Children Who Help Victims of Bullying: Implications for Practice

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Children Who Help Victims of Bullying: Implications for Practice"

Transcription

1 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: DOI /s ORIGINAL ARTICLE Children Who Help Victims of Bullying: Implications for Practice James R. Porter & Sondra Smith-Adcock Published online: 15 June 2011 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 Abstract Over the years, literature on the phenomenon of bullying has evolved from treating bullying as an individual behavior to understanding it as a group process. Other than those of the bully and the victim, researchers have identified several roles children assume in bullying situations, with some assuming a pro-social role, often called the defender, in bullying scenarios. Practice literature continues to concentrate its attention narrowly on the bully and the victim, rather than on defenders. Understanding the individual and social circumstances related to defending suggests new avenues for practitioners interested in promoting improved peer relations in schools. Keywords Bullying. Defender. Bystander. Peer-led interventions. Positive psychology. Program development Victor sat alone in a patch of sand, drawing in the dirt, while other children played all around the playground. Hey, Victor, want to join our club? It was Ben, and his sidekick Allen. Like always, this was going to hurt. No, I just want to play by myself. Victor began to shake. Staring down into the dirt, he tried not to see Ben and Allen. Let s show him the initiation, Allen! shouted Ben. Ben kicked sand into Victor s eyes, who got up to run away, but Allen grabbed him from behind. Ben scooped up hot summer sand and rubbed it into Victor s hair. Some nearby children gathered to watch. Deanna, who was nearby, heard the rising commotion. Not again, she lamented and darted to the scene. Olivia, who was playing nearby, stayed behind. When Deanna got to the scene, Victor was lying on his back, gagging on a mouthful of wet sand, tears caking the sand in his eyes. The crowd was laughing. Cut it out! demanded Deanna. Ben and Allen turned around laughing, but feebly. Deanna walked to Victor and raised him to a standing position. A boy named Richard yelled to Ben, You gonna let a girl tell you what to do? but no one tried to interfere J. R. Porter (*) : S. Smith-Adcock Department of Counselor Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

2 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: with Deanna or to help her. Ben and Allen mumbled teases at Deanna, who ignored the insults. After helping Victor to the bathroom, Deanna decided she would try to convince Victor that telling an adult might help. Perhaps Victor would take her advice this time. Deanna was somewhat tired of coming to the rescue. Introduction Typically, literature on bullying focuses attention on examining, understanding, and changing the behavior of children who bully or are bullied focusing relatively little attention on any positive role children assume in situations where bullying occurs. Although peers are often present in bullying situations (identified as over 80% of the time by Hawkins, Pepler, and Craig 2001), researchers have often approached bullying as solely an issue for those individuals who bully and those who are victimized (Green 2003; Smith and Brain 2000). Furthermore, almost all intervention initiatives concentrate mainly on victims and perpetrators of bullying (Green 2003; Sutton and Smith 1999). Because such interventions with individual children are likely to have limited effect unless coupled with a more systemic prevention program, various authors have recommended extending the focus of anti-bullying interventions to include peers, especially those who act to defend against bullying (Green 2003; Salmivalli 1999). The scientific study of bullying has its origins in Norway in the 1970s, with other Scandinavian countries also contributing heavily to the topic in the early period (Green 2003). Smith and Brain (2000) identified the publication of the book Aggression in the Schools: Bullies and Whipping Boys (Olweus 2001) as being a milestone in bullying research emerging from Scandinavia during that era. The study of bullying has since spread throughout North America, the Pacific region, the United Kingdom and other European countries, as well as in various developing countries (Salmivalli and Voeten 2004; Smith and Brain 2000). Furlong, Morrison, and Greif (2003) have concluded, however, that research and political interest in bullying was relatively slow to arise in the United States. The primary focus of bullying-related research has changed over time from bullies to their victims, without consideration of context, to bullying as a group phenomenon, with various roles played by children. As far back as 1973, Dan Olweus studied group mechanisms related to bullying (Olweus 2001), but such social-psychological attention was rare. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a substantial research focus on children who bullied or who were bullied, with the aim of finding characteristics that distinguished them from so-called normal children (Green 2003; Smith and Brain 2000). The narrow focus on perpetrators and targets of bullying was evident not only in research studies but also in intervention efforts (Furlong, Morrison, and Greif 2003). Almost all counseling interventions in the past have focused on intervening with children who committed or were targeted by acts of bullying (Green 2003). Furlong and colleagues (2003) concluded that state governments in the U.S. sometimes enacted bullying legislation in reaction to school violence as depicted in the media, rather than with reference to bullying literature. Consequently, the resultant laws and/or school policies may lean more toward punishing bullies rather than counseling them or attending to the broader sociological conditions that perpetuate bullying (Furlong et al. 2003). The trend of conceptualizing bullying as a problem between individual perpetrators and victims is changing. Researchers are now paying more attention to how bullying behavior is influenced by peers, schools, families, and larger institutions (Furlong et al. 2003). Much of

3 198 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: the research on bullying now focuses on group processes, or participant roles (Rodkin and Hodges 2003; Salmivalli 1999). Currently, numerous examples of group-based interventions can be found in program evaluation literature (Merrell, Gueldner, Ross, and Isava 2008; Smith, Schneider, Smith, and Ananiadou 2004). An important result of the increased attention to group processes in bullying is the identification (Olweus 2001) and empirical verification (Salmivalli et al. 1996) of specific roles that children play in the process of bullying, including that where children defend victims of bullying. Unfortunately, interest in children who defend has been slow to grow, relative to other roles that children play. Even though a few research studies have examined the defender role, they generally do not focus on defending but rather discuss it as part of the context of bullying. The purpose of the current paper is to review literature related to bullying social processes, with specific attention to the role of defender. Literature is reviewed that examines the pro-social role often played by children in bullying scenarios, the children that assume this helping role, and the circumstances that lead to defending. Further, implications for defender-focused interventions are examined. Participant Roles in Bullying: Current Models In a review of bullying research, Olweus (2001) proposed The Bullying Circle, a group model of bullying that describes roles children might assume in a bullying scenario. Victims are those who are targeted by bullying. Bullies actively initiate and carry out the bullying. Followers and henchmen do not initiate bullying, but take an active part in the bullying. Supporters or passive bullies do not take an active part in the bullying, but they promote it openly. Passive supporters are possible bullies, who approve of bullying but do not display their support for it. Disengaged onlookers believe that the bullying is none of their business. They watch and do not openly express an opinion about it. Possible defenders think they should help, but do not help, and then there are defenders, who actively attempt to help the victim and stop the bullying. Salmivalli and colleagues (1996) empirically verified six participant roles that children typically play in bullying incidents: defender, bully, victim, outsider (i.e., uninvolved children), assistant (i.e., children who physically help the bully), and reinforcer (i.e., children who cheer the bully). The Participant Role Approach to bullying (Salmivalli et al. 1996) uses the social role concept to posit that children maintain stable behaviors, such as bullying, as part of roles derived from an interaction between peer expectations (Kaukiainen et al. 2002) and individual behavioral tendencies (Salmivalli 1999). Research on participant roles in bullying has focused on the salience of roles (Salmivalli 1998), social self concept (Salmivalli 1998), social intelligence (Kaukiainen et al. 2002), individual attitudes about bullying (Salmivalli and Voeten 2004), social acceptance and rejection (Salmivalli et al. 1996), peer networks (Salmivalli et al. 1997; Salmivalli et al. 1998), peer group attitudes about bullying (Teräsahjo and Salmivalli 2003), and group behavioral norms (Salmivalli and Voeten 2004). The Participant Role Approach defines the bully, assistant, and reinforcer roles as aggressive; the victim role as socially ineffective or even provocative; and the outsider role as neutral or complacent. Only the defender role is defined by a set of pro-social behaviors intended to alleviate bullying-related problems (Salmivalli et al. 1996). Examples of each role exist in the opening playground vignette of this paper. Ben is clearly the lead bully: rubbing sand in the face of Victor the victim, who prefers to isolate himself on the playground. Ben s

