educated increased rapidly relative to high school educated Since then educational attainment slowed (though still increasing) especially for men. Research by Goldin and Katz (2008) and others shows that more than half of the increase in wage inequality is due to the rising premium to skill (and thus the slowdown in educational attainment)
30 Autor, Science.
31 Trends more compelling when you look at new labor market entrants Autor, The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Markets, The Hamilton Project.
32 In addition to trends in relative wages, non-college workers are experiencing absolute reductions in real wage levels What is leading to reductions in real wages for less skilled workers? Technological change (as above) Globalization: Chinese manufacturing gains led to reduction in manufacturing in the US and thus declines in wages in those industries Fall of unions Fall in real value of minimum wages
33 Autor, Science.
34 The result Employment growth is polarizing into relatively high-skill, high-wage jobs and lowskill, low-wage jobs [at the expense of middle skill jobs]
35 Empty middle Autor, The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Markets, The Hamilton Project.
36 Autor, The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Markets, The Hamilton Project.
37 Polarization Key forces 1. The slowing rate of four-year college degree attainment among young adults, particularly males 2. Changes in technology, international trade, and the international offshoring of jobs, which affect job opportunities and skill demands 3. Changes in U.S. labor market institutions affecting wage setting, including labor unions and minimum wage legislation
38 Roadmap 1. Facts on poverty and inequality in the U.S. 2. Linking the trends in poverty and inequality to trends in the labor market 3. Identifying the driving forces of these trends in the labor market 4. Policy solutions Hoynes, Page 38
39 Policy Solutions (Pre-Market) Minimum wages Promote unionization Promote skills: Pre-K, K-12 Increase college access Funded perhaps with higher MTR
40 The Earned Income Tax Credit: Effective policy given trends in the labor market The EITC is the main post-market policy that affects the twin concerns of low employment and stagnant income
41 Earned Income Tax Credit In-work, tax based assistance Refundable tax credit for low income families Credit varies by number of children (small credit for childless), earnings (and AGI)
42 The effect of the EITC on employment and income THE EITC requires earned income. Research shows that the EITC leads to robust and large increases in employment particularly for single women with children. Therefore, the EITC increases family after-tax income through two channels Credit effect: direct EITC payments Earnings effect: incentivized increase in earnings Potential to substantively reduce lower tail inequality
43 Source: Calculations based on Supplemental Poverty Measure, 2013 (Kathleen Short), U.S. Department of Census, Current Population Report P
44 Source: Calculations based on Supplemental Poverty Measure, 2013 (Kathleen Short), U.S. Department of Census, Current Population Report P
45 The Effect of the EITC on the Aggregate Number of Children Above a Multiple of the Poverty Threshold In recent work, I have found that the static estimates of EITC underestimate the anti-poverty effects by as much as 50%. The effects on earnings contribute importantly to the reductions in poverty. Source: Hoynes and Patel (2015)
46 The Great Recession as a test of the social safety net Poverty rates rose with unemployment Source: Bitler and Hoynes The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? The Safety Net and Poverty in the Great Recession, forthcoming, Journal of Labor Economics.
47 State Scatterplot of Change in UR against Change in Child Poverty, Great Recession Period but the social safety net provided important protection Source: Bitler, Hoynes and Kuka Child Poverty in the Great Recession.
48 Concluding comments Since the 1980s we have seen little improvement in poverty despite steady economic growth The main driver for these trends are declines in real wages for low skilled workers Against this backdrop, the social safety net makes important improvements in the resources for low to moderate income families The broader trends call for renewed attention for human capital investments, from pre-school through college Hoynes, Page 48
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