MODULE 5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

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1 MODULE 5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Learning Units 5.1 Developing Data Flow Diagrams(DFD) a) What are DFDs? b) Symbols used in DFD c) Rules of data flow d) Good style in drawing DFD 5.2 Describing systems with DFD & Levelling DFDs 5.3 Logical & Physical DFDs System Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman

2 LEARNING GOALS In this module we will learn 1. What are Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)? 2. Why they are useful? 3. How are they developed? 4. How to level DFDs? 5. Good style conventions in developing DFDs 6. Difference between Logical and Physical DFDs 7. Tools available to draw DFDs Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 1 of 26

3 MOTIVATION WHY DFD? Provides an overview of -What data a system processes -What transformations are performed -What data are stored -What results are produced and where they flow Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 2 of 26

4 MOTIVATION WHY DFD? Graphical nature makes it a good communication tool between -User and analyst -Analyst and System designer Structure of DFD allows starting from a broad overview and expand it to a hierarchy of detailed diagrams Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 3 of 26

5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS WHAT ARE DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS? DFDs models the system by depicting External entities from which the data flows and where results terminate Processes which transform data flows Data stores from which the data are read or into which data are written by the processes Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 4 of 26

6 SYMBOLS USED IN DFD PROCESS Stores demand note 1. STORES Issue Advice Delivery slip A circle represents a process Straight lines with incoming arrows are input data flows Straight lines with outgoing arrows are output data flows Processes are given serial numbers for easy reference Labels are assigned to Data flow.these aid documentation Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 5 of 26

7 SYMBOLS USED IN DFD EXTERNAL ENTITIES VENDOR Invoice Order Bill Customer A Rectangle represents an external entity They either supply data or receive data They do not process data Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 6 of 26

8 SYMBOLS USED IN DFD DATA STORES Inventory Writing Reading A Data Store is a repository of data Data can be written into the data store This is depicted by an incoming arrow Data can be read from a data store This is depicted by an outgoing arrow External entity cannot read or write to the data store Two data stores cannot be connected by a data flow Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 7 of 26

9 RULES OF DATA FLOW Data can flow from -external entity to process -process to external entity -process to store and back -process to process Data cannot flow from -external entity to external entity -external entity to store -store to external entity -store to store Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 8 of 26

10 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS An alternate notation is often used A Process 3 Store Issue Label Name A Data store DS1 Inventory Name Label Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 9 of 26

11 GOOD STYLE IN DRAWING DFD Use meaningful names for data flows, processes and data stores. Use top down development starting from context diagram and successively levelling DFD Only previously stored data can be read A process can only transfer input to output.it cannot create new data Data stores cannot create new data Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 10 of 26

12 DESCRIBING A SYSTEM WITH A DFD An entire system is represented by one DFD which gives the system s overview It is called a context diagram It gives little detail & is also known as the top level DFD Context diagram of mess management is shown in the next transparency Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 11 of 26

13 CONTEXT DIAGRAM OF MESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Perishable Items Students Bills Mess manager Extras Note Payments Item needed Each day Mess Management System Requisitions Overdue Payments Supplies Daily rate Menu Vendors Payments Mess secretary Overdue Bills Chief warden Observe this diagram gives very little detail Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 12 of 26

14 LEVELLING DFD A context diagram gives an overview It should be split into major processes which give greater detail. Each major process is further split to give more detail. Each major process is further split to give more detail Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 13 of 26

15 WHY LEVEL DFD? If a DFD is too detailed it will have too many data flows and will be large and difficult to understand Start from a broad overview. Expand to details - Idea similar to using procedures and linking these with a main program Each DFD must deal with one aspect of a big system Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 14 of 26

16 EXPANDED DFD FOR HOSTEL MESS MANAGEMENT Students Payments Itemized bills at end of month Extras/Rebates Expenses No of meals (today +3) Mess Secretary 1 Billing system Update daily rate Items used each day Student billing Information + bills Chief Warden Going to next process (Continued in next slide) Unpaid bills Mess manager Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 15 of 26

17 EXPANDED DFD FOR HOSTEL MESS MANAGEMENT Vendors Vendor data Vendor supplies Order nonperishable Perishable order Orders (perishable) Stores inventory Continued 2 Stores issue and Control system 3 Perishable ordering Order data Low stock (today+2) Items to be issued (today +2) Items used today Mess Manager Mess Secretary Vegetables and perishable requisition Vendor data (perishable) Menu (today +2) Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 16 of 26

18 EXPANDED DFD-BILLING SYSTEM Mess Secretary Extras/Rebates No of meals (today + 2) Itemized bills 1.2 Calculate Student s bills 1.4 Find no Of meals to cook 1.3 Reconcile payments 1.1 Calculate Daily rate Payments Mess Manager Observe numbering of processes Students data Bills Students data Unpaid bills Items rate data Chief warden Students data Daily rate average (upto date) Expenses data Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 17 of 26

19 LEVELLING RULES If process p is expanded, the process at the next level are labeled as p.1,p.2 etc. All data flow entering or leaving p must also enter or leave its expanded version. Expanded DFD may have data stores No external entity can appear in expanded DFD Keep the number of processes at each level less than Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 18 of 26

20 ILLEGAL CONSTRUCTS IN DFD No loops are allowed in DFD A process cannot be a pure decision Actual daily rate Standard daily rate Compare A single data flow should not be split into many flows with different labels No data flow allowed between data stores Actual rate > Standard rate Actual rate <= Standard rate Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 19 of 26

21 ILLEGAL CONSTRUCTS IN DFD Get students extra/rebates record Record Ask for next record Calculate Bill Extra/rebate store Not correct as loop is formed Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 20 of 26

22 LEVELLING EXAMPLES Mess manager Items issued Low stock item (today +2) Items to be used on (today +2) No of meals to be cooked (today +2) Low message stock Order for items Vendor supplies 2 Stores issue and control system Menu for (Today +2) Mess secretary Order Vendor Stores inventory Vendor Stores issue control system process Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 21 of 26

23 LEVELLING EXAMPLES Mess manager Items used today 2.1 Inventory update And low stock warning Low stock item 2.2 Create order for vendor Items needed From 2.3 Vendor Vendor supplies Stores inventory Order Vendor data Order to vendor Mess secretary Menu (today +2) 2.3 Calculate Items needed No of meals to (today +2) Items needed 2.4 Check Item availability Stores inventory Low stock items (today+2) Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 22 of 26

24 LEVELLING EXAMPLES Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 23 of 26 Ext A Top Level process Ext B Ext A Ext B F1 F4 3 Process 1 Process 2 Ext A F Ext B F4

25 LOGICAL AND PHYSICAL DFD DFD S considered so far are called logical DFDs A physical DFD is similar to a document flow diagram. It specifies who does the operations specified by the logical DFD Physical DFD may depict physical movements of the goods Physical DFDs can be drawn during fact gathering phase of a life cycle Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 24 of 26

26 PHYSICAL DFD FOR ENCASHING CHEQUE Cash Token Customer Cheque Token Clerk Verify A/C Signature Update Balance Cheque with Token number Cashier Verify Token Take Signature Bad Cheque Store cheques Entry in Day Book Customer Accounts Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 25 of 26

27 LOGICAL DFD FOR CHEQUE ENCASHMENT Retrieve Customer Record Cheque Check Balance, Issue token Cheque with Token Store Token no & cheques Cheque Customer Cash Customer accounts Token Slip Token Slip Or cheque Search & match token Cheque with token Update Daily cash book Cheque store With token no. Day book Systems Analysis And Design Systems Analysis And Design V. Rajaraman 26 of 26

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