4 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: assistant, Allen, physically stops Victor from escaping. Richard is the most vocal reinforcer in the crowd, not only watching and laughing but also verbally encouraging Ben to harass Victor further. Olivia represents the outsider role. She did not come to the scene, either because she did not know about it or because she chose to ignore it. Deanna is the defender, with her friends relying on her to provide the most direct help to Victor. Despite the robustness of the defender role, the bullying literature makes only marginal study of it. The professional counseling literature makes no mention of the role. Even literature inclusive of the defender role discusses it as only a portion of the bullying picture, not as a focal subject. The State of the Art in Research on Defending Though research studies rarely focus specifically on children who defend, findings related to defending are available in related bullying research. Some research literature examines various qualities of individuals who defend and investigates contextual variables that may relate to defending. A review of study findings related to defending, it will be argued, suggests that more attention by practitioners toward children who defend may give rise to a wider array of strategies for intervention than currently exist. Individual Tendencies and the Defender Role Children who defend appear to differ from children who exhibit other bullyingparticipant behaviors in regard to certain individual characteristics. In particular, children who defend are distinguished from children in the more aggressive roles. For example, children who defend seem to respond more empathically to others than children who commit or abet bullying (Gini et al. 2007; Maeda2003). Furthermore, children who report higher rates of defending also report anti-bullying attitudes (Salmivalli and Voeten 2004). That is, higher defending scores correspond to increased agreement with survey items such as Joining in bullying is a wrong thing to do (Salmivalli and Voeten 2004, p. 249). In addition, children who defend appear less likely than children who bully or support bullying to be cited by peers for exhibiting aggressive behaviors, such as losing their temper, embarrassing others, or forcing others to do things against their will (Maeda 2003). Children who defend appear better than children who bully at inferring other people s cognitive and emotional motives from their behavior (Maeda 2003). However, Gini (2006) suggests children who bully are similarly adept at this skill, though defending children are found to be more competent at cognitive motivational interferences than victims or children who bully. Gini (2006) suggests that children who defend are more apt than those who bully at inferring moral motives of others, and that they are less likely to ignore moral issues related to violence. Some findings suggest that children who defend have more self-control than children in the more aggressive bullying roles. For example, children who defend seem better able than children who bully to inhibit intuitive, habitual responses when presented with novel stimuli (Monks, Smith, and Swettenham 2005). They also appear better at regulating their own emotions than children who bully, help the bully, or cheer on the bully (Maeda 2003). Some positive individual characteristics distinguish children who defend not only from children in aggressive roles, but also from children in all other identified bullying-related roles. Children who defend appear to have healthier self-esteem than children in other roles

5 200 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: (Salmivalli et al. 1999), more favorable academic and emotional self-concept (Salmivalli 1998), and more social self-efficacy (Gini et al. 2008). Tani, Greenman, Schneider, and Fregoso (2003) found that children identified as defenders score higher than children in all other roles on trait agreeableness, which includes trait altruism. Finally, nine out of the 13 studies examined that directly consider defending behavior find boys to be underrepresented among children who defend as compared to girls (Goossens et al. 2006; Menesini et al. 2003; Salmivalliet al. 1996, 1998, 1999, 2005; Salmivalli and Voeten 2004; Sutton and Smith 1999), though results are mixed in one study (Sutton and Smith 1999). Social-Contextual Variables and the Defender Role The social world of children who defend differs from the environment of other children in several ways. Children who defend appear to be more popular than non-defending children, including children not identified in any role (Goossens et al. 2006; Salmivalli et al. 1996). Furthermore, although their friendship networks appear to be smaller than the networks of children who bully, assist, or reinforce, children who defend appear less likely than children in any other role to be friendless (Salmivalli et al. 1997). Salmivalli and colleagues (1997) also found that children who defend tend to associate mainly with each other and that they do not appear to associate with bullies or bullies friends. Therefore, it appears that similar children tend to associate with each other, or that children who associate with each other tend to become similarly behaved two possibilities that may interest educators and counselors who want to promote defending in children. Having friends similar to them may be important for children who defend, considering that Salmivalli et al. (1998) report that defending behavior may relate, more than do other role behaviors, to the composition of a child s friendship group. They found that a child s current friendships with children who defend related positively to his or her current frequency of defending behavior, but that a child s prior defending behavior did not predict current defending. In contrast, prior bullying and victim behavior predicted current bullying and victim behavior (Salmivalli et al. 1998). This evidence may imply that defending behavior is more related to a child s current social context than the persistent habits of behavior apparent in findings about children who bully. If so, defending is clearly an area that can be addressed by peer-based intervention. In addition to each other, children who defend usually have friends who are identified as victims and outsiders (Salmivalli et al. 1997). Ironically, despite their popularity among peers and camaraderie with like others, children who defend do not appear to receive peer support for their behavior in a form comparable to that which children who bully receive from assistants to reinforcers. Approximately 16 studies (e.g., Camodeca and Goossens 2005; Salmivalli et al. 1996) have identified roles in which children specifically support acts of bullying either by physically assisting or otherwise reinforcing (i.e., cheering, inciting, watching) children who bully, but researchers have not found such supporters for children who defend. This appears consequential considering that defending behavior may rely heavily on peer support. If defending behavior appears stable only when one s friendship group continues to be inhabited by defenders, it seems that social support for defending behavior may be crucial to its continuance. Furthermore, children who bully not only have the camaraderie of other children who bully, but also the real-time, in vivo support of children who may not bully, but who do assist and cheer bullying. Defenders are not known to have this added support,

