Sudan as a Case Study

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1 Sudan as a Case Study

2 Last of all--in an age when we hear so much of progress and civilization, is it not a matter of urgency, since unhappily we cannot always avoid wars, to press forward in a human and truly civilized spirit the attempt to prevent, or at least to alleviate, the horrors of war? Henry Dunant Founder, International Committee of the Red Cross 1901 Nobel Peace Laureate

3 Gender-based violence... targets individuals or groups of individuals on the basis of their gender includes any act which results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

4 Gender-based violence includes violent acts such as rape, torture, mutilation, sexual slavery, forced impregnation and murder defines threats of these acts as a form of violence UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

5 Gender-based violence in armed conflicts worldwide and timeless

6 Gender-based violence in armed conflicts violence broken bones, concussions, and wounds, death bruising or tearing of the genitalia, perineum and damage to bladder and rectum forced pregnancy intentional HIV infection, other STI s abduction sexual abuse and slavery rape

7 Immediate psychological consequences shock, denial, fear and a sense of loss of control over her own life headaches, chest and pelvic pain

8 Longer-term psychological consequences depression, suicidal ideation and post traumatic stress disorder Disturbance of relationships with husband and children Inability to fulfill familial duties

9 Why gender-based violence? Instill terror Humiliate and degrade individuals, their families, and their communities Cultural and ethnic destruction Exploit stigma upon rape victims and their children Weaken marital and communal relations Displace populations, and hamper ability of communities to reconstitute Destroy group bonds, causing pervasive, and even deadly effects for women in particular

10 Sudan: multiple armed conflicts and extensive gender-based violence

11 What fuels Sudan s conflicts? Abyei, Sudan May 2008

12 The Problem of National Identity Genl. Omar Al-Bashir President, Government of Sudan (1989 present)

13 Sudan: the government vs. the people 1956 Independence ; North/South conflicts (2 million killed, 4 million displaced, untold numbers enslaved) 1989 Omar al-bashir in power 1992 Nuba Mountain genocide 2003 Peace talks between North and South initiated 2003 Darfur conflict (300,000 killed, 2.5 million displaced)

14 Sudan: at war against itself 2004 Secretary of State Powell declares Darfur to be genocide; genesis of international advocacy movement 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement between Khartoum-based GoS and SPLA (South Sudan) 2008 International Criminal Court indictment of Pres. Bashir Currently Darfur peace talks in Doha, Qatar April 2010 National elections January 2011 Referendum

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17 South Sudan July 4, 2001

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22 Who will be my sister s keeper?

23 Gender-based violence in Darfur, western Sudan

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32 Who will be my sister s keeper? Last of all--in an age when we hear so much of progress and civilization, is it not a matter of urgency, since unhappily we cannot always avoid wars, to press forward in a human and truly civilized spirit the attempt to prevent, or at least to alleviate, the horrors of war? Henry Dunant Founder, International Committee of the Red Cross 1901 Nobel Peace Laureate

33 What s a physician to do about gender-based violence? Find your Sudan Listen and learn Document Treat Protect Prevent Advocate

34 Ensure access to services to survivors Provide health care Provide emotional support, referrals, and case management Provide legal advice, counseling, and advocacy Prosecute offenders Advocate for human rights Promote training and income opportunities so that survivors can be less vulnerable to GBV

35 February 2005 Nyala School of Midwifery, Darfur

36 Juba th Pathways to Peace Conference

37 Kunyuk School for Girls Akon, South Sudan December 2005 December 2009

38 Women s Peace School Akon, South Sudan July 2007 December 2009

39 "I have long called for a revolution based on women. This revolution... is the last, best chance for making this globe hospitable to peace, to make this globe hospitable to compassion, hospitable to generosity and caring. Archbishop Desmond Tutu

40 This Time The Revolution Will Be Televised!!

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