6 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: and an exploration of this phenomenon may reveal something about the nature of defending behavior as perhaps being transitory. Another contextual variable that seems to predict a child s defending is a classroom s set of bullying-related norms. Norms that are anti-bullying appear to contribute to defender behavior (Salmivalli and Voeten 2004). Interestingly, girls seem to rely more on classroom anti-bullying norms for their defender role stability than do boys, even though girls appear more stable overall in the defender role than do boys (Salmivalli et al. 1998). Thus, the classroom environment is a likely source for the in vivo support that might be needed for effective defending. However, it is notable that this environmental condition seems related to girls defending more so than boys. Social conditions related to defending behavior in research suggest new areas for intervening in school bullying. To drive bullying intervention that focuses on defenders, we must consider friends and other peers to play a critical role in the social contexts that may influence defending. Some prevention and intervention programs have used peers to try to help reduce bullying and violence at schools. Happy Face Week and Creating a Peaceful School Learning Environment, among other programs, are addressed below. Peer-led strategies include using peers as mentors, mediators, presenters, monitors, and friends of victims and bullies. When peer-based intervention programs have been studied, a variety of outcomes have been shown. These findings will be summarized and implications for the development of new programs will be offered. School-Based Peer-Led Interventions and the Defender Role The limited research devoted specifically to children who defend is reflected in their apparent omission from school anti-bullying programs. These authors could find no literature describing interventions that intentionally incorporate children who are known to defend, though Salmivalli (1999) recommends the use of children who defend as models, mentors, and counselors in school anti-bullying programs. However, later interventions developed or evaluated by the same researcher (Salmivalli 2001; Salmivalli et al. 2005) did not employ children who defend. In one of those anti-bullying programs, Salmivalli (2001) used peer counselors, but selected them using criteria other than their defender behavior. It appears that it is difficult to incorporate the defender role into bullying prevention practice, perhaps because of its inconspicuousness in research literature. Though no studies have specifically employed defenders in peer-led interventions, findings of existing studies suggest some important points to consider when planning school anti-bullying or pro-defending peer interventions. For example, peer-led interventions have been associated with both positive and undesired outcomes and findings are inconclusive. The following section summarizes research on peer-led anti-bullying programs conducted in various countries. Implications for incorporating actual defenders in anti-bullying interventions are discussed. Results from a befriending intervention studied by Menesini et al. (2003) with children aged years in Italy were mixed. The authors of the study used peer helpers to protect their victim-friends from others. The befriending program, which is consistent with defending, focused on five initiatives. First, the importance of helping others was emphasized to the entire student body. Second, students nominated themselves or others to be peer supporters in the intervention. Third, peer supporters were trained in communication and listening. Fourth, with teacher supervision, peer supporters then carried out customized helping tasks for target children, sometimes victims, who were assigned to them. Fifth, peer supporters trained other students in how to support peers. Menesini et al.

7 202 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: (2003) found that the control group increased in negative behaviors, roles, and attitudes, whilst the experimental group did not increase. Bullying behaviors were attenuated but not eliminated. Because there was no intentional recruitment of peer supporters, the authors concluded that some students, though trained to become peer supporters, may have had trouble letting go of old aggressive behaviors. Happy Face Week evaluated by Salmivalli (2001), with 7th and 8th graders in Finland, is another example of a peer-led campaign that, while having overall success, reported negative as well as positive outcomes. In this study, boys bullying behavior did not improve and they actually increased in their pro-bullying attitudes. In the program, eight students who had been previously selected by peers to serve in a pre-existing peer counseling system were recruited for Happy Face Week. For 1 week, activities ranging from using posters, a finish-the-cartoon contest, speech, dramatic, and musical media to small-group discussions led by peer counselors were used to promote anti-bullying messages. Noting that the negative results of the intervention were only evident in boys, Salmivalli (2001), pointed to the most obvious explanation that all peer counselors in the program were girls. The author also noted that activities used in the program might not have fit masculine paradigms of discourse. The peer counselors were selected by their peers but were not necessarily known to defend. Results were positive among girls, but not boys. Cowie (2000) recruited, trained, and supervised peer supporters who were to intervene in bullying and offer peer support sessions when they observed a student in need. These researchers targeted children who were bystanders. Results indicated increased bullying and stronger anti-victim attitudes, although there was no control group. Some students perceived the program as helpful. Cowie and Ofafsson (2000) assessed perceived benefits of various peer support programs in various schools in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Peer supporters and victims of bullying reported perceived benefits, but these positive results were not generalized to other students. Consistent with other research (e.g., Salmivalli 2000) males were much less likely than females to be peer supporters in these programs or to participate fully in the anti-bullying campaign. A school violence prevention program developed in the U.S., Creating a Peaceful School Learning Environment, is based on a participant-role approach that includes a component in which high school students mentor elementary school pupils. In this program, peer mentors are typically children with disruptive histories, not children known to defend. Goals for the program are to de-pathologize the child who bullies and to deter school violence through the audience of bystanders. One study that evaluated the Creating a Peaceful School program (Twemlow, Fonagy, Sacco, Gies, Evans, and Ewbank 2001) concluded that the overall program works well when compared to no intervention because discipline referrals went down. However, evaluation of this program did not investigate the peer component separately, making separate judgments about the peer-mentoring component difficult to make. In research conducted in Belgium and the Netherlands, Stevens et al. (2000) randomly assigned 24 schools to either a control condition or an experimental condition in which bystanders were taught to intervene in bullying scenarios. Focusing on the social circumstances that promote bullying activities, these researchers used Olweus Bullying Circle (2001) to select children to participate in the peer helping intervention. Children known to defend were not necessarily employed. Pro-social attitudes and rates of intervening in bullying improved temporarily, with changes disappearing a year later in students aged 13 16, but remaining to some measure in children aged A thorough review of anti-bullying and school violence prevention literature by this author finds no peer-based bullying intervention program that selects as helpers children

8 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: with a demonstrated propensity to intervene in bullying or to befriend and protect victims. In addition, it appears that many intervention programs are intended to benefit children who bully or are bullied; children who are thought to be exceptional due to their problems. It is possible, however, that targeting children with known problems deflects resources away from children who are not exhibiting an obvious need. Children who defend may need personal support to the same degree as children who do not help victims. In addition, it may be that supporting children who frequently work toward a peaceful playground will indirectly benefit the students around them. Despite this possibility, there do not appear to be intervention programs designed to support students already thought to openly oppose the victimization of their peers. It appears that existing peer intervention programs did support meaningful and consistent behavioral outcomes (e.g., Menesini et al. 2003). It is, however, of concern that many studies reported mixed findings (e.g., Stevens et al. 2000). For example, Stevens et al. found that while anti-bullying attitudes were high among students, rates of defending went down following an anti-bullying intervention. Furthermore, some interventions were associated with increased bullying and lower levels of defending (e.g., Cowie and Ofafsson 2000), occasionally even from peer supporters who used bullying behaviors to protect victims (Menesini et al. 2003). Importantly, girls are more attracted to the notion of defending than are boys (Cowie 2000; Salmivalli 2001), and in some cases, boys even developed more pro-bullying attitudes (Salmivalli 2001). Age and developmental stage also seemed related to outcomes, with older children generally responding more consistently to defending interventions than younger children (e.g., Stevens et al. 2000). Direction can be taken from interventions that report success and from researcher recommendations when intervention outcomes were mixed. First, peers taught to intervene in bullying appear to do so, though they may use questionable methods (Menesini et al. 2003) and lack lasting change (Stevens et al. 2000). Second, in most studies, peers selected to aid in intervention were not known to defend, though Salmivalli (1999) and Stevens et al. (2000) made this recommendation a decade ago. Third, pairing non-aggressive children with aggressive children seems to help the aggressive child and not hurt the non-aggressive child, and Salmivalli et al. (1997) recommend restructuring peer groups to break up bullying groups. Finally, developmental characteristics and gender may have implications for how interventions are designed. Future pro-defending peer intervention programs may do well to identify children who are defenders and/or bystanders prior to implementing an intervention. For example, in many cases it may help to select as peer supporters children who are assessed as defenders. Several versions of a defending scale exist, and one includes items useful for selecting out children who defend consistently (Salmivalli et al 1996). Training of peer supporters should involve the type of defending behaviors that adults wish to see, but can also reflect the antibulling beliefs of most children (Menesini et al.). This will reinforce the existing proclivity to defend that some children already exhibit, and perhaps improve upon the longevity of positive outcomes for programs. In addition, research conducted in many countries, supports the importance of person, place, and time to deter bullying social processes. In addition to peer helping, interventions that address the peer social group, whether it is at the classroom level or peer-group level are recommended. For example, peer pairing or group restructuring may work to disrupt existing negative social processes and promote a more anti-bullying climate. Children thought to be followers and children who are not known to defend can be encouraged to belong to friendship groups with children who are thought to defend. Salmivalli and colleagues (1996) scale also assesses the followers of children who bully, terming them assistants and reinforcers. This type of group restructuring may increase helpful

9 204 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: behaviors in children who might otherwise provide an audience for bullying (Gini et al. 2008) and decrease the isolation which Salmivalli et al. (1997) report in some victims, and which may potentiate or exacerbate victimhood (Hazler and Denham 2002). In peer-led and defending-focused efforts, males may require specific attention. Boys who appear to be the most stable in their defending behavior can be elevated as examples for others to follow, as buddies who are paired inside and outside of the classroom with children who do not defend, and as peer counselors for other males who seek help. Because results may be temporary, it seems ideal that programs use ongoing assessments to gauge whether positive behavior changes are occurring and being maintained. Lastly, though research from a number of countries exists, all studies examined by these authors on the topic of defending have been conducted in the U.S. or Europe and as such, may represent a narrow idea of bullying and defending. Further research is needed that examines the context of anti-bullying research and defender-focused intervention in other areas of the world. Summary The research reviewed in this article suggests that, while some children exhibit behaviors that may help victims of bullying at schools, these behaviors cannot be trusted to happen at satisfactory levels without informed intervention on the part of educators, counselors, and program developers. Changes do not appear to occur automatically and do not appear to continue without maintenance. Furthermore, programs that capitalize on children s strengths seem to have been largely untried. Schools have a mission to educate and for lasting change to occur, it may require that defending become a daily part of a school s curriculum; a skill to be taught and assessed. Just as children are not expected to become adept in mathematics without daily instruction, they cannot be expected to develop the ability to befriend and protect others on their own, though some children may appear to have a head start in that direction. References Cowie, H. (2000). Bystanding or standing by: Gender issues in coping with bullying in English Schools. Aggressive Behavior, 26, Cowie, H., & Ofafsson, R. (2000). The role of peer support in helping victims of bullying in a school with high levels of aggression. School Psychology International, 21(1), Furlong, M. J., Morrison, G. M., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Reaching an American Consensus: Reactions to the Special Issue on School Bullying. School Psychology Review, 32(3), Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B., & Altoe, G. (2007). Does empathy predict adolescents bullying and defending behavior? Aggressive Behavior, 33, Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B., & Altoe, G. (2008). Determinants of adolescents active defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), Gini, G. (2006). Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: What s wrong? Aggressive Behavior, 32, Goossens, F. A., Olthof, T., & Dekker, P. H. (2006). New participant role scales: Comparison between various criteria for assigning roles and indications for their validity. Aggressive Behavior, 32, Green, M. B. (2003). Counseling and climate change as treatment modalities for bullying in school. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 25(4), Hawkins, D. L, Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10(4), Hazler, R. J., & Denham, S. A. (2002). Social isolation of youth at risk: Conceptualizations and practical implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80,

10 Int J Adv Counselling (2011) 33: Kaukiainen, A., Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Tamminen, M., Vauras, M., Mäki, H., et al. (2002). Learning difficulties, social intelligence, and self-concept: Connections to bully-victim problems. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, Maeda, R. (2003). Empathy, emotion regulation, and perspective taking as predictors of children s participation in bullying (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, 2003). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(11-A), Menesini, E., Codecasa, E., Benelli, B., & Cowie, H. (2003). Enhancing children s responsibility to take action against bullying: Evaluation of a befriending intervention in Italian middles schools. Aggressive Behavior, 29, Merrell, K. W., Gueldner, B. A., Ross, S. W., & Isava, D. M. (2008). How effective are school bullying intervention programs? A meta-analysis of intervention research. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), Monks, C. P., Smith, P. K. Swettenham, J. (2005). Psychological correlates of peer victimization in preschool: Social cognitive skills, executive function, and attachment profiles. Aggressive Behavior, 31(6), Olweus, D. (2001). Peer harassment: A critical analysis and some important issues. In J. Juvonen & S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 3 20). New York: The Guilford. Rodkin, P. C., Hodges, E. V. E. (2003). Bullies and victims in the peer ecology: Four questions for psychological and school professionals. School Psychology Review, 32(3), Salmivalli, C. (1998). Intelligent, attractive, well-behaving, unhappy: The structure of adolescents selfconcept and its relations to their social behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8(3), Salmivalli, C. (1999). Participant role approach to school bullying: Implications for interventions. Journal of Adolescence, 22, Salmivalli, C. (2001). Peer-led intervention campaign against school bullying: Who considered it useful, who benefited? Educational Research, 43(3), Salmivalli, C., Huttunen, A., & Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1997). Peer networks and bullying in schools. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38, Salmivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A., Kaistaniemi, L., & Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1999). Self-evaluated self-esteem, peer-evaluated self-esteem, and defensive egotism as predictors of adolescents participation in bullying situations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(10), Salmivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A., & Voeten, M. (2005). Anti-bullying intervention: Implementation and outcome. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status with the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, Salmivalli, C., Lappalainen, M., & Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1998). Stability and change of behavior in connection with bullying in schools: A two-year follow-up. Aggressive Behavior, 24, Salmivalli, C., & Voeten, M. (2004). Connections between attitudes, group norms, and behaviour in bullying situations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23(3), Smith, P. K. & Brain, P. (2000). Bullying in schools: Lessons from two decades of research. Aggressive Behavior, 26(1), 1 9. Smith, J. D., Schneider, B. H., Smith, P. K., & Ananiadou, K. (2004). The effectiveness of whole-school antibullying programs: A synthesis of evaluation research. School Psychology Review, 33(4), Stevens, V., Van Oost, P., & de Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2000). The effects of an anti-bullying intervention programme on peers attitudes and behaviour. Journal of Adolescence, 23, Sutton, J., & Smith, P. K. (1999). Bullying as a group process: An adaptation of the participant role approach. Aggressive Behavior, 25, Tani, F., Greenman, P. S., Schneider, B. H., & Fregoso, M. (2003). Bullying and the big five. School Psychology International, 24(2), Teräsahjo, T., & Salmivalli, C. (2003). She is not actually bullied. The discourse of harassment in student groups. Aggressive Behavior, 29, Twemlow, S. W., Fonagy, P., Sacco, F. C., Gies, M. L., Evans, R., & Ewbank, R. (2001). Creating a peaceful school learning environment: A controlled study of an elementary school. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(5),

HOW SUCCESSFUL ARE ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS? Ken Rigby University of South Australia

HOW SUCCESSFUL ARE ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS? Ken Rigby University of South Australia HOW SUCCESSFUL ARE ANTI-BULLYING PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS? Ken Rigby University of South Australia Paper presented at the The Role of Schools in Crime Prevention Conference convened by the Australian Institute

More information

First Steps to Stop Bullying and Harassment: Adults helping youth aged 12 to 17

First Steps to Stop Bullying and Harassment: Adults helping youth aged 12 to 17 First Steps to Stop Bullying and Harassment: Adults helping youth aged 12 to 17 Introduction Every young person has the right to feel safe at home, at school and in the community (UN Convention on the

More information

Creating Safer Schools Anti- Bullying Information *Data Reference References

Creating Safer Schools Anti- Bullying Information *Data Reference References Creating Safer Schools Anti- Bullying Information a. Data on School Safety * b. OUSD Strategies to Respond to and Prevent Bullying c. Protection, Intervention, and Prevention (PIP) Strategies i. Tier One:

More information

Anti-bullying Plan. Rationale

Anti-bullying Plan. Rationale Anti-bullying Plan Rationale At James Meehan High School we aim to foster a safe and caring school which will enhance student learning and self-esteem. As a school we value respect for others, cooperation

More information

TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS ARECLS, 2011, Vol.8, 75-94. TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS EMMA ELISE ROBERTS Abstract Teachers have a central role in the management

More information

There are several different forms of bullying. The Olweus Bullying Questionnaire asks specific questions about the following forms of bullying:

There are several different forms of bullying. The Olweus Bullying Questionnaire asks specific questions about the following forms of bullying: Background Information on Bullying Questions and Answers Question: What Is Bullying? In order to address the issue of bullying, it is important to clearly understand how bullying is defined. A commonly

More information

BULLYING AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION FIFTH GRADE LESSON 5

BULLYING AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION FIFTH GRADE LESSON 5 BULLYING AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION FIFTH GRADE LESSON 5 TITLE: PURPOSE: OBJECTIVE: Taking the Pledge To discourage students from becoming bystanders and to help their fellow classmate when confronted by

More information

Bullying Prevention and Intervention:

Bullying Prevention and Intervention: Bullying Prevention and Intervention: A Guide for the Individualized Education Program (IEP) Team Dr. Carol R. Johnson Superintendent Boston Public Schools 26 Court St. Boston, MA 02108-2528 www.bostonpublicschools.org

More information

Bullying Prevention Program Evaluation. CLIMB Theatre

Bullying Prevention Program Evaluation. CLIMB Theatre Bullying Prevention Program Evaluation J U N E 2 0 0 6 Bullying Prevention Program Evaluation June 2006 Prepared by: Laura Schauben, Dan Mueller, and Jennifer Lee Schultz Wilder Research 1295 Bandana Boulevard

More information

GRANGE TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE ANTI-BULLYING POLICY

GRANGE TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE ANTI-BULLYING POLICY GRANGE TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE ANTI-BULLYING POLICY Approved: 4 September 2014 Review Date: Page 1 of 7 GRANGE TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE ANTI-BULLYING POLICY Introduction Schools have a duty of care for pupils and

More information

Infusion of School Bullying Prevention Into Guidance Curriculum. Significance of Bullying Prevention Program

Infusion of School Bullying Prevention Into Guidance Curriculum. Significance of Bullying Prevention Program Infusion of School Bullying Prevention Into Guidance Curriculum October, 29, 2007 Charleston, SC Insoo Oh, Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of South Carolina Significance of Bullying Prevention Program

More information

YOUNG CANADIANS EXPERIENCES WITH ELECTRONIC BULLYING

YOUNG CANADIANS EXPERIENCES WITH ELECTRONIC BULLYING YOUNG CANADIANS EXPERIENCES WITH ELECTRONIC BULLYING November 2015 Written by: Joyce Li, MSc Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Wendy Craig, PhD, FRSC Professor and Head of Psychology Scientific Co-Director

More information

BULLYING WHERE DOES IT END?

BULLYING WHERE DOES IT END? BULLYING WHERE DOES IT END? What? Who? When? Bullying Why? Where? How? Bullying... A student is being bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to intentional negative actions on the

More information

What Is the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program?

What Is the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program? Dear Parent/Guardians, Your child s school will be using the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. This research-based program reduces bullying in schools. It also helps to make school a safer, more positive

More information

Bullying among school children a psychological analysis

Bullying among school children a psychological analysis Hong Kong Teachers Centre Journal,Vol. 4 Hong Kong Teachers Centre 2005 Bullying among school children a psychological analysis Abstract Keywords 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 Austin, S., & Joseph, S. (1996).

More information

THE ORATORY SCHOOL. Anti Bullying Policy

THE ORATORY SCHOOL. Anti Bullying Policy THE ORATORY SCHOOL Anti Bullying Policy 1 1. Aims 1.1 The aim of this policy is to ensure that pupils learn in a supportive, caring and safe environment without fear of being bullied. Bullying is anti-social

More information

Bystanders in bullying situations: differences between participant roles and their reactions to manipulation. Master Thesis Psychology

Bystanders in bullying situations: differences between participant roles and their reactions to manipulation. Master Thesis Psychology 31 Bystanders in bullying situations: differences between participant roles and their reactions to manipulation Master Thesis Psychology 29.10.2012 Supervisors Christina Hoffmann S0200506 University of

More information

What bullying behaviour is and is not

What bullying behaviour is and is not What bullying behaviour is and is not (W@S research brief: March 2012) What we know about bullying behaviour Internationally, there is a wealth of information, programmes and resources available for schools

More information

Prevention and Intervention for Bullying, Victimization, and Related Issues Prevention

Prevention and Intervention for Bullying, Victimization, and Related Issues Prevention 1 Prevention and Intervention for Bullying, Victimization, and Related Issues Prevention Barton, E. A. (2006). Bully prevention: Tips and strategies for school leaders and classroom teachers (2 nd ed.).

More information

The Bully and the Victim: Psychiatric Effects of Bullying

The Bully and the Victim: Psychiatric Effects of Bullying Transcript Details This is a transcript of an educational program accessible on the ReachMD network. Details about the program and additional media formats for the program are accessible by visiting: https://reachmd.com/programs/clinicians-roundtable/the-bully-and-the-victim-psychiatric-effects-ofbullying/3713/

More information

Evidence-based prevention of school bullying: KiVa antibullying program

Evidence-based prevention of school bullying: KiVa antibullying program Evidence-based prevention of school bullying: KiVa antibullying program Professor Christina Salmivalli University of Turku, Finland www.kivaprogram.net 1 School is not only about learning 2 Students NOT

More information

Part 2: About Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying (HIB)

Part 2: About Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying (HIB) Part 2: About Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying (HIB) 1 This is the second of four tutorials designed to help parents understand the Anti-bullying Bill of Rights Act. Part 1 provides information on

More information

Consequences of school bullying and violence. Christina Salmivalli University of Turku, Finland

Consequences of school bullying and violence. Christina Salmivalli University of Turku, Finland 1 Consequences of school bullying and violence Christina Salmivalli University of Turku, Finland Abstract. Numerous studies conducted over several decades have shown that victimization is associated with

More information

Children / Adolescents and Young Adults

Children / Adolescents and Young Adults INFORMATION SHEET Age Group: Sheet Title: Children / Adolescents and Young Adults Bullying WHAT IS BULLYING? Bullying is not always easy to define. It can be Physical, Verbal, Emotional, Racist or Sexual.

More information

Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 Scope and Sequence

Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 Scope and Sequence Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 Scope and Sequence Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 What is Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12? Cyber

More information

BULLYING AND DISABILITY HARASSMENT OF STUDENTS IN SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY

BULLYING AND DISABILITY HARASSMENT OF STUDENTS IN SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY BULLYING AND DISABILITY HARASSMENT OF STUDENTS IN SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY ISSUE The National School Safety Center (NSSC) declared bullying the most overlooked and entrenched problem in U.S. schools. 1 60%

More information

Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings

Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings The Local Authority s Anti-Bullying Strategy November 2009 Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings 1 Contents: Page A. Context...

More information

Gender Bias in Middle School Classrooms

Gender Bias in Middle School Classrooms Trinity College Trinity College Digital Repository Senior Theses and Projects Student Works 4-1-2005 Gender Bias in Middle School Classrooms Jessica Baker Trinity College Follow this and additional works

More information

Bullying Prevention. When Your Child Is the Victim, the Bully, or the Bystander

Bullying Prevention. When Your Child Is the Victim, the Bully, or the Bystander Bullying Prevention When Your Child Is the Victim, the Bully, or the Bystander What Is Bullying? Bullying is not a conflict or a fight. Bullying is physical, verbal, or emotional abuse that is deliberate,

More information

BULLYING. Most definitions include the idea that an imbalance of power exists between a bully

BULLYING. Most definitions include the idea that an imbalance of power exists between a bully BULlYing Y BULLYING WhYbe concerned about bullying in your child s life? After many years of research, we have learned that bullying in our schools and in our society is a much more damaging and dangerous

More information

Parent Tips. What Parents Should Know About Bullying

Parent Tips. What Parents Should Know About Bullying Parent Tips What Parents Should Know About Bullying What is Bullying? The Pinellas County Schools Policy against Bullying and Harassment defines bullying as: Systematically and chronically inflicting physical

More information

Frith Manor Primary School. Anti-Bullying

Frith Manor Primary School. Anti-Bullying Anti-Bullying Date July 2016 Review Date July 2016 We believe this policy relates to the following legislation: Children Act 1989 School Standards and Framework Act 1998 Education Act 2002 Education and

More information

RELATION AMONG BULLYING, STRESS AND STRESSOR: A FOLLOW-UP SURVEY USING PANEL DATA AND A COMPARATIVE SURVEY BETWEEN JAPAN AND AUSTRALIA

RELATION AMONG BULLYING, STRESS AND STRESSOR: A FOLLOW-UP SURVEY USING PANEL DATA AND A COMPARATIVE SURVEY BETWEEN JAPAN AND AUSTRALIA This copy is a draft of the paper for Japanese Society. The published one may have a few changes from this. Please refer to the original copy in the journal, if you quote this. RELATION AMONG BULLYING,

More information

The Kingsley School. Policy to prevent bullying (Senior School)

The Kingsley School. Policy to prevent bullying (Senior School) A The Kingsley School Policy to prevent bullying (Senior School) This policy was initially written with regard to the DfES anti-bullying pack Bullying: Don t Suffer in Silence (2002), and later the DCSF

More information

Mougins School Anti-Bullying Policy

Mougins School Anti-Bullying Policy Mougins School Anti-Bullying Policy Philosophy Bullying is behaviour by an individual or group, usually repeated over time, that intentionally hurts another individual or group either physically or emotionally.

More information

T e a c h e r s g u i d e a n d s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t s

T e a c h e r s g u i d e a n d s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t s T e a c h e r s g u i d e a n d s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t s BACKGROUND FOR TEACHERS WHAT IS BULLYING? Bullying is the repeated intimidation of another person. Bullies look for signs of weakness in

More information

Anti-Bullying Resources

Anti-Bullying Resources Anti-Bullying Resources Tips and tools to foster an anti-bullying culture in your community, school, neighborhood or home For more information on bullying and anti-bullying education, we recommend the

More information

Gender Stereotypes Associated with Altruistic Acts

Gender Stereotypes Associated with Altruistic Acts Gender Stereotypes Associated 1 Gender Stereotypes Associated with Altruistic Acts Lacey D. Seefeldt Undergraduate Student, Psychology Keywords: Altruism, Gender Stereotypes, Vignette Abstract Possible

More information

Self Concept. I-Self and Me-Self. Developing Emotional Competence. Self-Esteem. I-Self. Me-Self

Self Concept. I-Self and Me-Self. Developing Emotional Competence. Self-Esteem. I-Self. Me-Self I-Self and Me-Self Self Concept I-Self Self as knower & actor: Separate from surrounding world Same over time Private inner life Controls own thoughts and actions Me-Self Self as object of knowledge Consists

More information

1. Bullying is just a part of growing g up. The effects of bullying on victims are short-term and minor.

1. Bullying is just a part of growing g up. The effects of bullying on victims are short-term and minor. 1. Bullying is just a part of growing g up. The effects of bullying on victims are short-term and minor. Answer: False In addition to the social, emotional and physical torment of the actual bullying experience,

More information

RAMILLIES HALL SCHOOL AND NURSERY

RAMILLIES HALL SCHOOL AND NURSERY RAMILLIES HALL SCHOOL AND NURSERY ANTI-BULLYING POLICY At Ramillies Hall School and Nursery, we are committed to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of all children, in line with the duty placed on

More information

Cyber-bullying is covered by this policy: all members of the community need to be aware that

Cyber-bullying is covered by this policy: all members of the community need to be aware that DUKE OF KENT SCHOOL A8 ANTI-BULLYING POLICY Aims and Objectives: Duke of Kent School values every individual in the community and believes each deserves to be treated with respect. Sensitivity to the feelings

More information

Expressed Readiness of Australian Schoolchildren to Act as Bystanders in Support of Children who are Being Bullied

Expressed Readiness of Australian Schoolchildren to Act as Bystanders in Support of Children who are Being Bullied Educational Psychology Vol. 26, No. 3, June 2006, pp. 425 440 Expressed Readiness of Australian Schoolchildren to Act as Bystanders in Support of Children who are Being Bullied Ken Rigby* and Bruce Johnson

More information

Lesson Plans K-3. Bullying Response Lesson Plan Grades K-3

Lesson Plans K-3. Bullying Response Lesson Plan Grades K-3 Lesson Plans K-3 Bullying Response Lesson Plan Grades K-3 Estimated Time of Completion: Two to three classroom periods, or stretched out throughout the school year. Each activity will take between 15-30

More information

All Saints C of E Primary School (VA) Anti-Bullying Policy

All Saints C of E Primary School (VA) Anti-Bullying Policy All Saints C of E Primary School (VA) Anti-Bullying Policy Our School Ethos The staff, children and parents are very proud that our school is described as a friendly school with a family feel. We are fully

More information

Bullying. Introduction

Bullying. Introduction Bullying 1 Introduction In recent years, bullying has become a topic of greater public concern. Research has shown the damaging long-term effects that bullying behavior can have on its victims. Approximately

More information

Bystanders and bullying A Summary of Research for Anti-Bullying Week

Bystanders and bullying A Summary of Research for Anti-Bullying Week a bystander A bystander is a person who does not become actively involved in a situation where someone else requires help (Clarkson 1996, p6) and in this way is understood to be a passive observer, an

More information

ANTI BULLYING POLICY

ANTI BULLYING POLICY ANTI BULLYING POLICY 2015-2016 Rodmarton Primary School is committed to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and young people and expects all staff and volunteers to share the same commitment.

More information

Bullying: A Systemic Approach to Bullying Prevention and Intervention

Bullying: A Systemic Approach to Bullying Prevention and Intervention Bullying: A Systemic Approach to Bullying Prevention and Intervention Session 3 Educators and Teachers icare.ebrschools.org An Alcohol, An Alcohol, Drug Abuse Drug Abuse and Violence and Violence Prevention

More information

The Nature and Consequences of Peer Victimization

The Nature and Consequences of Peer Victimization The Nature and Consequences of Peer Victimization Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP Meagan O Malley California State University, Sacramento 1 Presentation Outline Introduction: Magnitude/Consequences of Victimization

More information

Group Characteristics of Bullying 1

Group Characteristics of Bullying 1 Group Characteristics of Bullying 1 The themes of individual submission to group pressure, the conflict of conscience and authority, and the constructive role that groups have on the individual seem to

More information

Drug Abuse Prevention Training FTS 2011

Drug Abuse Prevention Training FTS 2011 Drug Abuse Prevention Training FTS 2011 Principles of Prevention Prevention programs should enhance protective factors and reverse or reduce risk factors (Hawkins et al. 2002). The risk of becoming a drug

More information

ST THOMAS MORE CATHOLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL ANTI-BULLYING POLICY. Christ is the centre of our school community where we live, love and learn together

ST THOMAS MORE CATHOLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL ANTI-BULLYING POLICY. Christ is the centre of our school community where we live, love and learn together ST THOMAS MORE CATHOLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL ANTI-BULLYING POLICY THE MISSION OF OUR SCHOOL IS: Christ is the centre of our school community where we live, love and learn together STATEMENT OF INTENT We are

More information

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Adolescents

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Adolescents Student Services Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Adolescents Instead of purchasing programs to enhance self-esteem, principals should focus on helping students develop their strengths in a supportive environment.

More information

Conflict Resolution Uncut. CAYT Impact Study: REP14

Conflict Resolution Uncut. CAYT Impact Study: REP14 Conflict Resolution Uncut CAYT Impact Study: REP14 The Centre for Analysis of Youth Transitions (CAYT) is an independent research centre with funding from the Department for Education. It is a partnership

More information

BULLYING: A BIG PROBLEM WITH BIG CONSEQUENCES Facilitator s Guide

BULLYING: A BIG PROBLEM WITH BIG CONSEQUENCES Facilitator s Guide BULLYING: A BIG PROBLEM WITH BIG CONSEQUENCES Facilitator s Guide By Kathleen A. Olson, Ph.D., Retired Extension Educator and Extension Professor, and Jennifer L. Doty, Ph.D., Department of Family Social

More information

ANTI-BULLYING POLICY

ANTI-BULLYING POLICY ANTI-BULLYING POLICY 1.School Philosophy: Children who attend Donabate/Portrane Educate Together National School will be encouraged to reach their full potential mentally, physically, spiritually, emotionally

More information

Communicating about bullying

Communicating about bullying Communicating about bullying Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that can happen anywhere. It is not a phase children have to go through, it is not just messing around, and it is not something

More information

Cyber Bullying: Promoting Healthy Schools

Cyber Bullying: Promoting Healthy Schools 1 Cyber Bullying: Promoting Healthy Schools Dr. Tiina Ojanen, Social Development Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of South Florida Email: tojanen@usf.edu Annual Meeting of the

More information

Reducing Bullying with Tribes

Reducing Bullying with Tribes Reducing Bullying with Tribes by Wendy Ryan Research shows that anti-bullying programs don t always work. 1 One reason for the limited success of some anti-bullying programs could be that teachers may

More information

Bullying in Australian schools: Multiple perceptions of bullying

Bullying in Australian schools: Multiple perceptions of bullying National Centre against Bullying Conference, 2016, 28-29 July, Crown Conference Centre, Melbourne Bullying in Australian schools: Multiple perceptions of bullying Ken Rigby, PhD., University of South Australia

More information

The Kingsley School. Preparatory School Policy to prevent bullying

The Kingsley School. Preparatory School Policy to prevent bullying The Kingsley School Preparatory School Policy to prevent bullying Updated Summer 2015 This policy has been written with regard to the DfE anti-bullying pack Bullying: Don t Suffer in Silence (2002), the

More information

A Guide for Parents. of Elementary and Secondary School Students

A Guide for Parents. of Elementary and Secondary School Students A Guide for Parents of Elementary and Secondary School Students Updated Spring 2011 The effects of bullying go beyond the school yard. As a parent, here s what to watch for, what you can do, and where

More information

BULLIES, VICTIMS, AND BULLY-VICTIMS IN GREEK SCHOOLS: RESEARCH DATA AND IMPLICA- TIONS FOR PRACTICE

BULLIES, VICTIMS, AND BULLY-VICTIMS IN GREEK SCHOOLS: RESEARCH DATA AND IMPLICA- TIONS FOR PRACTICE Hellenic Journal of Psychology, Vol. 9 (2012), pp. 132-157 BULLIES, VICTIMS, AND BULLY-VICTIMS IN GREEK SCHOOLS: RESEARCH DATA AND IMPLICA- TIONS FOR PRACTICE Anastasia Psalti Alexander Technological Educational

More information

Position Statement. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth

Position Statement. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth Position Statement Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) supports that all youth have equal opportunities to participate in

More information

Ten Actions ALL Parents Can Take to Help Eliminate Bullying

Ten Actions ALL Parents Can Take to Help Eliminate Bullying Ten Actions ALL Parents Can Take to Help Eliminate Bullying Bullying Special Edition, copyright 2012, www.education.com/bullying The latest research shows that one in three children is directly involved

More information

How Effective Are School Bullying Intervention Programs? A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Research

How Effective Are School Bullying Intervention Programs? A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Research School Psychology Quarterly Copyright 2008 by the American Psychological Association 2008, Vol. 23, No. 1, 26-42 1045-3830/08/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/1045-3830.23.1.26 How Effective Are School Bullying Intervention

More information

Anti Bullying Policy

Anti Bullying Policy Anti Bullying Policy Last Updated: November 2013 Review: November 2014 The aim of the anti-bullying policy is to ensure that students learn in a supportive, caring and safe environment without fear of

More information

Medina House School Anti Bullying Policy

Medina House School Anti Bullying Policy Medina House School Anti Bullying Policy Introduction At Medina House School, staff, parents and children work together to create a positive, caring, learning environment. All children and members of staff

More information

Goonellabah Public School

Goonellabah Public School Goonellabah Public School Goonellabah Our School Public School Anti-Bullying Plan Plan NSW Department of Education and Communities Our School Anti-Bullying Plan This plan outlines the processes for preventing

More information

Fairfield Endowed CE (C) Junior School

Fairfield Endowed CE (C) Junior School Fairfield Endowed CE (C) Junior School Policy Document Anti-Bullying 2016 Agreed by governors on: Minute no.: Signed: Agreed by governors on: Minute no.: Signed: Agreed by governors on: Minute no.: Signed:

More information

Mobilizing Bystanders of Cyberbullying: an Exploratory Study into Behavioural Determinants of Defending the Victim

Mobilizing Bystanders of Cyberbullying: an Exploratory Study into Behavioural Determinants of Defending the Victim Mobilizing Bystanders of Cyberbullying: an Exploratory Study into Behavioural Determinants of Defending the Victim Ann DESMETª 1, Sara BASTIAENSENSᵇ, Katrien VAN CLEEMPUTᵇ, Karolien POELSᵇ, Heidi VANDEBOSCHᵇ,

More information

PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND

PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND Statement of Benjamin S. Fernandez, MSEd, Lead School Psychologist Loudon County Public Schools, Virginia NASP Briefing: Effective Discipline Policies and Practices Thursday, April 18, 2013 My name is

More information

First Steps Children s Nursery & Forest School Behaviour Management Policy

First Steps Children s Nursery & Forest School Behaviour Management Policy First Steps Children s Nursery & Forest School Behaviour Management Policy Statement of intent First Steps Nursery believes that children flourish best when their personal, social and emotional needs are

More information

BULLYING VICTIMISATION TRENDS: Why should we pay attention to this issue?

BULLYING VICTIMISATION TRENDS: Why should we pay attention to this issue? VICTIMISATION BULLYING TRENDS: 2002-10 Why should we pay attention to this issue? School bullying is a form of youth violence and a major social problem that affects children s wellbeing worldwide. This

More information

Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Targeted Group Students. COSA August 2013 John Lenssen

Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Targeted Group Students. COSA August 2013 John Lenssen Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Targeted Group Students COSA August 2013 John Lenssen Definition Bullying is unfair and one-sided. It happens when someone keeps hurting, frightening, threatening,

More information

RESPECT 4 U. Unit B. Assertiveness and Communication

RESPECT 4 U. Unit B. Assertiveness and Communication Unit Purpose: The lessons in this unit emphasise the importance of communication and critically analyse different approaches to communication. This analysis will include a focus on verbal and non-verbal

More information

Naturalistic Observations of Peer Interventions in Bullying

Naturalistic Observations of Peer Interventions in Bullying Naturalistic Observations of Peer Interventions in Bullying D. Lynn Hawkins, Debra J. Pepler, York University and Wendy M. Craig, Queen s University Abstract This study examined peer intervention in bullying

More information

Highbury Grove School Anti-Bullying Policy

Highbury Grove School Anti-Bullying Policy Highbury Grove School Anti-Bullying Policy The policy was adopted by the governing body of Highbury Grove School on 5 July 2016 Review date: Summer 2017 Highbury Grove School Anti-Bullying Policy Context

More information

Preventing bullying: a guide for teaching assistants. SEN and disability: developing effective anti-bullying practice

Preventing bullying: a guide for teaching assistants. SEN and disability: developing effective anti-bullying practice Preventing bullying: a guide for teaching assistants SEN and disability: developing effective anti-bullying practice Preventing bullying: a guide for teaching assistants 2 Introduction This guide is based

More information

BULLY PREVENTION: ARE YOU PROMOTING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS IN YOUR CLASSROOMS AND SCHOOLS?

BULLY PREVENTION: ARE YOU PROMOTING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS IN YOUR CLASSROOMS AND SCHOOLS? BULLY PREVENTION: ARE YOU PROMOTING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS IN YOUR CLASSROOMS AND SCHOOLS? Dorothy L. Espelage, Ph.D. Professor, Child Development Division; Educational Psychology espelage@illinois.edu

More information

STOP BULLYING: Brought to you by Counseling & Student Services

STOP BULLYING: Brought to you by Counseling & Student Services STOP BULLYING: Brought to you by Counseling & Student Services Bullying 160,000 + students per day stay home from school in the US because of fear of being bullied 80% of children report being victimized

More information

Title: Conducting FBAs and Designing Behavior Interventions for Individuals with ASD: Keeping the Characteristics in Mind

Title: Conducting FBAs and Designing Behavior Interventions for Individuals with ASD: Keeping the Characteristics in Mind Title: Conducting FBAs and Designing Behavior Interventions for Individuals with ASD: Keeping the Characteristics in Mind Presenters: Ruth Aspy, Ph.D., and Barry G. Grossman, Ph.D. Recognizing when problem

More information

2/2/2012. The Triad Of Bully, Victim, and Bystander: A DEFINITION OF BULLYING AN ANALYSIS OF BULLYING. Components of Bullying

2/2/2012. The Triad Of Bully, Victim, and Bystander: A DEFINITION OF BULLYING AN ANALYSIS OF BULLYING. Components of Bullying A DEFINITION OF BULLYING The Triad Of Bully, Victim, and Bystander: Long-term Implications and Immediate Interventions Presented at LPSA Conference November 1-4, 2011 BULLYING AT SCHOOL IS DEFINED AS AGGRESSIVE

More information

Mentoring Minds Research on the Bully Guide

Mentoring Minds Research on the Bully Guide Mentoring Minds Research on the Bully Guide Bullying is not a new issue. A strong interest in bullying began in Scandinavia in the late 1960 s and early 1970 s. Efforts soon emerged to stop bullying in

More information

St John Vianney Catholic Primary School

St John Vianney Catholic Primary School St John Vianney Catholic Primary School Seeking Growth Together SEEKING GROWTH TOGETHER "There are a variety of gifts but always the same spirit, there are all sorts of service to be done but always to

More information

WHITE PAPER Cognitive-Behavioral Foundations of Aggression and Violence Nancy Guerra, University of California at Riverside

WHITE PAPER Cognitive-Behavioral Foundations of Aggression and Violence Nancy Guerra, University of California at Riverside WHITE PAPER Cognitive-Behavioral Foundations of Aggression and Violence Nancy Guerra, University of California at Riverside Nancy.Guerra@ucr.edu A variety of individual characteristics have been identified

More information

Some things to remember

Some things to remember IF YOU ARE BEING BULLIED There is a great deal that we can do for all students proactively to help minimize the risk of being bullied. As well, this is important information for those who are already victims

More information

Every day, bullying hurts another child.

Every day, bullying hurts another child. Every morning... Every Lunch Hour... Every Afternoon... Every day, bullying hurts another child. Learn how you can help stop bullying. Communities and schools in Manitoba are taking action to stop bullying

More information

Bullying Major Themes for Parents

Bullying Major Themes for Parents Bullying Major Themes for Parents Michael T. Morrow, Ph.D. February 9, 2011 Growing together A Seminar Series for Parents Overview Strategies for Parents Strategies for Youth Strategies for Families MAJOR

More information

Standards and progression point examples

Standards and progression point examples Interpersonal Development In Interpersonal Development, there is one point (0.5) at Foundation for assessing student progress towards the Foundation standard. Interpersonal Development Progressing towards

More information

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT January 2008 Page 1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Having a positive and effective relationship with your players is necessary to ensure that they receive the most out of their hockey participation.

More information

It is hard to express just how awful the whole situation was and the problems that it still brings us five years on.

It is hard to express just how awful the whole situation was and the problems that it still brings us five years on. Bullying of children with disabilities and Special Educational Needs in schools: briefing paper for parents on the views and experiences of other parents, carers and families Introduction This briefing

More information

Part 4: Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying (HIB) Intervention

Part 4: Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying (HIB) Intervention Part 4: Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying (HIB) Intervention 1 This is the fourth of four tutorials designed to help parents understand the Anti-bullying Bill of Rights Act. Part 1 provides information

More information

MODULE 2.4 EMPOWERING STUDENTS

MODULE 2.4 EMPOWERING STUDENTS MODULE 2.4 EMPOWERING STUDENTS Table of contents What is student empowerment? How empowerment benefits individuals How empowerment benefits the school How empowerment benefits society Five keys to student

More information

School Bullying Resources

School Bullying Resources [Type text] Hilda Graham Consulting School Bullying Resources S3 Grantee School Climate Symposium 2012 Hilda Graham is an accomplished educator, international trainer, national keynote speaker, and published

More information

Code of Behaviour - 1 -

Code of Behaviour - 1 - Code of Behaviour St. Ciaran s National School has a central role in the children's social and moral development just as it does in their academic development. In seeking to define acceptable standards

More information

Asset 1.6 What are speech, language and communication needs?

Asset 1.6 What are speech, language and communication needs? 1 of 5 The National Strategies Asset 1.6 What are speech, language and needs? a) Summary of key points Taken from the Primary and Secondary Inclusion Development Programme (IDP): Dyslexia and speech, language

More information

Bullying 101: Guide for Middle and High School Students

Bullying 101: Guide for Middle and High School Students Bullying 101: Guide for Middle and High School Students A guide to the basics of bullying, what it is and isn t, the role of students, and tips on what you can do. 952.838.9000 PACERTeensAgainstBullying.org

More information